STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 1 - Part 1
Students should know terms as well as be able to identify structures in pictures/models, or through microscopes. Any questions from the exercises could be on the exam.
These questions could be found in the lecture or the lab exam:
What are the names/functions/organs of each of the 11 organ systems?
What are the functions/structures of parts of the cell: nucleus, ribosome, Golgi, ER, Rough ER, mitochondrion (matrix, inner/outer membrane, intermembrane space), lysosome, peroxisome? Be able to draw the mitochondrion and label its parts.
What is the relationship between structure and function of red blood cell, striations in skeletal muscle, intercalated discs in cardiac muscle, microvilli in the intestinal epithelia, cilia in respiratory epithelia, goblet cells, apical/basal membrane of epithelial cells?
What is diffusion, facilitated transport, active transport?
What is the purpose of mitosis? Meiosis?
What are the stages of mitosis?
What are the components of the plasma membrane? Be sure to include all transmembrane proteins and peripheral proteins.
What is chromatin? What is a gene?
What is meant by “selectively permeable”? (AKA semipermeable)?
What distinguishes microvilli, cilia, flagella?
State examples of relative anatomical terms: superior/inferior, lateral/medial, proximal distal, superficial/deep, ipsilateral/contralateral
Name the 9 regions and one organ found in each.
Name the 4 quadrants and one organ found in each.
What is a transverse, oblique, sagittal, mid-sagittal, coronal (frontal) section/plane?
Identify the axial and appendicular regions (from lab manual, p. 3)
Name the ventral and dorsal body cavities and their contents
Which is bigger/smaller? Know the hierarchy of structures from atom to organism, and be able to define each.
View the human torso model on p. 25 and name the parts.
What is the function of the diaphragm and which cavities does it lie between?
What are the components of the mediastinum?
Describe the layers of and cavities formed by serous membranes of the lung, heart, peritoneum.
If you are using the 10 x objective lens of the microscope, what is the total magnification of your specimen? What are the ocular lenses, stage, diaphragm, light source of a microscope? What is light microscopy?
What are the four main tissue types in the human body?
Describe/draw the 9 epithelial tissues. How do their structures relate to their functions?
Familiarize yourself with the photomicrographs of each. Where would you find them?
What are the 6 types of connective tissue proper and their characteristics. (loose areolar (found under epithelial tissues), loose adipose (found in hypodermis), loose reticular (found in lymphoid organs and spleen), dense irregular (makes up joint capsules, but also found in a variety of places, such as the linings of the digestive tract), dense regular (ligaments), dense elastic (found in walls of arteries and bronchioles)). Where would they be found?
Describe hyaline (most of the body’s cartilage; rib cage), elastic (ear) and fibrocartilage (intervertebral discs) and give examples of where they would be found.
Describe and draw bone tissue, an osteon and its parts (lamella, lacunae, osteocyte, canaliculi, central canal).
What are the functions of bone?
Describe blood tissue.
Describe nervous tissue (neurons and neuroglial cells)
Describe the three types of muscle (cardiac, smooth skeletal). Where would they be found? What are their identifying features? What features distinguish one type from the other?
Describe the structure of a long bone: epiphysis, metaphysis, diaphysis, periosteum, endosteum, articular cartilage, epiphyseal plates (versus epiphyseal lines – what does this mean?). What is red/yellow marrow?
What are the functions of osteocytes, osteoblasts, osteoclasts?
Describe how bones are classified: short (carpals), long, flat (cranial bones), irregular (vertebrae), sutural, sesamoid.
What are the features of the axial/appendicular skeletons? Know all the bones.
Know all the parts of figure 1 on p. 88 of the lab manual
Know the following bone markings: fossa, spine, process, ramus, foramen, meatus, sinus.
What are the differences between hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage and fibrocartilage?
What are the skeletal cartilages: articular, costal, laryngeal, tracheal, bronchial, nasal, intervertebral discs? What is the composition of each?