Slide 1 Order artiodactyla even-toed ungulates



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Slide 1 Order ARTIODACTYLA

  1. Even-toed ungulates

    1. Terrestrial artiodactyls

      1. 200 species in 10 families







    2. Aquatic artiodactyls

      1. Cetaceans

Slide 2. Characters



  1. Double pullied Astragalus

  2. Paraxonic foot

Slide 3. Fig. 17.1 - Unguligrade

Slide 4. Figure19.7: Cranial Appendages


  1. Rhinoceros

  2. Giraffe

  3. Deer in velvet

  4. Deer

  5. Pronghorn

  6. Bovid

Slide 5. Family SUIDAE



  1. Old World Swine

    1. Ethiopian, Palearctic, Oriental, Australian [Celebes]

  2. 5 genera, 16 species

Slide 6. Suid Characteristics



  1. stocky, barrel-shaped body; short limbs

  2. Snout elongate, mobile, and flattened at end

  3. Four toes on front and hind feet

  4. two chambered stomach

    1. cecal fermentation

  5. omnivorous

Slide 7. Suid Characteristics



  1. Canines directed upward and outward

  2. Skull long and low, with a high occipit

Slide 8. Babyrousa

Slide 9. Family TAYASSUIDAE

A. javelinas or peccaries


Slide 10. Tayassidae Distribution

  1. Neotropical (central Argentina) to Nearctic (southwestern U.S.)

  2. Catagonus wagneri; Tayassu pecari; and our Pecari tajacu

Slide 11. Tayassuid characters



  1. upper canines directed downward

  2. Skull with a straight dorsal profile

Slide 12. Tayassuid characters



  1. 4 toes on front feet, usually 3 on rear [digit 5 of the hindfoot is vestigial; two on rear of Catagonus

  2. fewer tail vertebrae than suids

Slide 13 Tayassuid characters



  1. rump gland used in social communication

  2. gregarious--populations typically 5-15

  3. Tayassu up to several 100

Slide 14. Tayassuid Diet



  1. Omnivorous, but rely more on plant material than suids

  2. two to three chambered stomach, may have gastric fermentation

  3. Pecari tajacu is less cold tolerant, but require less water than feral pigs

Slide 15. “porky” is not a javelina.


Slide 16. “neoporky” is not a javelina
Slide 17. This is a javelina
Slide 18. Family HIPPOPOTAMIDAE

  1. Ethiopian

  2. 2 genera and species.

  1. Huge heads & short limbs.

Slide 19. Hippopotamus Characteristics



  1. incisors and canines large, tusk like

  2. Semi-aquatic

    1. Nostrils and eyes at top of skull.

Slide 20. Hippopotamus Characters



  1. Food:

    1. terrestrial vegetation at night,

    2. aquatic in the day

  2. Producie a wide variety of sounds

Slide 21. Hippopotamus Characteristics



  1. Thick and nearly hairless skin.

  2. Skin glands secrete a pink oily substance that protects skin.

Slide 22. Hippo Skin

A. skin renders hippos vulnerable to dehydration.

Slide 23. Two Species



  1. Hippopotamus

    1. up to 4500 kg

    2. Gregarious

    3. produce underwater sounds similar to the sonar clicks of dolphins

  2. Hexaprotodon

    1. 200-250 kg

    2. less social, occurs in forested areas

Slide 24. Hexaprotodon


Slide 25. SELENODONT ARTIODACTYLS

A. selenodont molars


Slide 26. Family CAMELIDAE

  1. Camels and Llamas

    1. No horns or antlers.

    2. Three chambered ruminating stomach.

Slide 27. Family Camelidae



  1. Secondarily digitigrade.

  2. cannon bone 'Y'-shaped distally

  3. support on soft substrates

Slide 28. Locomotion

A. pacing
Slide 29. Subfamily Camelinae


  1. Palearctic

  2. Hump(s) for fat storage

  3. dromedary or Arabian is widespread due to domestication, but there are no wild populations.

  4. bactrian is less widely used by humans and only a few wild herds remain in central Asia.

Slide 30. Subfamily Laminae



  1. Neotropical

  2. llamas, alpacas, and guanacos, and vicuñas

  3. llamas and alpacas are domesticated

  4. Lama inhabits grasslands to 4000m; vicuñas, grasslands and plains at altitudes of 3,500-5,750 m

    1. hemoglobin has a higher Oxygen affinity

Slide 31. Camelidae: adaptations to conserve water



  1. Dry feces & little urine

  2. Adjustment of body temperature

  3. Tolerance of water loss

Slide 32. Family TRAGULIDAE



  1. chevrotains and mouse deer

  2. Ethiopian and Oriental

  3. no cranial appendages

  4. large upper canines in males

  5. 3-chambered, ruminating stomach

  6. 2.5 - < 8 kg; 40 cm tall mouse deer

  7. solitary, nocturnal; ecological equivalent of Lepus

Slide 33. RUMINANTS WITH A FOUR-CHAMBERED STOMACH
Slide 34. Family MOSCHIDAE

  1. Oriental

  2. no antlers

  3. elongate upper canines

  4. abdominal musk gland.

Slide 35: Musk deer


Slide 36. Sunday Morning Information
Side 37. Family CERVIDAE

  1. deer, elk, moose

  2. Holarctic, Neotropical, Oriental

  3. 16 genera, 42 species

  4. 7 kg (Pudu) - 800 kg (Alces)

Slide 38. Family Cervidae



  1. antlers

    1. Solid bony core

    2. shed annually

Slide 39. Antler growth and breeding cycle


Slide 40. Fig. 19.9 Cervid antlers

  1. usually in males only

  2. present in female Rangifer

  3. absent in Hydropotes

Slide 41. extinct Irish elk

A. antlers 3.6 m from tip to tip
Slide 42. Family Cervidae


  1. tarsal gland communicates social status

  2. brachyodont teeth; usually browsers

  3. no gall bladder (?low fat diet, but present in bovids)

Slide 43. North American Cervids



  1. Elk or wapiti

  2. Often considered part of the Old World red deer complex (Cervus elaphus)

  3. Occasionally considered a separate species (Cervus canadensis)

Slide 44. North American Cervidae


Slide 45. Family Cervidae

  1. White-tailed and Mule or Black-tailed Deer
    1. Odocoileus

Slide 46. Family Cervidae



  1. Caribou (Reindeer)
  2. Rangifer tarandus

  3. Arctic tundra and boreal coniferous forest

Slide 47. Family Cervidae



  1. Moose
  2. Alces alces

  3. Europeans call this the elk

Slide 48. Family GIRAFFIDAE



  1. Ethiopian

    1. Giraffe: up to 1,800 kg

    2. Okapi

  2. browsers--brachyodont teeth

Slide 49. Giraffe horns



  1. present in both sexes

  2. unbranched

  3. covered with skin

  4. non-deciduous

Slide 50. Giraffidae



  1. Long neck (especially in giraffes; height to 5.5 m)

  2. Giraffa

    1. herds, savannah grassland

    2. long, prehensile tongue for browsing

    3. sexual selection for long neck

Slide 51. Okapi



  1. Solitary

  2. equatorial forest

Slide 52. Family ANTILOCAPRIDAE



  1. Pronghorns

  2. Nearctic (endemic)

  3. permanent bony core and an epidermal horny sheath. Sheath is forked and shed annually

  4. females often hornless and frequently lack prongs

Slide 53. Antilocapridae



  1. mainly grazers, hypsodont teeth

  2. orbits high on head

  3. Cursorial

Slide 54. Family BOVIDAE



  1. cattle, sheep, goats, antelope, and allies

  2. Holarctic, Ethiopian, Oriental

  3. largest family of ungulates:

    1. 45 genera and 137 species

Slide 55. Figure: Horn Core and Sheath



  1. unbranched, sheath and bony core

  2. non-deciduous (sheath is rarely shed)

Slide 56. Fig. 19.21: Horns



  1. always present in males, variable in females;

  2. female horns are shorter and straighter, used as defensive weapons

Slide 57. North American Bovidae



  1. American bison (Bison bison)

  2. Reintroduced throughout its previous range

Slide 58. Bison and Old World Buffalo


Slide 59. North American Bovidae
Slide 60. North American Bovidae

  1. Muskoxen: Ovibos moschatus
  2. Inhabitants of arctic tundra

Slide 61. North American Bovidae



  1. Mountain goat: Oreamnos americanus

  2. Alpine tundra and subalpine areas

Slide 62. North American Bovidae



  1. Thinhorn sheep: Ovis dalli

  2. Arctic and subarctic

Slide 63. North American Bovidae



  1. Bighorn Sheep: Ovis canadensis

  2. occur from Canada to Mexico

Slide 64. Ruminants

Slide 65. Rumination

Slide 66. Why Diagastric stomach ?



  1. Survival strategy

  2. food only partly chewed & regurgitated at leisure

  3. Symbiotic relationship with microbes

  4. Improved diet

Slide 67. Bovidae: The Most Diverse Ruminants



  1. body mass from 2.5-1000 kg

  2. hypsodont cheek teeth, mainly grazers, but with different feeding strategies; smaller bovids are primarily browsers

Slide 68. Resource Partitioning



A. 29 species of African bovids.
Slide 69. Ecology of Herbivores on Serengeti Plain

  1. Zebras



  1. Wildebeests



  1. Thompson’s gazelles



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