GLE 34—Apply the law of reflection and law of refraction to demonstrate everyday phenomena (e.g., how light is reflected from tinted windows, how light is refracted by cameras, telescopes, eyeglasses) What would be the best use for a material that reflects almost all light?
A. as a mirror
B. as a window
C. as a light bulb
D. as a sheet of paper
Correct response: A Physical Science - Transformations of Energy
GLE 36—Explain the relationship between an object’s color and the wavelength of light reflected or transmitted to the viewer’s eyes Laura sees a red flower. Which statement best describes why the flower is red?
A. The light that strikes the flower is mostly red.
B. The light that is absorbed by the flower is mostly red.
C. The light that is reflected from the flower is mostly red.
D. The light that passes through the flower is mostly red.
Correct response: C Physical Science - Transformations of Energy
GLE 40—Identify heat energy gains and losses during exothermic and endothermic chemical reactions Dee adds five grams of a chemical to one liter of liquid and observes a reaction. If the reaction is endothermic, what will happen?
A. The volume of the liquid will increase.
B. The volume of the liquid will decrease.
C. The temperature of the liquid will increase.
D. The temperature of the liquid will decrease.
Correct response: D
Science and the Environment
GLE 42—Identify energy types from their source to their use and determine if the energy types are renewable, nonrenewable, or inexhaustible Which nonrenewable energy source comes from the remains of dead organisms?
B. solar power
C. geothermal heat
Correct response: A Science and the Environment
GLE 43—Explain how the use of different energy resources affects the environment and the economy
Some electricity is made by damming rivers and using the water to push a turbine. What is a potential negative effect of this form of energy?
A. It can cause the river to be heavily polluted.
B. It can destroy the habitat of wildlife that live in the river.
C. It can produce toxic waste that must be disposed of.
Stanley helped his mother install a solar generator on the roof of their home. Which statement best explains the advantage of using a solar generator?
A. Solar power is easy to store.
B. Solar power is readily available.
C. Solar generators can produce energy at all times.
D. Solar generators can produce very large amounts of energy.
Correct response: B
Science and the Environment
GLE 45—Describe methods for sustaining renewable resources After harvesting, a farmer plowed the remaining vegetation into the soil. What is the most likely reason the farmer did this?
A. to prevent fires
B. to prevent erosion
C. to save time and energy
D. to add nutrients to the soil
Correct response: D
Science and the Environment
GLE 46—Identify ways people can reuse, recycle, and reduce the use of resources to improve and protect the quality of life What is the best ecological reason for using recycled paper?
A. Recycled paper lasts longer.
B. Recycled paper is safer to use.
C. Recycled paper is much cheaper to buy.
D. Recycled paper conserves resources.
Correct response: D
Task You are asked to read a letter about cooking dinner. Then you will answer five questions. The first four questions are multiple choice. The last question requires you to write an extended response.
Rachel wrote a letter about helping her father cook dinner. Read Rachel’s letter. Then answer questions 1 through 5. Dear Grandma,
Today Mr. and Ms. Rice came over for dinner, and Dad asked me to help cook. We made cornbread, baked chicken, broccoli, and a fruit salad. I helped with all of it except the fruit salad, which Dad made.
The first thing we worked on was the chicken, because Dad said it would take over an hour to bake. First I turned our electric oven on to 325°F. I took the plastic off the whole chicken, washed it, rubbed it inside and out with oil, salt, and seasonings, and put it in a pan. We put an extra piece of chicken in a separate pan to make sure we had enough. Then Dad told me to check the temperature of the chicken by inserting a thermometer into the breast or thigh. He said when the inside temperature of the chicken was 165°F, it would be done. I figured that if the oven temperature was 325°F, it should not take very long at all for the chicken to reach 165°F. Dad said we should check the temperature of the whole chicken and the extra piece every 15 minutes. Since we have been studying graphing in math class, I decided to make a graph of the temperatures. Here is my graph:
I was very surprised that it took so long for the chicken to get up to 165°F, even though Dad had told me it would.
While the chicken was baking, I mixed up the cornbread batter and put it in the oven as well. Then I chopped the broccoli and put it in a glass casserole dish on a plate in the microwave. When the broccoli was done, I took it out and added butter and salt. I thought about the difference between the microwave oven and the regular oven. The pan I cooked the chicken in was very hot, and I had to use hot pads to touch it. But even though the broccoli was cooked and steaming, the handles of the broccoli dish and the plate under it were not hot at all. Dad told me that microwave ovens and regular ovens use different scientific principles to cook food.
Right before Mr. and Ms. Rice arrived, Dad found a jar of juice in the cupboard, and I poured glasses for everyone and added ice to cool it down. When our company came, everything was ready, which was good, because I was starving! The meal was fabulous, and I was very proud I had provided such significant assistance to Dad.
I can’t wait to cook dinner for you next time you come visit, Grandma. I hope you are doing well.
Study the information in the Cooking Dinner letter before answering the questions. Which flowchart best summarizes heat transfer to the cooking chicken?
A. Electricity turns to heat currents of radiation swirl around the chicken the inside of the chicken warms up heat spreads throughout the chicken
B. Electricity turns to heat air in the oven heats up and the molecules move faster air molecules bump into the chicken molecules in the chicken move faster
C. Electricity turns to heat heat flows through the metal oven shelf into the chicken pan heat flows from the pan into the bottom of the chicken heat flows into the rest of the chicken
D. Electricity turns to heat heat causes the air molecules to change shape the changed air molecules cause the chicken molecules to change shape the changed chicken molecules release heat
The microwave oven heats the broccoli, but not the dish handles or the plate underneath.
Which statement best explains why this happens?
A. The microwave oven creates radiation, and the radiation is absorbed by the broccoli but passes through the dish and the plate.
B. The microwave oven heats using convection currents and the currents collide with the broccoli but slide over the smooth dishes.
C. The microwave oven heats the air and the hot air heats the broccoli, but the dishes do not conduct heat, so they stay cool.
D. The microwave oven produces heat, which flows through the floor of the microwave into the dishes, and up out of the dishes into the broccoli.
Which conclusion is best supported by the data Rachel gathered while baking the chicken?
A. The whole chicken started out colder than the piece of chicken, so it took longer for the whole chicken to increase in temperature in the hot oven.
B. Objects that are made of the same substance, such as chicken, will increase in temperature at the same rate when placed in a hot oven.
C. In a hot oven, the temperature of a metal pan increases faster than the temperature of a baking chicken.
D. In a hot oven, the temperature inside a small piece of chicken rises faster than the temperature inside a large piece of chicken.
Rachel wonders how the number of ice cubes added to a glass of juice affects the temperature of the juice. She wants to design an investigation that tests this question and that will produce clear, repeatable results.
Which data table shows the best experimental design?
Rachel is going to take a chicken sandwich made from leftovers to school for lunch. She wants to keep her sandwich cold on a hot day. She has the two lunch bags shown. Bag 1 is made from padded fabric with a silver fabric lining. Bag 2 is made from brown paper.
Predict which bag will be more effective, and explain your prediction. Discuss how you could collect data to test your prediction if you had these same two bags. Your response should:
Predict which bag will be better at keeping cold food cold on a hot day.
Provide more than one reason for your prediction.
Describe a simple experiment you could do with these two bags and the kind of data you could collect to prove or disprove your prediction.
Exemplary Response 1. B
5. I predict that bag 1 will keep food cold better than bag 2. Bag 1 is made of padded fabric and has a silver lining. The padded fabric will help prevent the heat from the hot air outside from being conducted through the bag and heating up the air and food inside. The silver lining will help reflect radiation such as infrared and light. If the radiation is reflected by the silver, it will not get inside the bag and warm the food. In contrast, the paper bag is thin. Although paper does not conduct heat as well as metal, it is also not as insulating as thick cloth. You can tell this because you can use thick cloth to take a hot pan out of the oven, but you would not want to do that with a paper bag on your hand. Also, bag 2 does not have the silver lining to reflect radiation. Finally, it is a darker color than bag 1, so it will actually absorb more heat from sunlight.
I could test my prediction by putting identical plastic cups of cool water in each bag. I would make sure both cups were the same temperature with a thermometer and then close the bags. Then I would put both bags in a warm, sunny spot. After an hour or two, I would measure the temperature of the water again. If the water in bag 1 stayed cooler than the water in bag 2, I would know my prediction was correct.
The student completes all key components of the task accurately and communicates ideas effectively. The response:
Predicts that bag 1 will be more effective at keeping the sandwich cold.
Provides two or more reasons why bag 1 will be more effective than bag 2, which demonstrates an understanding of thermal energy flow and principles of insulation.
Describes a simple experiment and data to be gathered, which would test the prediction and the type of results that would support or disprove the prediction.
The student’s response is extensively supported by relevant evidence in the form of details, scientific principles, and/or examples.
Where appropriate, the student uses a higher level of reasoning skills that may include applications, procedures, etc.
The response contains no scientific errors.
The student’s response demonstrates a good understanding of thermal energy flow, principles of insulation, and experimental design, although less important ideas or details may be overlooked or misunderstood.
The student completes most important aspects of the task accurately and communicates clearly.
The student’s response is sufficiently supported by relevant evidence.
The student’s logic and reasoning may contain minor flaws.
The response contains minor scientific errors.
The student’s response demonstrates a limited understanding of thermal energy flow, principles of insulation, and experimental design, and may show gaps in conceptual understanding.
The student completes some parts of the task successfully.
The student’s response is not sufficiently supported by relevant evidence.
The response contains scientific errors.
The student’s response demonstrates a basic understanding of thermal energy flow, principles of insulation, and experimental design.
The student completes only a small portion of the task.
The student’s response contains little or no support of relevant evidence.
The response contains major scientific errors.
The response attempts to address the prompt, but is mostly or entirely incorrect or contains some correct work that is irrelevant to the skill or concept being measured.