Robert Baier

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Robert Baier –

A. Personal Statement

Robert Baier is an engineer and biophysicist who helped found the Society For Biomaterials, and was its early Basic Science Prize winner and eventually President, also elected to the American Society for Medical and Biological Engineering and its Vice Presidency. He is especially skilled in bringing safe and effective biofluid-and-tissue-contacting devices to market through the US Food & Drug Administration (FDA). A prime example is the human umbilical cord vein graft (Biograft) fully FDA-approved by Pre-Market Approval (PMA) processes in 1979 and used for over 80,000 patients before being taken off the market in 2009 because Good Tissue Practices legislation (erroneously applied to both parents) escalated umbilical cord tissue costs to unreasonable commercial amounts.
Baier is a developer, with recently deceased P-I Branemark of Sweden, of commercially pure Titanium (cpTi) dental implants, 8,000,000 of which are being placed world-wide each year. Branemark and Baier received joint Honorary Doctorate of Odontological Science degrees from Lund University, Sweden, in 1994 when US manufacture was initiated. Thirty years of trials with delmopinol for biofilm removal, also with Swedish co-workers, led to EU & FDA approvals for the use of this compound as a dental-plaque-detaching mouthrinse. He is also a developer of a superior “eye drops” lubricating solution, SYSTANE™, now selling at $100,000,000 per year, through the NSF-sponsored Industry/University Cooperative Research Center that he has directed since 1988.
Baier RE and Dutton RC. Initial Events in Interactions of Blood with Foreign Surfaces, J Biomed Mater Res, 3:191-206, 1969.

Baier RE and DePalma VA, The Relation of the Internal Surface of Grafts to Thrombosis, Chapter 9 in Management of Occlusive Arterial Disease, W. A. Dale, Editor, Year Book Medical Publishers, Chicago, IL, 1971.

Baier RE, Carter JM, Sorenson SE, Meyer AE, McGown BD, and Kasprzak SA. Radiofrequency Gas Plasma (Glow Discharge) Disinfection of Dental Operative Instruments, Including Handpieces, J. Oral Implantology, XVIII(3):236-242, 1992.

Meyer AE, Baier RE, Chen H, Chowhan M (2006) Tissue-on-Tissue Testing of Dry Eye Formulations for Reduction of Bioadhesion. J Adhesion 82:607-627.

B. Contribution to Science
Very significant was Robert Baier’s Nature paper in 1966 which showed for the first time retention of contractile myosin structure (and actomyosin) at interfaces as a key component of cell motility and organelle features. All prior work had presumed interfacial denaturation and loss of function, unkindly characterized as “another way of frying an egg”! This surface science focus was sharpened in a long Science article introducing Critical Surface Tension as a controlling factor in ALL bioadhesion and –specifically—blood compatibility and biofouling control. This correlation is now known worldwide as the “Baier Curve”, first introduced in 1970 and more modestly called the “Theta Surface” in a Materials Science Journal in 2006. Uniquely recognizing that biological lubrication studies of friction and wear would require tissue-on-tissue data, Baier’s work led to superior “artificial tears” and “dry mouth”-relief products. Concurrent development of silicone-based nontoxic and nonpolluting “easy release” coatings led to products now deployed worldwide on commercial and military vessels, eliminating dependence on prior toxic tin and copper paints. The alternative selection of intrinsically high-energy, free-radical-scavenging TiO2 surfaces led to the widely noted successes of cpTi dental implants.
Baier RE and Zobel CR. Structure in Protein Films: Myosin Monolayers, Nature, 212:351-353, 1966.

Baier RE, Shafrin EG, and Zisman WA. Adhesion: Mechanisms that Assist or Impede It, Science, 162:1360-1368, 1968.

Baier RE (2006) Surface behaviour of biomaterials: The theta surface for biocompatibility. J Mater Sci: Mater Med 17:1057-1062.

Meyer AE, Baier RE, Chen H, Chowhan M (2007) Differential Tissue-on-Tissue Lubrication by Ophthalmic Formulations. J Biomed Mater Res, Part B: Applied Biomaterials 82B:74-88.

Dr. Robert E. Baier

323 Squire Hall

State University of New York at Buffalo

Buffalo, NY 14214-3008

PH: (716) 829-3560

FAX: (716) 835-4872

37 Rosedale Boulevard

Amherst, New York 14226

(716) 832-9864

Education, Degrees, Licenses:

D.Odont., honoris causa, Lund University, Sweden, 1994

Registered Professional Engineer

State of New York License #047547

Date of first licensure: 1971
State of Ohio License #E-033541

Date of first licensure: 1968

Ph.D., State University of New York at Buffalo, 1966 - Biophysics

Thesis: Structures in Films of Contractile Proteins at

Air/Water Interfaces
B.E.S., Cleveland State University, 1962 - Engineering Science [Physics]

based on a 5-year program; first 4 yrs in Chemical Engineering Dept

New York State Regents Diploma in Industrial Chemistry, 1956

H-C Technical High School, Buffalo, NY

2010-pres UB Distinguished Professor, University at Buffalo

2009-pres Professor of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine & Biomedical Sciences,

State University of New York at Buffalo
1998-pres Director, Biomaterials Graduate Program, State University of NY at Buffalo
1996-pres Professor, Department of Oral Diagnostic Sciences, School of Dental Medicine, State University of NY at Buffalo
1991-pres Adjunct Professor, Center for Bioengineering and Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, State University of NY at Buffalo
1972-1996 Professor (Assoc. Prof. 1990-1993, Res. Asst. Prof. 1972-1990), Department of Biomaterials, School of Dental Medicine, State University of NY at Buffalo
1988-pres Executive Director (Co-Director 1988-1992), National Science Foundation Industry/University Cooperative Research Center for Biosurfaces, State University of NY at Buffalo

    1. Director, New York State Center for Advanced Technology, Health-care Instruments and Devices Institute (HIDI), State University of NY at Buffalo

1983-pres Research Professor, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of NY at Buffalo

1985-1995 Adjunct Associate Professor, Empire State College, Western New York Center

    1. Research Associate, Research Institute of the Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, State University of New York at Buffalo

    1. Faculty Associate in the University Seminar on Biomaterials, Columbia University in the City of New York

    1. Adjunct Associate Professor, School of Chemical Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY

    1. National Advisory Board, Biomedical Engineering Program, Clemson University, Clemson, SC

    1. Consultant in Biomaterials, Department of Experimental Pathology, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY

    1. Proctor, Calasanctious School, Buffalo, NY

1972-pres Associate Research Professor (Assistant Research Professor 1972-1990), Department of Molecular and Cellular Biophysics, Roswell Park Division, Graduate School of the State University of NY at Buffalo

    1. Staff Scientist (Principal Physicist 1976-1980, Research Physicist 1968-1976), Advanced Technology Center Arvin/Calspan (formerly Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory of Cornell University), Buffalo, NY

    1. Research Chemist (NAS/NRC Postdoctoral Associate), U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC

    1. Nucleonics Engineer, Electromechanical Research Laboratory, Republic Steel Corporation, Cleveland, OH

    1. Surgical Research Laboratory Technician, Buffalo General Hospital, Buffalo, NY

Cooperative Engineering Employment While Pursuing Bachelor’s Degree (3 to 6 month assignments):

Quality Control, Dunlop Tire and Rubber Corp., Buffalo, NY

Industrial Plant Design, Arthur G. McKee, & Co., Cleveland, OH

Tool and Die Design, Ford Motor Company, Hamburg, NY

Petrochemical Refining, Ashland Oil Company, Tonawanda, NY

Awards and Honors:
National Institutes of Health Pre-Doctoral Traineeship, 1962-1965

National Academy of Sciences – National Research Council, Post-Doctoral Research Associateship, 1966-1968

Union Carbide Chemicals Prize, awarded by American Chemical Society, 1971

Diplomate, American Academy of Environmental Engineers, 1971

Society of the Sigma XI (Cornell Chapter), elected 1972

PaVac Lecturer Award, New York Society for Coatings Technology, 1980

Clemson Award for Basic Research, awarded by Society for Biomaterials, 1983

Distinguished Service Award, Jointly Presented by Society for Applied Spectroscopy and Western New York, American Chemical Society (Analytical Division), 1987

Award for Innovation in Medical Devices (First Price, $50,000 donated by Pfizer Hospital Products Corporation), American Society for Artificial Internal Organs, 1987

Chairman, Gordon Research Conference on Biocompatibility and Biomaterials, Plymouth, NH 1989

President, Society For Biomaterials, 1992/93

Founding Fellow, American Institute for Medical and Biomedical Engineering, elected 1993

Vice President for Public Awareness, American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering, 1994-96

M.G. Buonocore Lecturer, Academy of Operative Dentistry, 1993

Engineer of the Year, Erie-Niagara Chapter, New York State Society of Professional Engineers, 1994

Fellow, Biomaterials Science and Engineering, World Societies For Biomaterials, International Liaison Committee, elected 1994

U.S. Chairman, Implant Data: Record/Report/Review (3-year international conference series), Hyannis, MA, 1994; Melbourne, Australia, 1995; Buffalo, NY, 1996

Engineer of the Year Award, Fenn College of Engineering, Cleveland State University, 2000

Humanitarian Award, Health Care Industries Association of the Niagara Frontier, 2001

Graduate Student Association (Univ. Buffalo) named an award in recognition of Dr. Baier's role as a founding officer of the GSA and as the author of the GSA constitution in the 1960's: "Robert Baier Award for Most Outstanding GSA Club", 2002

Founders Award, Society For Biomaterials, 2002

Keynote Speaker, Canadian Society for Biomaterials, Annual Meeting, 2005

Chandra P. Sharma Award for 2005, Society for Biomaterials and Artificial Organs (India)

Honorary Member, Omicron Kappa Upsilon National Dental Honor Society, Lambda Lambda

Chapter, 2010
Editorial Boards and Specialty Panels:
1977-pres Editorial Board, Journal of Biomedical Materials Research (published by J. Wiley & Sons, NY)
1984-1994 Editorial Board, Annals of Biomedical Engineering, Section on Biomaterials, Biomechanics and Rehabilitation Engineering (published by Pergamon Press, Inc., Elmsford, NY)

    1. Editorial Board, Biofouling (Published by Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, London)

1986-pres Editorial Board, Trends in Artificial Organs and Biomaterials (published by the India Society for Artificial Organs and Biomaterials, Trivandrum)

1988-pres Editorial Board, Journal of Oral Implantology (published by American Academy of Implant Dentistry)
1988-2005 Editorial Consulting Staff, The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants (published by Quintessence Publishing Co., Inc., Illinois)

    1. Editorial Board, Journal of Dental Research (published by the American Association for Dental Research)

    1. Editorial Board, ASAIO Transactions, Official Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs (published by J.B. Lippincott Company, Hagerstown, MD)

    1. International Advisory Board, Journal of Bioengineering

1968-pres Technical Merit Reviewer, Grants and Contracts, for National Institutes of Health; Canadian Department of Health; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; U.S. Department of Energy; National Science Foundation; New York State Department of Health; American Institute of Biological Sciences; and others

    1. Working Group on Physicochemical Characterization of Biomaterials, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, leading to publication of “Guidelines for Physico-Chemical Characterization of Biomaterials”, NIH Publication No. 80-2186, September 1980

  1. Expert Panel, National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference, “Clinical Applications of Biomaterials”

1984 Faculty, NATO Advanced Study Institute, Application of Biomaterials to Orthopedic Prostheses, Marbella, Spain

1985 Plenary Speaker at Founding Meeting of the India Society for Artificial Organs and Biomaterials, Trivandrum, India
1988 Expert Panel, NIH Consensus Development Conference on “Dental Implants”

  1. Expert Panel, Whitaker Foundation Bioengineering Conference

  1. Expert Panel, DHHS Breast Implant Task Force

  1. Panel, Marine Biotechnology in the North East Region, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Sea Grant College Program, Cambridge, MA

1993-1998 Biomaterials Steering Committee, Healthcare Industry Manufacturers Association

  1. Faculty, NATO Advanced Study Institute, Materials Science and Implant Orthopedic Surgery, Chania, Crete, Greece

  1. U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) Biotechnology Assessment Committee

    1. Jury, Science for Art Prize, Sponsored by Moet Hennessy/Louis Vuitton, Paris

1999-2003 International Advisory Committee for Advanced Oxidative Technologies and Titanium Dioxide Photocatalytic Oxidation Symposia

2000 Expert Panel, NIH Technology Assessment Conference on Implant


2000-pres Editorial Board, The Journal of Adhesion (published by Gordon and

Breach Science Publishers, London)

2001 appointed Member, National Academy of Sciences, National Research

Council Committee on Marine Biotechnology: Development of Marine

Natural Products

  1. appointed Member, Biotechnology Integrated Process Team, U.S. Army

2009 AAMI Blood/Gas Exchange Device Committee, U.S. Sub-TAG for ISO/TC 150/SC2/WG 4, Blood/gas Exchangers, Cardiovascular implants and extracorporeal systems—Blood-contact coatings for extracorporeal perfusion systems

Main Instructor or Course Designer

BMA-501 Biomaterials Sci. of Cell/Surface Phenomena - Lecture [3 credit hours]

(crosslisted as MAE 607 in Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering)

(crosslisted as BPH 501 in Physiology & Biophysics)

(crosslisted as ODS 501 in Oral Diagnostic Sciences)
BMA-502 Basic Aspects of Biomaterials Testing - Laboratory [3 credit hours]
BMA-513 Polymeric Biomaterials - Lecture [3 credit hours]

(crosslisted as MAE 608 in Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering)

BMA-520 Evaluation of Biomedical Materials - Lecture/Design [4 credit hours]

(crosslisted as MAE 514 in Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering)

BMA-651 Research in Biocompatibility
BMA-653 Thesis Guidance
BPH 499BAI Independent Study (Interfacial Biophysics Problems)
MAE 499 Independent Study (Engineers for a Sustainable World)
MAE 501 Individual Study (Graduate Dissertation Preparation)
ODS-603/604 Medical Biophysics - Lecture [3 credit hours]

(crosslisted as BPH 603/604 in Physiology & Biophysics)

UGC-302BAI Microworld: Medical Device Controversies - Lecture [3 credit hours]
Applied Surface Chemistry (Course #5750 and Course IHE 672), 1972-1974

Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (School of Chemical Engineering)

PGY 502D Neurophysiology, Demonstration of “Osseoperception”
RDN 827 Implant Dentistry (Biomaterials, Implants, Osseointegration)
Continuing Education
28July-01 August 2014, Instructor, Advanced Surgical and Dental Implant Course, Continuing Dental Education, State University of New York at Buffalo
29/07/2013-02/08/2013 Faculty, Advanced Surgical Implant Training Program, School of Dental Medicine, Continuing Dental Education, State University of New York at Buffalo
19/09/2012 Where Dentistry Leads Medicine: Osseointegrating Implants and Busting Infectious Biofilms (Robert E. Baier, PhD, PE) School of Dental Medicine, UB Distance Learning Lecture Series

01/11/2012 730 01/11 Updates from U of Manitoba International Centre 1.0

05/25/2011 250 Etiology and Management of Tooth Wear 1.0
07/01/2010 015 07/01/10 Ontology & Oral Pathology 1.0
06/10/2010 182 06/10/10 What is New in TMD? 1.0

05/20/2010 164 05/20/10 The Role of Inflammation & HIV in head & Neck

Cancers 1.0

03/25/2010 148 03/252010 Presence of Methicillin Resistant

Staphylococcus Aureus within the Environment at SDM 1.0
2009/10/07 015 Cafe: New Approaches to Dry Mouth 3.0 [Baier: Instructor]
03/05/2009 017 Who Cares About Research 3.0

06/17/2008 070 Update on Endodontics 1.0

01/30/2008 180 Digital Design & Fabrication of Occlusal Splints 1.0

06/15/2007 166 Infection Control 2.0

06/13/2007 143 Guidelines for Antibiotic Prophylaxis & N Saids 1.0

06/07/2006 Pharmacotherapy for Chronic Pain 1.0

03/02/2006 UB Faculty-Student Research Day 3.0

02/22/2006 Mgt of the Anticoagulated Patient-Inservice 1.0

12/08/2005 Forensic Response To Hurricane Katrina-inservice 1.0

04/20/2005 CE Caffe..Aspects of Glass Ceramics [Baier: Instructor]

02/03/2005 Characterization of Autoimmune Response 1.0

10/15/2004 ODS 10th Anniversity Celebration 5.0

06/17/2004 Pre-Clinical Simulation-in Service

01/05/2004 Oral Diagnostic Sciences Seminar Series

10/11/2003 Vintage & Vineyards-Biomaterials Crossover [Baier: Instructor]

10/11/2003 BNDM Main Registration 3.0

06/17/2003 In-Service 2.0

02/20/2003 UB SDM Student Research Day

10/22/2002 CE Caffe Biomaterials in the Dental Office

10/22/2002 BNDM Main-Buffalo 3.0

09/26/2002 Quality Problem in US Healthcare System 1.0

12/12/2001 Faculty Seminar Series-Oral Surgery

10/04/2001 BNDM 2001

01/27/2000 Neuroscience Expands Teachers Tap Tech 1.0

01/27/2000 Head & Neck Imaging 1.0
01/27/2000 Forensic Pathology 1.0

01/21/1999 Diagnosis of Odontogenic Pain 1.0

04/29/1998 Implant Symposium 7.0
prepared by

Annamarie Phalen, Associate Director, University at Buffalo Continuing

Dental Education

327 Squire Hall, Buffalo, NY 14214

(716) 829-2320

Earlier Continuing Education (Instructor)
"Surface Properties Influencing Adhesion", in Course No. IV, Adhesion, Polymer Conference Series, College of Engineering, The University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, June 1972
"Adhesion in Biological Systems", Short Course #266, Adhesion Principles and Applications, School of Engineering and Applied Science, Continuing Engineering Education Program, The George Washington University, Washington, DC, March 1975; January 1976; February 1977
"Physico-chemical and Morphological Surface Characterization of the Endothelial Lining of Blood Vessels and Vascular Prostheses", in course BIOMED218, Theory and Technology of Artificial Organs, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, April 1977; April 1979
"Physical Chemistry of the Vascular Interface: Composition, Texture and Adhesive Quality", First Vascular Graft Symposium, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, 1977
"Comparative Biophysical Properties of the Flow Surfaces of Contemporary Vascular Grafts", Course on Graft Materials in Vascular Surgery, College of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New York, 1978
"Biophysics of the Biograft", Category I Accreditation Conference, Society for Vascular Surgery, Buffalo, New York 1979
"Physical Chemistry of Blood-Surface Interface", Multidisciplinary Symposium on Biologic and Synthetic Vascular Prostheses, Departments of Surgery and Postgraduate Medicine and Health Professions Education, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1982
"Evaluation of Biomaterials", in Course on Principles of Safety Evaluation for Biomedical Devices, Center for Professional Advancement, East Brunswick, New Jersey, 1982-1983
"Vascular Graft Update: Safety and Performance", Cleveland Clinic Education Foundation, ASTM/FDA Symposium, Williamsburg, Virginia 1984
"Surface Thermodynamics of Dental Materials", Continuing Education Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, School of Dentistry, 1987
"Implant Surface Preparation", Harvard Seminars in Implant Dentistry, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, 1987, 1988
"Application of Surface Chemistry in Implantology", Clinic of the American Academy of Implant Dentistry, Washington, D.C., 1988
"The Creation of New Devices by Unique Treatment of Existing Biomaterials", Frost & Sullivan Conference on Biomaterials and Medical Products, Chicago, 1988
"Adhesion in the Intraoral Environment", in Enamel-Dentin-Pulp-Bone-Periodontal Tissue Interactions with Dental Materials, Sponsored by Academy of Dental Materials at the American Dental Association, Chicago, IL, 1990
"Characterization of Implant-Tissue Interfaces With or Without Surface Treatments," Continuing Education on Implantable Materials: Development, Utilization, and Critical Analysis; School of Dentistry, The University of Michigan, 1991
"Influence of Surface and Fluid Conditions on Thrombus Generation," The American Academy of Cardiovascular Perfusion, Seminar on Cardiovascular Perfusion, 1992
"Surface Biophysics and Biochemistry of Dental Implants," Postdoctoral Course on Fundamentals of Implant Dentistry, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, 1992, 1993
"Implants and Biosurfaces," Argentine Society for Periodontology, 22nd Annual Meeting, Buenos Aires, Argentina, 1992
"Surface Characterization and Correlation with Biological Responses of Biomaterials," short course presented at Centre for Biomedical Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia, 1992
"The Surface Preparation of Implants," International Congress on Recent Advances in Oral, Maxillofacial, and Orthopaedic Prostheses, Venice, Italy, 1993
"Cellular Responses to Implant Surfaces," British Society for Dental Research, Implantology Research Group, London, England, 1993
"Nature's Bioadhesives," British Postgraduate Medical Federation, Institute of Dental Surgery, Eastman Dental Hospital, London, England, 1993
"Implant Materials: Selection and Surface Preparation," Implant Dentistry Training Program, University of Miami, Miami, FL, 1995
Continuing Dental Education, Evening Lecture Series, “Biomaterials:Bad for Blood, Good for Bone—New Selection Criteria Eliminate the Need for Animal Testing”, October 15, 2008, University at Buffalo
Continuing Dental Education, Evening Lecture Series, “Artificial Ears, Tears, Teeth and Saliva—new approaches to overcoming ‘dry mouth’”, October 7, 2009, University at Buffalo

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