Rule 17, exhibit 9 Chronic Pain Disorder Medical Treatment Guidelines Revised: December 27, 2011 Effective: February 14, 2012


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NOTE: The bibliography for the Chronic Pain and Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Medical Treatment Guidelines reflects the articles, abstracts, and literature reviewed during the Chronic Pain and CRPS update process. Where applicable, literature was given a designation of one of the following: High quality, adequate, inadequate, or not applicable. It should be noted that some articles might have more than one designation, such as, ‘adequate’ on one concept and ‘high-quality’ on another concept. Literature with these designations is noted in the bibliography. Each designation was assigned in accordance with the related Assessment Criteria.
Literature that was used to support evidence statements (eg. some, good, strong) is listed in the bibliography. Over 550 articles and literature were examined for consideration during the course of this update. A limited number of those articles qualified for evidence statements. The designated strength of the evidence may not coincide with acceptability of treatment. When the evidence is conflicting or inconclusive, acceptability of treatment is determined by a combination of available medical literature and group consensus. Some of the elements that are considered in making consensus determinations are: level of functional benefit, acceptable risk/morbidity/mortality, and acceptable cost.

A review of the Chronic Pain and CRPS Medical Treatment Guidelines bibliography needs to coincide with a review of the General Guidelines Principles. In particular, please review Guidelines Principle #12: Guidelines Recommendations and the Strength of Medical Evidence and Consensus Recommendations. All recommendations in the guidelines are considered to represent reasonable care in appropriately selected cases, regardless of the level of evidence or consensus attached to it. Those procedures considered inappropriate, unreasonable, or unnecessary are designated in the guideline as 'not recommended.'

  1. Abbott, Z., & Richardson, J.K. (2007). Subacromial Impingement Syndrome as a Consequence of Botulinum Therapy to the Upper Trapezii: A Case report. Arch Physical Medicine Rehabil. 88: 947-949.

  2. Abramowicz, M. (Ed.) (January 2010). Medical Marijuana. The Medical Letter. 52: 1330. 5-6.

  3. Abrams, DI, Jay, CA, Shade, SB, Vizoso, H., Reda, H., Press, S.,...Petersen, KL. (2007). Cannabis in Painful HIV-Associated Sensory Neuropathy. A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial. Neurology. 68: 515-521.

  4. Adami, S., Fossaluzza, V., Gatti, D., Fracassi, E., & Braga, V. (1997). Bisphosphonate Therapy of Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Syndrome. Annals of Rheumatic Disease. 56: 201-204. Assessment: Inadequate.

  5. Albazaz, R., Wong, YT, & Homer-Vanniasinkam, S. (2008). Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: A Review. Annals of Vascular Surgery. 22: 297-306. DOI: 10.1016/j.avsg.2007.10.1006

  6. Altan, L., Bingol, U., Aykac, M., & Yurtkuran, M. (2005). Investigation of the Effect of GaAs Laser Therapy on Cervical Myofascial Pain Syndrome. Rheumatol Int. 25: 23-27. DOI 10.1007/s00296-003-0396-y

  7. Altman, R., Dreiser, R-L., Fisher, C., Chase, W., Dreher, D., & Zacher, J. (2009). Diclofenac Sodium Gel in Patients with Primary Hand Osteoarthritis: A Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo Controlled Trial. The Journal of Rheumatology. 36: 1991-1999. DOI 10.3899/jrheum.081316. High Quality. *Used in Evidence Statement.

  8. American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Chronic Pain Management: Rosenquist, R., Benson, H., Connis, R., De Leon-Casasola, O., Glass, D., Korevaar, W., Cynwyd, B.,...Simon, D. (2010). Practice Guidelines for Chronic Pain Management. Anesthesiology. 112: 810-33.

  9. Anagnostis, C., Gatchel, RJ, & Mayer, TG. (2004). The Pain Disability Questionnaire. Spine. 29; 20, 2290-2302.

  10. Andersen, T., Christensen, FB, & Bunger, C. (2006). Evaluation of a Dallas Pain Questionnaire Classification in Relation to Outcome in Lumbar Spinal Fusion. Eur Spine Journal. 15: 1671-1685. DOI 10.1007/s00586-005-0046-z

  11. Andersson, G., Lucente, T., Davis, A., Kappler, R., Lipton, J., & Leurgans, S. (1999). A Comparison of Osteopathic Spinal Manipulation with Standard Care for Patients with Low Back Pain. The New England Journal of Medicine. 341: 1426-31.

  12. Ansari, A. (2000). The Efficacy of Newer Antidepressants in the Treatment of Chronic Pain: A Review of Current Literature. Harvard Rev Psychiatry. 7: 257-277.

  13. Antman, E., Lau, J., Kupelnick, B., Mosteller, F., & Chalmers, T. (1992). A Comparison of Results of Meta-Analyses of Randomized Control Trials and Recommendations of Clinical Experts. JAMA. 268: 2, 240-248.

  14. Argoff, C., (2011). Review of Current Guidelines on the Care of Postherpetic Neuralgia. Postgraduate Medicine. 123: 5, 134-142.

  15. Armer, JM, & Stewart, BR. (2005). A Comparison of Four Diagnostic Criteria for Lymphedema in a Post-Breast Cancer Population. Lymphatic Research and Biology. 3, 4: 208-218.

  16. Assefi, N., Bogart, A., Goldbert, J., & Buchwald, D. (2008). Reiki for the Treatment of Fibromyalgia: A Randomized Controlled Trial. J Alterm Complement Med. 14 (9); 1115-22. Abstract Only.

  17. Attal, N., Cruccu, G., Baron, R., Haanpaa, M., Hansson, P., Jensen, TS, & Nurmikko, T. (2010). EFNS Guidelines on Pharmacological Treatment of Neuropathic Pain: 2010 Revision. European Journal of Neurology. 17: 1113-1123. doi:10.1111/j.1468-1331.2010.02999.x

  18. Attal, N., Cruccu, G., Haanpaa, M., Hansson, P., Jensen, TS, Nurmikko, T., Sampaio, C., Sindrup, S., & Wiffen, P. (2006). EFNS Guidelines on Pharmacological Treatment of Neuropathic Pain. European Journal of Neurology. 13: 1153-1169. doi:10.1111/j.1468-1331.2006.01511.x

  19. Aure, OF, Nilsen, JH, & Vasseljen, O. (2003). Manual Therapy and Exercise Therapy in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain. A Randomized, Controlled Trial with 1-Year Follow-up. Spine. 28:6, 525-532. Assessment: Adequate. *Used in Evidence Statement.

  20. Avins, A. (2010). Glucosamine and the Ongoing Enigma of Chronic Low Back Pain. JAMA. 304 (1): 93-94.

  21. Ballantyne, JC, & LaForge, KS. (2007). Opioid Dependence and Addiction During Opioid Treatment of Chronic Pain. Pain. 129: 235-255.

  22. Ballantyne, JC, & Mao, J. (2003). Opioid Therapy for Chronic Pain. The New England Journal of Medicine. 349; 1943-53.

  23. Barnett, G. Licko, V., Thompson, T. (1985). Behavioral pharmacokinetics of marijuana. Psychopharmacology. 85:51. 51-56.

  24. Barolat, G., Ketcik, B., & He, J. (1998). Long-term Outcome of Spinal Cord Stimulation for Chronic Pain Management. Neuromodulation. 1, 1; 19-29.

  25. Barolat, G., Oakley, JC, Law, JD, North, RB, Ketcik, B., & Sharan, A. (2001). Epidural Spinal Cord Stimulation with a Multiple Electrode Paddle Lead Is Effective in Treating Intractable Low Back Pain. Neuromodulation. 4, 2; 59-66.

  26. Baron, R. (2009). Neuropathic Pain: A Clinical Perspective. Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology. 194, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-540-79090-7_1.

  27. Barton, D. L., Wos, E. J., Rui, Q., Mattar, B.I., Green, N.B., Lanier….Loprinzi, C.L. (2011). A double-blind placebo-controlled trial of a topical treatment for chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: NCCTG trial N06CA. Support Care Cancer. 19. 833-841. DOI: 10.1007/s00520-010-0911-0.

  28. Bates, MN, & Blakely, TA. (1999). Role of Cannabis in Motor Vehicle Crashes. Epidemiologic Reviews. 21; 2, 222-232.

  29. Bentsen, BG, Natvig, B., & Winnem, M. (1999). Questions You Didn’t Ask? COOP/WONCA Charts in Clinical Work and Research. Family Practice. 16; 2, 190-195.

  30. Beydoun, A., Shaibani, A., Hopwood, M., & Wan, Y. (2006). Oxcarbazepine in Painful Diabetic Neuropathy: Results of a Dose-Ranging Study. Acta Neurol Scand. 113: 385-404. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0404.2006.00631.x. Assessment: Adequate. (also inadequate on another issue). *Used in Evidence Statement.

  31. Bianchi, C., Rossi, S., Turi, S., Brambilla, A., Felisari, G., & Mascheri, D. (2006). Long-Term Functional Outcome Measures in Corticosteroid-Treated Complex Regional Pain Syndrome. Eur Med Phys. 42: 105-11.

  32. Birklein, F., Riedl, B., Claus, D., & Neundorfer, B. (1998). Pattern of Autonomic Dysfunction in Time Course of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome. Clinical Autonomic Research. 8; 79-85.

  33. Block, AR, Ohnmeiss, DD, Guyer, RD, Rashbaum, RF, & Hochschuler, SH. (2001). The Use of Presurgical Psychological Screening to Predict the Outcome of Spine Surgery. Spine J. 1 (4): 274-82. Assessment: Adequate. *Used in Evidence Statement.

  34. Blonk, M., Koder, B., van den Bemt, P., & Huygen, F. (2010). Use of Oral Ketamine in Chronic Pain Management: A Review. European Journal of Pain. 14: 466-472.

  35. Bohnert, A., Valenstein, M., Bair, M., Ganoczy, D., McCarthy, J., Ilgen, M., & Blow, F. (2011). Association between Opioid Prescribing Patterns and Opioid Overdose-Related Deaths. JAMA. 305 (13): 1315-1321.

  36. Borckardt, J., Smith, A., Reeves, S., Madan, A., Shelley, N., Branham, R.,...George, M. (2009). A Pilot Study Investigating the Effects of Fast Left Prefrontal rTMS on Chronic Neuropathic Pain. Pain Med. 10 (5): 840-849. doi:10.1111/j.1526-4637.2009.00657.x.

  37. Borman, P., Keskin, D., Ekici, N., & Bodur, H. (2008). The Efficacy of Intermittent Cervical Traction in Patients with Chronic Neck Pain. Clinical Rheumatology. 27: 1249-1253. DOI 10.1007/s10067-008-0895-z.

  38. Braus, DF, Krauss, JK, & Strobel, J. (1994). The Shoulder-hand Syndrome after Stroke: A Prospective Clinical Trial. Annals of Neurology. 36: 728-733.

  39. Brennan Braden, J., Russo, J., Fan, MY, Edlund, M., Martin, B., DeVries, A., & Sullivan, M. (2010). Emergency Department Visits among Recipients of Chronic Opioid Therapy. Arch Intern Med. 170 (16): 1425-1432.

  40. Bril, V., England, J., Franklin, G.M., et al. (2011). Evidence-based Guideline: Treatment of Painful Diabetic Neuropathy. Neurology Pre-published online. Doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e3182166ebe

  41. Brinkhaus, B., Witt, C., Jena, S., Linde, K., Streng, A., Wagenpfeil, S., Irnich, D., & Willich, S. (2006). Acupuncture in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain. American Medical Association. 166: 450-457. Assessment: High-Quality. *Used in Evidence Statement.

  42. Bronfort, G., Evans, R., Nelson, B., Aker, P., Goldsmith, C., & Vernon, H. (2001). A Randomized Clinical Trial of Exercise and Spinal Manipulation for Patients with Chronic Neck Pain. Spine. 27: 7, 788-799. Assessment: Adequate. **Used in Evidence Statement.

  43. Brox, JI, Nygaard, OP, & Holm, I. (2010). Four-year Follow-up of Surgical versus Non-surgical Therapy for Chronic Low Back Pain. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. 69; 1643-1648. Assessment: Adequate. *Used in Evidence Statement.

  44. Brox, JI, Sorensen, R, Friis, A., Nygaard, O., Indahl, A., Keller, A.,...Reikeras, O. (2003). Randomized Clinical Trial of Lumbar Instrumented Fusion and Cognitive Intervention and Exercises in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain and Disc Degeneration. Spine. 28; 17, 1913-1921. Assessment: Adequate. *Used in Evidence Statement.

  45. Bruehl, S. (2010). An Update on the Pathophysiology of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome. Anesthesiology. 113; 713-25.

  46. Bruehl, S., Harden, R., Galer, B., Saltz, S., Bertram, M., Backonja, M.,...Stanton-Hicks, M. (1999). External Validation of IASP Diagnostic Criteria for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome and Proposed Research Diagnostic Criteria. Pain. 81: 147-154.

  47. Brunner, F., Bachmann, LM, Weber, U., Kessels, AGH, Perez, RSGM, Marinus, J., & Kissling, R. (2008). Complex Regional Pain Syndrome I - The Swiss Cohort Study. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. 9:92. doi:10.1186/1471-2474-9-92

  48. Bruns, D., & Disorbio, JM. (2009). Assessment of Biopsychosocial Risk Factors for Medical Treatment: A Collaborative Approach. J Clinical Psychol Med Settings. 16; 127-147. DOI 10.1007/s10880-009-9148-9

  49. Bruns, D., & Disorbio, JM. (2010). The Psychological Assessment of Patients with Chronic Pain. AAPM Textbook of Pain Medicine.

  50. Bultmann, U., Sherson, D., Olsen, J., Hansen, CL, Lund, T., & Kilsgaard, J. (2009). Coordinated and Tailored Work Rehabilitation: A Randomized Controlled Trial with Economic Evaluation Undertaken with Workers on Sick Leave Due to Musculoskeletal Disorders. Journal of Occupation Rehabilitation. 19: 81-93. DOI 10.1007/s10926-009-9162-7

  51. Burchman, SL, & Pagel, PS. (1995). Implementation of a Formal Treatment Agreement for Outpatient Management of Chronic Nonmalignant Pain with Opioid Analgesics. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 10; 7, 556-563.

  52. Burns, J.W., Glenn, B., Bruehl, S., Harden, R.N., & Lofland, K. (2003). Cognitive Factors Influence Outcome Following Multidisciplinary Chronic Pain Treatment: A Replication and Extension of a Cross-lagged Panel Analysis. Behaviour Research and Therapy 41: 1163-1182. doi:10.1016/S0005-7967/(03)00029-9

  53. Butler, SF, Benoit, C., Budman, SH, Fernandez, KC, McCormick, C., Venuti, SW, & Katz, N. (2006). Development and Validation of an Opioid Attractiveness Scale: A Novel Measure of the Attractiveness of Opioid Products to Potential Abusers. Harm Reduction Journal. 3: 5 doi:10.1186/1477-7517-3-5

  54. Buynak, R., Shapiro, D., Okamoto, A., Van Hove, I., Rauschkolb, C., Steup, A.,...Etropolski, M. (2010). Efficacy and Safety of Tapentadol Extended Release for the Management of Chronic Low Back Pain: Results of a Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-and Active-Controlled Phase III Study. Expert Opinion Pharmacotherapy. 11: 11, 787-1804. Assessment: High Quality. *Used in Evidence Statement.

  55. Buysse, DJ, Reynolds, CF, Monk, TH, Berman, SR, & Kupfer, DJ. (1989). Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Psychiatry Research. 28; 193-213.

  56. Cacchio, A. (2009). Mirror Therapy for Chronic Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Type 1 and Stroke. The New England Journal of Medicine. 361: 6, 634-635. Assessment: Adequate. *Used in Evidence Statement.

  57. Calabria, B., Degenhardt, L., Hall, W.,...Lynskey, M. (2010). Does Cannabis Use Increase the Risk of Death? Systematic Review of Epidemiological Evidence on Adverse Effects of Cannabis Use. Drug and Alcohol Review. 29, 318-330. DOI:10.1111/j.1465-3362.2009.00149.x

  58. Campa, D., Gioia, A., Tomei, A., Poli, P., & Barale, R. (2008). Association of ABCB1/MDR1 and OPRM1 Gene Polymorphisms with Morphine Pain Relief. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 83: 4.

  59. Canadian Sleep Society Committee Members: Blackman, A., McGregor, C., Dales, R., Driver, H., Dumor, I., Fleming, J.,...Sullivan, G., Canadian Thoracic Society Committee Members: Fleetham, J., Ayas, N., Bradley, T., Fitzpatrick, M., Kimoff, J., Morrison, D., ...Tsai, W. (2010). Canadian Sleep Society/Canadian Thoracic Society Position Paper on the Use of Portable Monitoring for the Diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea/Hypopnea in Adults. Canadian Respir Journal 17(5): 229-232.

  60. Canlas, B., Drake, T., & Gabriel, E. (2010). A Severe Case of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome I (Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy) Managed with Spinal Cord Stimulation. Pain Practice. 10:1, 78-83.

  61. Carragee, E., Alamin, T., Miller, J., & Carragee, J. (2005). Discographic, MRI and psychosocial determinants of low back pain disability and remission: a prospective study in subjects with benign persistent back pain. The Spine Journal. 5: 24-35.

  62. Ceccherelli, F., Altafini, L., Lo Castro, G., Avila, A., Ambrosio, F., & Giron, GP. (1989). Diode Laser in Cervical Myofascial Pain: A Double-Blind Study versus Placebo. The Clinical Journal of Pain. 5: 301-304.

  63. Cecchi, F., Molino-Love, R., Chilti, M., Pasquini, G., & Paperini, A. (2010). Spinal Manipulation Compared with Back School and with Individually Delivered Physiotherapy for the Treatment of Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized Trial with One-Year Follow-Up. Clinical Rehabilitation. 24: 26-36.

  64. Cepeda, MS, Camargo, F., Zea, C., & Valencia, L. (2007). Tramadol for Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review and Metaanalysis. The Journal of Rheumatology. 34:3, 543-555.

  65. Cepeda, MS, Carr, DB, Lau, J., & Alvarez, H. Music for Pain Relief. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD004843. DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD004843.pub2.

  66. Cepeda, MS, Carr, DB, & Lau, J. Local Anaesthetic Sympathetic Blockade for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD004598. DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD004598.pub2.

  67. Challapalli, V., Tremont-Lukats, IW, McNicol, ED, Lau, J., & Carr, DB. Systemic Administration of Local Anesthetic Agents to Relieve Neuropathic Pain. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2005, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD003345. DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD003345.pub2. Assessment: Adequate.

  68. Chan, DKC, Johnson, M., Sun, KO, Doble, SJ, & Jenkins, S. (2009). Electrical Acustimulation of the Wrist for Chronic Neck Pain: A Randomized, Sham-Controlled Trial Using a Wrist-Ankle Acustimulation Device. Clinical Journal of Pain. 25: 320-326. Assessment: Adequate. **Used in Evidence Statement

  69. Chandra, K., Shafiq, N., Pandhi, P., Gupta, S., & Malhotra, S. (2006). Gabapentin Versus Nortriptyline in Post-herpetic Neuralgia Patients: A Randomized, Double-Blind Clinical Trial - The GONIP Trial. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 44: 8, 358-363. Assessment: Adequate. *Used in Evidence Statement.

  70. Chao, S-C, Lee, H-T, Kao, T-H, Yang, M-Y, Tsuei, Y-S, Shen, C-C, & Tsou, H-K. (2008). Percutaneous Pulsed Radiofrequency in the Treatment of Cervical and Lumbar Radicular Pain. Surgical Neurology. 70: 59-65. doi:10.101+/j.surneu.2007.05.046

  71. Chelimsky, TC, Low, PA, Naessens, JM, Wilson, PR, Amadio, PC, & O’Brien, PC. (1996). Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy. Mayo Clinic Proc. 71; 524-525.

  72. Chelimsky, TC, Low, PA, Naessens, JM, Wilson, PR, Amadio, PC, & O’Brien, PC. (1995). Value of Autonomic Testing in Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy. Mayo Clinic Proc. 70; 1029-1040. Assessment: Inadequate.

  73. Cherkin, DC, Eisenberg, D., Sherman, KJ, Barlow, W., Kaptchuk, TJ, Street, J., & Deyo, RA. (2001). Randomized Trial Comparing Traditional Chinese Medical Acupuncture, Therapeutic Massage, and Self-care Education for Chronic Low Back Pain. Arch Intern Med. 161: 1081-1088. Assessment: Adequate. *Used in Evidence Statement.

  74. Chou, R., Fanciullo, G., Fine, P., Adler, J., Ballantyne, J., Davies, P.,...Miaskowski, C. (2009). Opioid Treatment Guidelines. Clinical Guidelines for the Use of Chronic Opioid Therapy in Chronic Noncancer Pain. The Journal of Pain. 10, 2: 113-130.

  75. Chou, R. (2009). Low Back Pain (Chronic). Clinical Evidence. 10: 1116, 1-40.

  76. Chou, R., & Carson, S. (2008). Drug Class Review on Long-Acting Opioid Analgesics. Final Report. Oregon Health & Science University.

  77. Chou, R., Huffman, L.H. (2007). Guideline for the Evaluation and Management of Low Back Pain: Evidence Review. American Pain Society.

  78. Chow, R., Johnson, M., Bjordal, J., & Lopes-Martins, R. (2010). Low-level Laser Therapy for Neck Pain - Authors’ Reply. The Lancet. 375; 9716, 722. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60298-X

  79. Chow, R., Johnson, M., Lopes-Martins, RAB, & Bjordal, JM. (2009). Efficacy of Low-level Laser Therapy in the Management of Neck Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Placebo or Active-treatment Controlled Trials. Lancet. 374: 1897-908. Assessment: Adequate.

  80. Chow, R., Heller, GZ, & Barnsley, L. (2006). The Effect of 300 mW, 830 nm Laser on Chronic Neck Pain: A Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Study. Pain. 124: 201-210.

  81. Chow, R., Barnsley, L., Heller, GZ, & Siddall, PJ. (2004). A Pilot Study of Low-Power Laser Therapy in the Management of Chronic Neck Pain. Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain. 12 (2). DOI 10.1300/J094v12n02_09

  82. Christensen, K., Jensen, EM, & Noer, I. (1982). The Reflex Dystrophy Syndrome Response to Treatment with Systemic Corticosteroids. Acta Chir Scand. 148: 653-655. Assessment: Adequate.

  83. Chrubasik, S., Eisenberg, E., Balan, E., Weinberger, T., Luzzati, R., & Conradt, C. (2000). Treatment of Low Back Pain Exacerbations with Willow Bark Extract: A Randomized Double-Blind Study. American Journal of Medicine. 109: 9-14. Assessment: Adequate.

  84. Chu, LF, Clark, DJ, & Angst, MS. (2006). Opioid Tolerance and Hyperalgesia in Chronic Pain Patients after One Month of Oral Morphine Therapy: A Preliminary Prospective Study. The Journal of Pain. 7; 1, 43-48.

  85. Cicero, TJ, Lynskey, M., Todorov, A., Inciardi, JA, & Surratt, HL. (2008). Co-morbid Pain and Psychopathology in Males and Females Admitted to Treatment for Opioid Analgesic Abuse. Pain. 139; 127-135.

  86. Cicero, TJ, Dart, RC, Inciardi, JA, Woody, GE, Schnoll, S., & Munoz, A. (2007). The Development of a Comprehensive Risk-Management Program for Prescription Opioid Analgesics: Researched Abuse, Diversion and Addition-Related Surveillance (RADARS®). Pain. 8: 2.

  87. Cicero, TJ, Inciardi, JA, Adams, EH, Geller, A., Senay, EC, Woody, GE, & Munoz, A. (2005). Rates of Abuse of Tramadol Remain Unchanged with the Introduction of New Branded and Generic Products: Results of an Abuse Monitoring System, 1994-2004. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety. 14: 851-859.

  88. Cifuentes, M., Webster, B., Genevay, S., & Pransky, G. (2010). The Course of Opioid Prescribing for a New Episode of Disabling Low Back Pain: Opioid Features and Dose Escalation. Pain. 151: 22-29.

  89. Coffey, R., Owens, M., Broste, S., Dubois, M., Ferrante, F., Schultz, D., Stearns, L., & Turner, M. (2010). Medical Practice Perspective: Identification and Mitigation of Risk Factors for Mortality Associated with Intrathecal Opioids for Non-Cancer Pain. Pain Medicine. 11: 1001-1009.

  90. Cohen, S., Williams, K., Kurihara, C., Nguyen, C., Shields, C., Kim, P.,...Strassels, S. (2010). Multicenter, Randomized, Comparative Cost-Effectiveness Study Comparing, 0, 1, and 2 Diagnostic Medial Branch (Facet Joint Nerve) Block Treatment Paradigms before Lumbar Facet Radiofrequency Denervation. Anesthesiology. 113: 395-405.

  91. Cohen, S., Hurley, R., Buckenmaier, III, C., Kurihara, C., Morlando, B., & Dragovich, A. (2008). Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study Evaluating Lateral Branch Radiofrequency Denervation for Sacroiliac Joint Pain. Anesthesiology. 109 (2): 279-288.

  92. Collins, S., Sigtermans, M., Dahan, A., Zuurmond, W., & Perez, R. (2010). NMDA Receptor Antagonists for the Treatment of Neuropathic Pain. Pain. Medicine. 11: 1726-1742.

  93. Collins, S., Van Hilten, JJ, Marinus, J., Zuurmond, WW, De Lange, JJ, & Perez, RS. (2008). Development of a Symptoms Questionnaire for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome and Potentially Related Illness: The Trauma Related Neuronal Dysfunction Symptoms Inventory.
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