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The Skull



Where does the frontal bone meet the parietal bones

At the coronal suture

Where do the 2 parietal bones meet

At the sagittal suture

Where do the parietal bones meet the occipital bone

At the lamboid suture

What does the optic canal (optic foramen) transmit

Optic nerve

Ophthalmic artery

What is the most important structure transmitted by the inferior orbital fissure

Maxillary nerve – CNV2, continues as the infra-orbital nerve

What fossa does the superior orbital fissure communicate with

Middle cranial fossa

What does the superior orbital fissure transmit

Oculomotor nerve - CNIII

Trochlear nerve – CNIV

Abducent nerve – CNVI

Terminal branches of ophthalmic nerve

Ophthalmic veins

What does the foramen ovale transmit

Mandibular division of trigeminal nerve

What is the relation of the foramen spinosum to the foramen ovale

Foramen spinosum is posterior and slightly lateral to foramen ovale

What does the foramen spinosum transmit

Middle menigeal artery to middle cranial fossa

What does the foramen rotundum conduct

Maxillary nerve into pterygopalatine fossa

What does the foramen lacerum transmit

Internal carotid artery

What does the foramen magnum transmit

Vertebral arteries

Medulla oblongata as it becomes continuous with spinal cord

What does the jugular foramen transmit

Sigmoid sinus which is continuous below with IJV

Accessory nerve – CNXI

Vagus nerve – CNX

Glossopharyngeal nerve – CNIX

What does the hypoglossal canal transmit

Hypoglossal nerve - CNXII

What does the internal acoustic meatus transmit

Vestibulocochlear nerve - CNVIII

Motor & sensory roots of facial nerve

Labyrinthine vessels

What does the facial canal transmit

Facial nerve through petrous temporal bone to stylomastoid foramen

What does the stylomastoid foramen transmit

Facial nerve

Stylomastoid artery

What is the main foramina in the anterior cranial fossa

Cribriform plate

What are the foramina in the middle cranial fossa that communicate with the orbit

Superior orbital fissure

Optic canal

What is lateral to the foramen rotundum

Foramen ovale

What is posterior to the foramen ovale

Foramen spinosum

What opens into the side wall of the foramen lacerum

Carotid canal – the pathway for the internal carotid artery

What bone is the internal acoustic meatus in

Petrous part of the temporal bone

What nerves enter the internal acoustic meatus

Vestibulocochlear nerve

Facial nerve

Where are the intra-cranial venous sinuses found

Between the layers of dura

Where does the middle meningeal artery enter the skull

Foramen spinosum

What sinuses pass laterally from the internal occipital protuberance

Transverse sinuses

What is the sella turcica

A deep depression in the body of the sphenoid bone that contains the pituitary gland

Where is the jugular foramen on the base of the skull in relation to the occipital condyles

Jugular foramen is lateral to occipital condyles

What is anterior to the jugular foramen

The carotid canal

What is lateral to the jugular foramen, lying between the styloid and mastoid process

The stylomastoid foramen through which the facial nerve enters the face

What muscle does the external occipital protuberance give rise to


What else does the external occipital protuberance give rise to

Ligamentum nuchae

What muscles attach to the mastoid process


Splenius capitus

Longissimus capitus

How do bones of the skull grow

Intramembranous of endochondral ossification

How do flat bones of the vault of the cranium & facial skeleton develop

Intramembranous ossification

How do bones of the base of the skull and auditory ossicals develop

Endochondral ossification

What forms the zygomatic arch

Union of temporal process of zygomatic bone with the zygomatic process of the temporal bone

What are fibrous joints united by

Fibrous tissue

What is a syndesmosis

Type of fibrous joint where the bones are united with a sheet of fibrous tissue, this type of joint is particularly movable

Where are the 2 synovial joints of the skull

Between mandible & temporal bone

Between the 3 ear ossicals within the middle ear

What bones make up the cranium


Parietal (2)


Temporal (2)



Which bones contain sinuses





Where are the air sacs in the skull

Mastoid processes

What type of joint is the atlanto-occipital joint

Synovial ellipsoid joint

What movements can occur at the atlanto-occipital joint



Lateral flexion

What movement occurs at the joint between the axis and atlas


What forms the median ligament of the neck on the posterior aspect

Supraspinous ligament incorporated into ligamenum nuchae

What is the ligamentum nuchae attached to on the skull

Ecternla occipital protruberance

Where do the dermatomes in the face arise from

Each of the 3 divisions of the trigeminal nerve

What innervates the skin posterior to the external ear

Cervical nerves C2-C3

Which cervical nerves innervate the skin of the neck


Which nerves contribute to the brachial plexus

Anterior primary rami of C5-T1

What supplies the skin at the back of the neck & scalp

Branches of dorsal rami C2-C5

Where do the muscles of facial expression lie

Within the superficial fascia of the face

Which muscle of facial expression surrounds the orbit

Orbicularis oculi

Which muscle of facial expression surrounds the mouth

Orbicularis oris

What does Buccinator form

The cheek

What is the important role of Buccinator

Compresing cheeks & lips against teeth during mastication

What is the effect of platysma on facial expression

Pulls down the lower lip and the edge of the mouth

Which cranial nerve divides in the parotid gland

Facial nerve

What are the 5 layers of the scalp

Skin – mostly with hair

Subcutaneous connective tissue which contains numerous arterial branches

The epicranial aponeurosis – a thin tendinous sheath that connects the parts of the occipitofrontalis muscle

Layer of loose fatty connective tissue

Pericranium or periosteum covering outer surface of bones

What is the action of contraction of the frontal belly of occipitofrontalis

Raising the eyebrows

What are all bellies of the occipitofrontalis supplied by

Facial nerve

What is the main provider of sensory innervation to the anterior part of the scalp

Ophthalmic division of trigeminal nerve

How does autonomic (sympathetic) innervation reach the scalp

In the blood vessels

What forms the arterial blood supply for the scalp

Branches from external and internal carotid arteries form an anastomotic network

What generally supplies the lateral & posterior aspect of the scalp

External carotid artery

What supplies the forehead area

Internal carotid artery via the ophthalmic artery

What supplies the periosteum of skull bones deep to the scalp

Arterial branches on inside of skull – including middle meningeal artery

What happens to the veins that drain the forehead

Come together at medial side of orbit to form facial vein – to IJV

Where do veins draining the lateral side of the scalp drain to

External jugular vein in neck

Where do veins from the posterior scalp drain to

Vertebral veins located around the spinal cord in the spinal column

What is the diploe of the skul

Spongy bone layer between inner and outer compact bone layers of skull

What are emissary veins of the skull

Veins with no valves that are continuous with blood sinuses in the diploe and inside the skull and with veins of the scalp

What are the 3 paired salivary glands

Parotid glands

Sublingual glands

Submandibular glands

What does the parotid gland produce

Enzyme rich secretions

Where does the parotid duct open in the mouth

Opposite upper 2nd molar tooth

What is the nerve supply to the parotid gland

Parasympathetic secretomotor fibres from glossopharyngeal nerve

What is the arterial supply of the parotid gland

Directly from external carotid artery

What is the venous drainage of the parotid gland

To the retromandibular vein which drains to the external jugular vein

What is the lymphatic drainage of the parotid gland

To parotid lymph nodes within the gland which then drain to deep cervical lymph nodes

What are the 3 structures that pass through the parotid gland

Facial nerve

Retromandibular vein

External carotid artery

What forms the retromandibular vein

Superficial temporal vein and maxillary vein which enter parotid gland superiorly

What happens to the external carotid artery within the parotid gland

Divides to give superficial temporal artery and maxillary artery

Describe the secretion for the sublingual gland

Serous and mucous

Oral cavity

What lines the oral cavity and tongue

Stratified squamous non-keritinising epithelium

What are the cheeks lined with

Stratified squamous non-keritinising epithelium

What forms the cheek

Buccinator muscle

What are the gums (gingivae) composed of

Dense connective tissue covered with mucous membrane

What provides the sensory innervation for the gums of the upper jaw

Maxillary division of trigeminal nerve

What provides the sensory innervation for the gums of the lower jaw

Mandibular division of trigeminal nerve

How do the teeth receive sensory innervation

Maxillary division of trigeminal nerve for teeth of upper jaw, mandibular division of trigeminal nerve for teeth of lower jaw

What muscle protrudes the tongue

Both genioglossus acting together

What muscle depresses the tongue


What muscles pulls the tongue backwards

Styloglossus and platoglossus

What connects the tongue to the floor of the mouth


What are the 3 types of papillae

Filiform papillae – across superior surface of anterior 2/3 of tongue

Fungiform papillae – across lateral margins and tip of tongue

Vallate papillae – large structures located in a row anterior to sulcus terminalis

Where are the taste buds

Within the walls of the gutters surrounding vallate papillae

What provides general sensation to the anterior 2/3rds of the tongue

Lingual nerve – a branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve

What provides taste sensation to the anterior 2/3rds of the tongue

Facial nerve (chorda tympani branch)

What provides general and special sensory innervation to posterior 1/3 of tongue

Glossopharyngeal nerve

Where does the tongue receive blood from

Branches of external carotid artery (lingual, facial, ascending phraryngeal)

Where does venous blood from the tongue drain to

Internal jugular vein

What joint do the muscles of mastication act on

Temperomandibular joint

What are the muscles of mastication



Lateral ptyergoid

Medial pterygoid

What are the muscular contents of the infratemporal fossa

Temporalis muscle

Lateral & medial pterygoid muscle

What artery passes through the infratemporal fossa, what happens as it passes

The maxillary artery passes through and gives rise to the middle meningeal artery

How does the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve enter the infratemporal fossa

Through the foramen ovale

What forms the hard palate

Palatine process of maxilla

Flat palates of palatine bone

What forms the floor of the nasal cavity

Hard palate

What are the nerve roots of the cervical nerve plexus

Ventral rami of C1-C4

Describe the dermatome of C2

Behind ear to midline below chin

Describe the dermatome of C3

Anterolateral part of midneck

What supplies the skin over the anterior part of the neck down to the sternal angle

Supraclavicular nerves (C3, C4)

What is the anterior cerebral artery a branch of

Internal carotid artery

What is the middle cerebral artery a branch of

Internal carotid artery

What is the posterior cerebral artery a branch of

Basilar artery

Where does the thalamus receive blood from

Posterior cerebral (and others)

What does the hypothalamus receive blood from

Posterior and anterior cerebral

Where does the midbrain receive its arterial supply from

Posterior cerebral artery

What supplies blood to the medulla

Direct branches from vertebral arteries

What supplies blood to the pons and cerebellum

Branches from the basilar arteries

Where does the dura receive blood from

Meningeal branches of internal carotid artery (front of brain) and vertebral arteries (back of brain)

What is the middle meningeal artery a branch of

Maxillary artery

What does the ophthalmic artery arise form

Direct branch of internal carotid

Where is the choroids plexus located

3rd and 4th ventricles

Where is the carotid sinus

Swelling on terminal part of common carotid artery

What is the carotid sinus

Pressure receptor which monitors blood flow to the head

What do sensory nerves from the carotid sinus run in

Glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves

Where is the carotid body

Posterior wall of terminal part of common carotid artery

What is the carotid body

A chemoreceptor – sensitive to low oxygen levels

What is the main role of the pia mater

Carry branches of main blood vessels as they are distributed over the brain

What are the principle dural folds, what do they separate

Tentorium cerebelli – cerebellum from cerebral hemispheres

Falx cerebri – 2 cerebral hemispheres

Falx cerebelli – 2 halves of cerebellum

What makes the veins of the brain very thin walled

They have no tunica media in their walls

What is a feature of the veins of the brain

They have no valves

What forms the great cerebral vein

Internal cerebral vein of each cerebral hemisphere

What does the great vein drain into

Straight sinus

Where is the superior sagittal sinus

In the superior margin of the falx cerebri

Where is the inferior sagittal sinus

In the inferior margin of the falx cerebri

What forms the straight sinus

The joining of the inferior sagittal sinus and the great vein

What sinus enters the jugular foramen

Sigmoid sinus

Where are the cavernous sinuses

On either side of the body of the sphenoid bone

What structures are present in the (wall of the) carotid sinus

Internal carotid artery

Occulomotor, trochlear and abducent nerves

Ophthalmic and maxillary divisions of trigeminal nerve

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