Study guide for exam 1

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Students should know terms as well as be able to identify structures in pictures/models, or through microscopes. Any questions from the exercises could be on the exam.
These questions could be found in the lecture or the lab exam:

  1. What are the names/functions/organs of each of the 11 organ systems?

    1. Lymphatic/immune

    2. Reproductive

    3. Urinary

    4. Digestive

    5. Nervous

    6. Integumentary

    7. Endocrine

    8. Muscular

    9. Cardiovascular

    10. Respiratory

    11. Skeletal

  2. What are the functions/structures of parts of the cell: nucleus, ribosome, Golgi, ER, Rough ER, mitochondrion (matrix, inner/outer membrane, intermembrane space), lysosome, peroxisome? Be able to draw the mitochondrion and label its parts.

  3. What is the relationship between structure and function of red blood cell, striations in skeletal muscle, intercalated discs in cardiac muscle, microvilli in the intestinal epithelia, cilia in respiratory epithelia, goblet cells, apical/basal membrane of epithelial cells?

  4. What is diffusion, facilitated transport, active transport?

  5. What is the purpose of mitosis? Meiosis?

  6. What are the stages of mitosis?

  7. What are the components of the plasma membrane? Be sure to include all transmembrane proteins and peripheral proteins.

  8. What is chromatin? What is a gene?

  9. What is meant by “selectively permeable”? (AKA semipermeable)?

  10. What distinguishes microvilli, cilia, flagella?

  11. State examples of relative anatomical terms: superior/inferior, lateral/medial, proximal distal, superficial/deep, ipsilateral/contralateral

  12. Name the 9 regions and one organ found in each.

  13. Name the 4 quadrants and one organ found in each.

  14. What is a transverse, oblique, sagittal, mid-sagittal, coronal (frontal) section/plane?

  15. Identify the axial and appendicular regions (from lab manual, p. 3)

  16. Name the ventral and dorsal body cavities and their contents

  17. Which is bigger/smaller? Know the hierarchy of structures from atom to organism, and be able to define each.

  18. View the human torso model on p. 25 and name the parts.

  19. What is the function of the diaphragm and which cavities does it lie between?

  20. What are the components of the mediastinum?

  21. Describe the layers of and cavities formed by serous membranes of the lung, heart, peritoneum.

  22. Know “Odd organ out,” p. 26

  23. If you are using the 10 x objective lens of the microscope, what is the total magnification of your specimen? What are the ocular lenses, stage, diaphragm, light source of a microscope? What is light microscopy?

  24. What are the four main tissue types in the human body?

  25. Describe/draw the 9 epithelial tissues. How do their structures relate to their functions?

Familiarize yourself with the photomicrographs of each. Where would you find them?

  1. What are the 6 types of connective tissue proper and their characteristics. (loose areolar (found under epithelial tissues), loose adipose (found in hypodermis), loose reticular (found in lymphoid organs and spleen), dense irregular (makes up joint capsules, but also found in a variety of places, such as the linings of the digestive tract), dense regular (ligaments), dense elastic (found in walls of arteries and bronchioles)). Where would they be found?

  2. Describe hyaline (most of the body’s cartilage; rib cage), elastic (ear) and fibrocartilage (intervertebral discs) and give examples of where they would be found.

  3. Describe and draw bone tissue, an osteon and its parts (lamella, lacunae, osteocyte, canaliculi, central canal).

  4. What are the functions of bone?

  5. Describe blood tissue.

  6. Describe nervous tissue (neurons and neuroglial cells)

  7. Describe the three types of muscle (cardiac, smooth skeletal). Where would they be found? What are their identifying features? What features distinguish one type from the other?

  8. Describe the structure of a long bone: epiphysis, metaphysis, diaphysis, periosteum, endosteum, articular cartilage, epiphyseal plates (versus epiphyseal lines – what does this mean?). What is red/yellow marrow?

  9. What are the functions of osteocytes, osteoblasts, osteoclasts?

  10. Describe how bones are classified: short (carpals), long, flat (cranial bones), irregular (vertebrae), sutural, sesamoid.

  11. What are the features of the axial/appendicular skeletons? Know all the bones.

  12. Know all the parts of figure 1 on p. 88 of the lab manual

  13. Know the following bone markings: fossa, spine, process, ramus, foramen, meatus, sinus.

  14. What are the differences between hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage and fibrocartilage?

  15. What are the skeletal cartilages: articular, costal, laryngeal, tracheal, bronchial, nasal, intervertebral discs? What is the composition of each?

  16. Axial skeleton (location/function):

    1. Cranium

      1. Anterior, middle, posterial cranial fossae

      2. 8 bones: frontal, occipital, parietal (2), temporal (2), ethmoid, sphenoid

      3. sutures: coronal, sagittal, squamous, lambdoid

      4. orbits, cavities (nasal, oral)

      5. temporal bones

        1. squamous, tympanic, petrous parts

        2. external acoustic meatus

        3. mastoid process

        4. styloid process

      6. frontal bone

        1. glabella

      7. occipital bone

        1. foramen magnum

      8. sphenoid bone

        1. keystone of the cranium: articulates with all cranial bones

        2. greater/lesser wings

        3. sella turcica

      9. ethmoid bone

        1. crista galli (cock’s comb)

        2. cribriform plates (olfactory fibers here)

        3. superior and middle nasal conchae (turbinates)

      10. parietal bones

    2. Facial

      1. Mandible – only movable facial bone

        1. Mandibular ramus

        2. Coronoid process

        3. Mandibular body

        4. Alveolar process

      2. Maxillae

        1. Keystone bone of the face, all bones join it, except mandible

        2. Palatine process

        3. Alveolar process

      3. Palatine bone

      4. Lacrimal bone

      5. Nasal bone

      6. Vomer

      7. Inferior nasal conchae

      8. Zygomatic bone (cheek) and arch

    3. Hyoid bone location, function

    4. Paranasal sinuses

      1. Four skull bones contain sinuses: maxillary, sphenoid, ethmoid, frontal

      2. Sinus – mucosal lined air cavities which lead to nasal passages

        1. Lighten facial bones

        2. Resonance chambers for speech

        3. Figure 10, p. 112

        4. Sinusitis

    5. Vertebral column

      1. Cervical, thoracic, lumbar vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx (number of each, location); atlas, axis

      2. Intervertebral discs (not disks!)

        1. Herniated disc

      3. Normal and abnormal curvatures

        1. Scoliosis, kyphosis, lordosis

        2. Cervical curvature, thoracic curvature, lumbar curvature, sacral curvature

      4. Vertebra structure

        1. Body (anterior)

        2. Vertebral foramen

        3. Transverse processes

        4. Spinous process (posterior)

        5. Intervertebral foramina (where spinal nerves leave the spinal cord between adjacent vertebrae

      5. Thoracic vertebrae T1-T12

        1. Larger body than cervical

        2. They are the only vertebrae that articulate with the ribs

      6. Lumbar vertebrae (L1 – L5)

        1. Massive block-like bodies (sturdiest)

        2. Takes most of the stress on the vertebral column

        3. The spinal cord ends at the superior edge of L2, but the outer covering, filled with cerebrospinal fluid, extends beyond)

      7. Sacrum

        1. Articulates with L5

        2. Inferiorly connects with coccyx

        3. Sacral foramina – location

          1. Allow blood vessels and nerves to pass

        4. Sacral promontory – borders with L5

      8. Coccyx

        1. Tailbone

    6. Thoracic cage

      1. Ribs, sternum, costal cartilages, thoracic vertebrae

      2. Sternum

        1. Manubrium, body, xiphoid process

      3. Ribs

        1. 12 pairs (true, false, floating)

    7. fetal skull

      1. fontanelles

      2. ossification centers

  17. Appendicular Skeleton

    1. Pectoral girdle

      1. Clavicles – collar bone

        1. Acromial end

        2. Sternal end

      2. Scapulae – shoulder blades.

        1. Glenoid cavity

        2. Lateral, medial superior borders

        3. Acromion

    2. Humerus

      1. Arm bone

      2. Trochlea – distal end, spool-like

      3. Capitulum – distal end, lateral

      4. Medial epicondyle – distal end, where ulnar nerve passes over (funny bone)

      5. Olecranon fossa – distal end, also where ulnar nerve passes

    3. Forearm

      1. Radius

      2. Ulna – as a “u” in it

        1. Olecranon, trochlear notch, coronoid process (distally) grip the trochlea to create the joint

    4. Hand

      1. Carpus (wrist)

        1. Carpals – eight marble-sized bones

          1. Sally left the party to take Carmen Home

          2. Two irregular rows

            1. Proximal row (lateral to medial)

              1. Scaphoid

              2. Lunate

              3. Triquetrum

              4. Pisiform

            2. Distal row

              1. Trapezium

              2. Trapezoid

              3. Capitate

              4. Hamate

        2. Metacarpals

          1. I – V from thumb side of the hand toward the little finger

          2. Bases articulate w/ carpals

          3. Heads articulate w/phalanges

        3. Phalanges

          1. Pollex (thumb) is I

          2. II – V are the index through the little finger

          3. Each has proximal, middle, distal phalanges, except the pollex, which only has the proximal and distal phalanges

          4. Singular = phalanx

          5. These are long bones

    5. Pelvic girdle (hip)

      1. Formed by two coxal bones

      2. Hip = coxa, also called ossa coxae or hip bones

        1. Three fused bones

          1. They fuse at the deep hemispherical socket called the acetabulum (“wine cup”), which receives the head of the femur.

          2. Ilium – large flaring bone

            1. Connects posteriorly with sacrum at the sacroiliac joint

            2. Superior margin of the iliac bone is called the iliac crest

          3. Ischium – the “sit down” or “sit” bone, forming the most inferior and posterior portions of the hip

          4. Pubis – the most anterior bone

            1. The pubis of each hip bone meet anteriorly to form a cartilaginous joint called the pubic symphysis

      3. Pelvis = hip bones, sacrum and coccyx

        1. Also called bony pelvis

        2. Sider in females; angle of pubic arch is 80-90 degrees, narrower in males; pelvic outlet wider in females; pelvis tilted forward in females

    6. Thigh bone – femur

      1. Heaviest, strongest bone in the body

      2. Ball-like head articulates with the hip bone at acetabulum

        1. Note pit in head called “fovea capitis” (from which a small ligament runs to the acetabulum).

      3. The neck is the weakest part of the femur, a common fracture site, called a “broken hip” particularly in the elderly

      4. Distally, the femur terminates at the lateral and medial epicondyles

      5. Note the patellar surface that articulates with the patella

        1. Patella

          1. Triangular sesamoid bone enclosed in a tendon, sesame seed shape

          2. Guards the knee

          3. Is the knee cap

    7. Leg

      1. Tibia is the shin bone T = tough

        1. Larger more medial of the two leg bones

        2. Proximal end has two condyles, lateral and medial condyles

        3. Distal end – medial malleolus forms the inner (medial) bulge of the ankle

          1. Articulates with the talus (ankle bone)

        4. Feel the “anterior border” that designates the shin

      2. Fibula – lateral and parallel to tibia

        1. Does not participate in the knee joint

        2. It is thin and stick-like

        3. Think “fine” fibula

        4. Terminates at the lateral malleolus, which forms the outer bulge of the ankle

    8. Foot

      1. 7 tarsal (ankle) bones, 5 metatarsals (instep), 14 phalanges (toes)

      2. body weight is centered on talus and calcaneus (heel)

      3. metatarsals are numbered I-V (medial to lateral)

      4. Each toe has three phalanges (proximal, middle, distal) except for the great toe, which has only proximal and distal.

  1. Joints (Articulations)

    1. Classifications of joints

      1. By movement

        1. Synarthroses – not movable (e.g. sutures)

        2. Diarthroses – freely movable (e.g. synovial)

        3. Amphiarthroses – sort of movable (e.g. intervertebral)

      2. By structure

        1. Cartilaginous

          1. Symphyses

          2. synchondroses

        2. Fibrous

          1. Sutures – immovable

            1. Skull bone joints

          2. Syndesmoses – bones do not interlock

            1. Held together by dense fibrous tissue

            2. Distal end of tibia and fibula e.g.

          3. Gomphoses – tooth in socket

        3. synovial

          1. see composition on p. 154 of lab manual

          2. types

            1. plane (nonaxial)

              1. articulating surfaces are flat or slightly curved

              2. allow gliding movements

              3. e.g. intercarpal, intertarsal joints, vertebral articular surfaces

            2. hinge (uniaxial)

              1. rounded or cylindrical process of one bone fits into concave surface of another bone

              2. flexion/extension movements

              3. e.g. elbow, knee, interphalangeal joints

            3. pivot (iniaxial)

              1. rounded surface of one bone articulates with the shallow depression or foramen in another bone, permitting rotational movement in one plane.

              2. E.g. proximal radioulnar joint and atlantoaxial joint between C1 and C2 vertebrae.

            4. Condylar (biaxial)

              1. Oval condyle of one bone fits into an ellipsoidal depression in another bone

              2. Allows movement in two planes

                1. Flexion/extension

                2. Abduction/adduction

              3. E.g. metacarpal/phalangeal joints

            5. Saddle (biaxial)

              1. Articulating surfaces are saddle-shaped

              2. One surface is convex, and the other is concave

              3. Permits movement in 2 planes

                1. Flexion/extension

                2. Abduction/adduction

              4. E.g. carpometacarpal joints of the thumbs

            6. ball-and-socket (multiaxial)

              1. ball-shaped head of one bone fits into a cup-like depression of another bone.

              2. Permit flexion/extension, abduction/adduction/rotation, many planes

              3. E.g. shoulder, hip

          3. Movements of synovial joints

            1. Muscle attachment to bone determines movement

              1. Origin – point of muscle attachment to the immovable bone

              2. Insertion – point of muscle attachment to the movable bone

            2. Types of movements

              1. Know all on p. 156 of lab manual

    1. Particular joints to know

      1. Hip joint

      2. Knee joint

        1. The tibiofemoral joint

        2. A duplex joint b/w the femoral condyles, above, and the menisci (semilunar cartilages) of the tibia below.

        3. The femoropatellar joint anteriorly

        4. A hinge joint

        5. Study figure 8a, know the parts

          1. Bursa – cushioning

          2. Anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments

        6. Study fig. 8b – noting lateral and medial meniscus, note patellar ligament and quadriceps tendon

      3. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ)

        1. Just anterior to the ear

        2. Condylar process of mandible articulates with the inferior surface of the squamous region of the temporal bone (mandibular fossa)

        3. Functional aspects p. 159

    2. Understand naming of joints

    3. Joint disorders

      1. Sprain

      2. Dislocation

      3. Arthritis – umbrella term

        1. Rheumatoid arthritis


Anatomy of the skin and the hypodermis.

- Distinguish between epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis: location within the skin, layers, components.

- Organize the skin and the hypodermis into recognized layers. Specify the characteristics of each layers and the components (all type of cells, pigments, and other substances).

- Explain the contribution of Melanin, Carotene, and Hemoglobin on producing skin color.

Appendages of skin.

- For each of the five appendages of the skin describe the structure and relate it to its individual functions.

- Explain how an appendage of the skin is considered as an organ.

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