Stomatolog y

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Faculty of Medicine



Authors: Professor Josef Bilder, M.D.

Assoc. Prof. Boris Bílý, M.D.

Assoc. Prof. Zdeňka Halačková, M.D.

Vladimír Košut, M.D.

Professor Martina Kukletová, M.D.

Assoc. Prof. Milan Machálka, M.D.

Marie Pokorná, M.D.

Věra Sazmová, M.D.

Assoc. Prof. Jiří Vaněk, M.D.


1. Introduction to Stomatology 6

1.1 Classification of Stomatology 6

1.2 Examination of Patients 7

1.3 Biological Testing of Dental Materials 9

2. Basics of Restorative Stomatology 14

2.1 Dental Caries and Associated Issues 14

2.1.1 Diseases of the Pulp 19

2.1.2 Periodontitis 21

2.2 Focal Dental Infections 23

2.3 Special Aspects of Children’s Treatment 24

2.3.1 Restorative Stomatology 26

2.3.2 Surgical Stomatology 28

2.3.3 Stomatologic Prosthetics 30

2.3.4 Periodontics 31

2.3.5 Treatment of Non-cooperating Patients 31

2.3.6 Disorders of Teeth Development 32

3. Periodontal Diseases 33

3.1 Factors Causing Parodontopathies 34

3.2 Classification of Parodontopathies According to the Czech Nomenclature 36

3.3 Prevention of Parodontopathies 42

4. Diseases of Oral Mucosa 44

4.1 Etiology of Mucous Diseases 44

4.2 The Selected Disorders of Oral Mucosa 45

4.3 Profession-related Changes in the Oral Cavity 49

4.4 Manifestations of AIDS on the Oral Cavity Mucosa 50

5. Prosthetic Dentistry 51

5.1 Types of Dentures: Fixed Dental Prostheses 52

5.2 Removable Prostheses 53

5.3 Surgical Dentures 57

5.4 Damage of Tissues by Dentures and Its Prevention 57

6. Dental Implantology 59

6.1 Classification of Implants, Properties of Materials, Biocompatibility 60

6.2 Indication, Contraindication 62

7. Orthopedics of Jaws 65

7.1 Orthodontic Anomalies 65

7.2 Classification of Orthodontic Anomalies 67

7.2.1 Anomalies of Teeth Positions 67

7.2.2 Anomalies of Dental Arches Relationships 67

7.2.3 Disorders of the Facial Skeleton Structure and Growth 68

7.3 Therapy of Orthodontic Anomalies 69

7.4 Cleft Disorders 71

8. Basics of Dento-alveolar Surgery 74

8.1 Teeth Extraction 74

8.2 Anesthesia at Dentistry 75

8.3 Complications of Teeth Extractions 79

8.2 Diseases of the Mandibular Joint 82

8.5 Contracture of Jaw Muscles 83

8.6 Inflammations Around the Jaws 84

8.7 Osteitis and Osteomyelitis of the Jawbones 87

9. Diseases of Salivary Glands 89

9.1 Salivary Glands Functions 89

9.2 Examinations of Sialopathies 89

9.3 Inflammations of Salivary Glands 90

9.4 Sialoses 94

9.5 Sialolithiasis 95

9.6 Tumors of Salivary Glands 96

9.7 Cysts of Salivary Glands 97

9.8 Injuries of Salivary Glands 98

10. Traumatology of the Facial Skeleton and the Teeth 99

10.1 Statistical Analysis of Causes of Facial Injuries 99

10.2 First Aid During Facial Injuries 100

10.3 Mandibular Fractures 102

10.4 Luxation of the Lower Jaw 109

10.5 Injuries of the Middle Third of the Face 111

10.5.1 Classification of Fractures of the Middle Facial Third 113

10.5.2 Therapy of Fractures of the Middle Facial Third 120

10.6 Healing of Fractures 122

10.7 Injuries of the Teeth 125

10.8 Injuries of Soft Tissues 126

10.9 Brain Damage 127

10.10 A Traumatic Shock 130

10.11 Polytraumas 132

11. Tumors of the Head and the Neck 134

11.1 Epidemiology 134

11.2 Diagnosis and Staging 135

11.3 Oncological Prevention in Stomatology 137

11.4 General Rules of Tumor Therapy 141

11.5 Oro-facial Precancerous States 145

11.6 Survey of the Oro-facial Tumors 150

1. Introduction to Stomatology

Stomatology is one of the basic medical fields. It studies diagnostics, treatment and prevention of diseases affecting teeth, oral cavity and tissues and organs which are topographically associated with it. Stomatology services are provided mainly in the form of an outpatient care, just a small part of the care is provided by inpatient stomatological facilities.

Today’s stomatology is a field that employs exclusively university-educated professionals, i.e. doctors after graduation from five to six years long studies at a university.

A doctor-stomatologist’s coworkers are health services staff: a nurse, a dental technician, an X-ray technician, and a dental hygienist.

1.1 Classification of Stomatology

Among the basic stomatological fields there are therapeutic stomatology, orthopedic stomatology, and surgical stomatology. Therapeutic stomatology (protective, conserving stomatology) deals with the diagnostics, treatment and prevention of a dental decay and its complications. Associated with this basic stomatology branch there are: children’s stomatology (pedostomatology, pedodontics) that deals with the care of the milk dentition or the developing permanent dentition of youngsters.

Periodontics deals with diseases of the periodontium tissues and the oral cavity mucous membrane diseases.

Orthopedic stomatology (dental prosthetics) deals with the replacement of parts of crowns, individual teeth losses or provides for the total replacement of lost teeth by the production and application of various dental prostheses (crowns, bridges, removable dentures). An individual specialty is orthodontics (othopedics of jaws) that deals with the diagnostics, treatment and prevention of irregularities of the individual teeth, groups of teeth and anomalies of jaws.

Surgical stomatology deals with the surgical treatment of the oral cavity diseases (dentoalveolar surgery) or as a specialty (maxillofacial surgery) provides for surgical treatment of larger orofacial diseases, mainly in the form of the inpatient care.

A graduate of the stomatology studies is prepared both theoretically and practically for the praxis in prevention and cure in the basic stomatology fields. He or she receives only general knowledge in the specialized disciplines that allow for a responsible decision of a consequent treatment at highly specialized dental offices. As a graduate student he or she can receive a higher degree of qualification after passing necessary examinations and continue to work as a specialist in othodontics or maxillofacial surgery fields.

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