Page 3 II. LOGISTICAL PEARLS REGARDING TARGETED TEMPERATURE MANAGEMENT
Page 4 III. PURPOSE
Page 4 IV. BACKGROUND
Page 5 V. PHYSIOLOGY OF HYPOTHERMIA
Page 6 VI. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR POST-CARDIAC ARREST CARE PATHWAY
Page 6 VII. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR POST-CARDIAC ARREST TARGETED TEMPERATURE MANAGEMENT
Page 6 VIII. RELATIVE CONTRAINDICATIONS FOR TARGETED TEMPERATURE MANAGEMENT
Page 7 IX. POST-CARDIAC ARREST CARE FLOW CHART
Pages 8-13 X. POST-CARDIAC ARREST CARE PATHWAY
Page 14 XI. NEUROLOGIC PROGNOSIS
Page 15 XII. REFERENCES
I. EQUIPMENT LIST All equipment is available in ED, MICU & CCU.
If protocol will be initiated in an ICU, have all equipment available and assembled at bedside before transfer to unit.
1. Arterial line kits (both radial and femoral).
2. PreSep central venous oximetry catheter (Edwards Lifesciences).
3. Two one liter bags of cold 0.9% saline (stored in ED and ICU refrigerators).
4. Gaymar Medi-Therm III 7900 external cooling system (available in ED and ICU):
a. Gaymar Rapr-Round cooling pads: one torso and two thigh cooling pads, sized appropriately for patient.
b. Weight of Gaymar wraps when filled:
1. Large Torso: 3.0 lbs
2. Medium/Small Torso: 2.5 lbs
3. Each Leg: 2.0 lbs
5. Temperature probe foley catheter with appropriate adapter for cooling device.
Bard Temperature Sensing Foley 400 Series (product #90911616).
(Gaymar Medi-Therm III requires 1/8 inch to 1/4 inch converter)
6. Neuromuscular blockade equipment (not required for ED):
a. Peripheral nerve stimulator (See TTM specific TOF policy)
b. BIS monitor and sensor
7. Ensure fluid warmer is available in case need arises after cooling.
II. LOGISTICAL PEARLS REGARDING THERAPEUTIC HYPOTHERMIA
1. Ensure appropriate supervisory staff is notified:
A: Resuscitation Consult Team 267-253-9035
*If you can not reach the Resuscitation Consult Team consider notifying any of following:
Dave Gaieski MD (ED) pagers--215-312-4560 (personal), 215-265-2464 (ED Resuscitation pager; contacts ED resuscitation resident also), or cell--302-588-7083
Benjamin Abella MD, MPhil (ED) 215-279-3452
Marion Leary, RN, MSN (ED) 215-776-4235
Gail Delfin, RN, MSN, CCRN, CNS (ED) 610-207-8519
Barry Fuchs MD (MICU) pager 215-314-2920 or cell 215-460-2680
2. Medical patients most appropriate for MICU or CCU should be admitted to either of those units if possible, rather than to a ready-bed on an alternative unit.
Surgical patients should be admitted to the appropriate SICU (Rh5), NTSICU or CTSICU.
3. ED personnel should continue to implement TARGETED TEMPERATURE MANAGEMENT
protocol until ICU bed is available and all equipment is ready for patient.
4. Place arterial line while initiating cooling (may be very difficult to place once the patient is at target temperature).
5. Paralyze patient (after sedation), before initiating cooling. Maintain paralysis until after re-warming is complete (36C). Use TTM TOF protocol for titration.
If using the Blue-faced Gaymar Medi-Therm III:
Set device to Automatic mode, Rapid with target temp 33C. (Goal is target temp within 4 hours.)
Rewarming is begun 24 hours after target temperature is reached. Set in Automatic mode, moderate, with target temperature of 37°C (this will rewarm patient @ 0.33°C/hr, [1°C/3hrs]). Maintain sedation and paralysis until temperature reaches 36C to avoid shivering and rapid rewarming.
If using the Gray-faced Gaymar III:
Set device to Automatic mode, Rapid cooling with set point of 34ºC. Once the patient reaches 34ºC set to Gradual mode at 33ºC.
Rewarming is begun 24 hours after target temperature is reached. Set in Manual mode and manually increase the blanket temperature 0.5ºC every 2 hours until the patient temperature reaches 36ºC.
Notify epilepsy fellow ASAP, by paging 215-404-6771, to arrange for continuous EEG monitoring within 6 hrs and no later than 12 hrs after onset of cooling (EEG techs are not available between midnight and 7:30 am). EEG is monitored for 24 hours after the patient has reached normothermia. EEG should not be discontinued until the patient is re-warmed and paralytics discontinued.
For issues or concerns, or if you cannot get a hold of the EEG fellow, please page the Neurology on call resident.
See EEG “quick sheet” in the appendices. This is for educational purposes only.
Note: Please document in the Comment section of Sunrise: time/date TTM initiated, target temperature reached, rewarming initiated, normothermia reached. If TTM is initiated in the Emergency Department please document time/date TH was initiated in the ED during RN report.
III. PURPOSE: To provide a guideline to optimize the care of comatose cardiac arrest survivors.
A. TARGETED TEMPERATURE MANAGEMENT (TTM)
Brain temperature during the first 24 hours after resuscitation from cardiac arrest has a significant effect on survival and neurological recovery.
Fever (T°max) during the first 48 hours is associated with a decreased chance of good neurological recovery (OR 2.26 [1.24, 4.12] for each 1°C over 37°C)1. Two RCTs provided the best evidence to support the use of TH in the appropriate comatose survivors of cardiac arrest. In the first, c
The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) has issued the following recommendations (Nolan et al., Circulation 2003;108;118-121)
Unconscious adult patients with spontaneous circulation after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest should be cooled to 32 to 34 °C for 12 to 24 hours when the initial rhythm was ventricular fibrillation
Such cooling may also be beneficial for other rhythms or in-hospital cardiac arrest
ooling to 32-34°C for 24 hours was associated with a decreased mortality (OR 0.74 [0.58, 0.95]) and increased likelihood of good neurological recovery (OR 1.40 [1.08,1.81])2. In the second study, cooling to 32-34°C for 12 hours increased the likelihood of good neurological recovery (OR 2.65 [1.02, 6.88])3.
B. Early Coronary Revascularization
Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients have a high incidence of acute coronary syndrome and early coronary revascularization may improve survival (OR 5.2 [1.1, 24.5])4.
C. Early Goal-Directed Therapy
Post-resuscitation syndrome has many pathophysiological features in common with acute sepsis5. Early goal-directed therapy has been demonstrated to decrease in-hospital mortality of patients suffering from severe sepsis with an elevated lactate or septic shock (OR 0.58 [0.38-0.87])6. A similar approach may have the same beneficial effects in post-resuscitation syndrome.
D. Glycemic Control
Avoiding hyper- and hypo-glycemia (goal 110-150) is a reasonable goal during post-arrest resuscitation and TTM. This should be accomplished using ICU specific insulin protocols. 7, 8.
E. Management of Adrenal Insufficiency
Acute adrenal insufficiency is a well-documented component of post-resuscitation syndrome. In patients with fluid and vasopressor refractory septic shock, treatment with “stress dose” corticosteroids significantly reduces mortality (OR 0.67 [0.47-0.95])9. Thus, in post-cardiac arrest patients with hemodynamic instability associated with vasodilation, diagnosis and treatment of acute adrenal insufficiency should be considered.
The neurologic prognosis of the comatose cardiac arrest survivor cannot be reliably predicted until at least 72 hours after resuscitation10. In addition, the reliability of the routinely utilized neurologic prognostic parameters has not been evaluated in patients treated with TTH, Therefore DNAR status should not be established and care should not be withdrawn based on neurologic prognosis before 72 hours after rewarming.
Hypothermia activates the sympathetic nervous system causing vasoconstriction and shivering. Shivering increases O2 consumption by 40-100% and may negate the benefits of induced hypothermia. Thus, shivering must be prevented during hypothermia and is best accomplished by initiating neuromuscular paralysis prior to induction of hypothermia. If paralysis is begun well after hypothermia has been initiated it can result in a precipitous drop in core body temperature. Elderly patients will cool more quickly than younger or obese patients.
Hypothermia shifts the oxyhemoglobin curve to the left, which may result in decreased O2 delivery. However, the metabolic rate is also lowered, decreasing O2 consumption/CO2 production, cardiac output and cerebral blood flow. Ventilator settings may need to be adjusted due to decreased CO2 production..
Hypothermia initially causes sinus tachycardia, then bradycardia. With temperature <30ºC there is an increased risk for arrhythmias. With temperature <28ºC there is an increased risk for ventricular fibrillation. The severely hypothermic myocardium (<30°C) is less responsive to defibrillation and medications. Therefore it is extremely important to keep temperature >30ºC.
Hypothermia can induce an in vivo coagulopathy which is not detectable by laboratory testing (as blood is warmed during testing).
Hypothermia-induced diuresis is to be expected and should be treated aggressively with fluid and electrolyte repletion. Magnesium, phosphorus and potassium should be monitored closely and maintained in the normal range (because it will rebound to a higher value during rewarming).
Decreased insulin secretion and decreased insulin sensitivity leads to hyperglycemia, which should be treated.
Re-warming too rapidly can cause vasodilation, hypotension, and rapid electrolyte shifts.
Monitor for hypoglycemia prior to rewarming. Monitor hypoglycemia during the rewarming phase.
POTENTIAL LABORATORY ABNORMALITIES ASSOCIATED WITH HYPOTHERMIA:
6. Head CT: To rule out intracranial hemorrhage, or other cause for coma, as deemed medically necessary
7. SSEP: When clinically appropriate, consider ordering on day 3 (72 hours-post-ROSC). Place order for Somatosensory Evoked Potential in Sunrise with a note that states “post-cardiac arrest” or for questions call the lab at 215-662-2661.
a. Cardiology for:
hemodynamic instability, indeterminate ECG or suspected Non-STEMI, or arrhythmia (use Cardiology Consult pager)
Acute STEMI (Use STEMI Activation Cell Phone)
Note: If cardiac catheterization is indicated, TTM should not be delayed.
Echocardiogram: To r/o regional wall motion abnormality and severe contractile dysfunction. EF used for selection of vasoactive drugs.
-Consider early Echo if requested by Cardiology Consult, or in the case of any of the following:
-Ongoing hypotension with possible cardiac etiology
b. Maternal Fetal Medicine if +B-HCG (while initiating TTM).
c. Nutrition support on day 3.
e. EEG fellow 215-404-6771. If you cannot get a hold of the EEG fellow, please page the Neurology resident on-call.
f. Resuscitation team 267-253-9035.
B. Establish Appropriate Monitoring Immediately:
a. ECG after initial stabilization and repeat q 8 hours x 2 and prn to r/o acute coronary syndrome.
b. Arterial-line for continuous arterial blood pressure monitoring (essential prior to initiating hypothermia). Attempt radial artery x 1 and then proceed to femoral artery if necessary.
c. Temperature monitoring Foley (Bard Temperature Sensing Foley 400 Series - product #90911616 – no minimum urine output required for use) for continuous urine output and temperature monitoring. If bladder monitoring is not an option or temperature is inaccurate consider an alternative site for temperature measurement such as an esophageal temperature probe. NOTE: If bladder pressure being monitored, it is recommended that an esophageal probe be used for temperature monitoring.
d. PreSep catheter or other CVC (MAC) for CVP & Scv02 (RIJ or SCV site preferred) though don't delay initiation of hypothermia to perform this.
3. Temperature: Foley with temperature probe. (Bard Temperature Sensing Foley 400 Series - product #90911616 – no minimum urine output required for use) for continuous urine output and temperature monitoring. If bladder monitoring is not an option or temperature is inaccurate consider an alternative site for temperature measurement such as an esophageal temperature probe.
a. Continuous EEG monitoring beginning ASAP while paralyzed. EEG must be initiated within 6-12 hours of TTM. EEG should not be discontinued until the patient is re-warmed and paralytics discontinued.
-For issues or concerns, or if you cannot get a hold of the EEG fellow, please page the Neurology on call resident.
- See EEG “quick sheet” in the appendices. This is for educational purposes only.
b. Once in ICU, consider using BIS monitor to titrate sedation (with goal of 40-60).
c. Neuro checks q 2 hrs (while paralyzed follow pupils and titrate paralysis per NMB Nursing Policy).
d. Neuroprognostication should not take place until at least 72 hours after re-warming.
e. When clinically appropriate, consider SSEP performed on day 3 (72 hours post-ROSC) or later. Place order for Somatosensory Evoked Potential in Sunrise with a note that states “post-cardiac arrest” or for questions call the lab at 215-662-2661.
5. Additional monitoring and follow-up studies:
a. If net fluid balance is > 5 liters in 24 hrs, monitor intrabdominal pressure (IAP) via Foley catheter after cooling device has been discontinued (call medical resident if IAP is 20 mmHg).
b. Consider repeat echocardiogram 24 hours after ROSC or as clinically indicated.
c. Repeat CXR in AM and after 72 hours to rule out aspiration pneumonia.
C. Initiate Appropriate Interventions
NOTE: Interventions should be carried out simultaneously when appropriate and feasible
1. Post-Cardiac Arrest Early Goal-Directed Therapy (See appendix or laminated algorithm)
a. Initial Fluid Infusion: Use NSS for first two liters (use 4°C NSS if initiating TTM) of IVF then change to LR unless hyperkalemia or hepatic insufficiency. If Acute Coronary Syndrome suspected first transfuse blood to Hgb ≥10. Change IVF back to NSS immediately prior to rewarming (to avoid rebound hyperkalemia).
b. IVF Resuscitation and CVP goals: Titrate IVF to ensure volume repletion using CVP as a guide. A minimum CVP ≥ 8 mm Hg is a reasonable target goal in most patients. Continue fluid boluses to reach MAP target, unless CHF, CVP>15, or > 5 liters; then consider right heart catheterization (RHC). If MAP target is reached, but shock is present (Scv02, particularly if oliguric or acidotic (elevated lactate), bolus IVF to CVP > 8, providing no CHF. If CHF, CVP>15, high dose vasopressors, or >5 liters positive fluid balance, proceed with RHC. If no hypotension or shock, no need to give fluid regardless of the CVP (i.e. even if < 8) if adequate urine output (>1mL/kg/hr).
c. Vasoactive Drug Use in the Volume Repleted Patient:
1. HTN: If MAP > 100 mmHg, titrate IV nitroglycerin, starting @ 10 mcg/min, to MAP goal. (See algorithm for additional detail.) If tachycardic or acute ischemia/MI without significant LV dysfunction (based on ECHO, absence of CHF, or venous desaturation) consider Esmolol infusion.
2. Hypotension: Goal MAP is 80mmHg, providing no evidence of ACS, CHF, or shock. If ACS, CHF, or shock consider lower MAP range depending on degree of myocardial ischemia/dysfunction.
a. If EF is normal (>/ 50%), use Norepinephrine (Begin at 2-4 mcg/min, titrate to maintain MAP >70-80 mmHg) to reach MAP goal.
b. If EF is reduced (<50%):
MAP Titration: Use dobutamine (2.5-20 mcg/kg/min) to MAP> 80 mmHg and/or ScvO2 >65%. If MAP falls, add Norepinephrine, Epinephrine, or place Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump (IABP) if severe.
Scv02 Titration: Regardless of MAP, if Scv02 is low (< 65%), particularly if other signs of shock are present, consider PRBC to HgB >10 gram/dL and increase Dobutamine as tolerated. If MAP falls, add Norepinephrine, Epinephrine, or place Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump (IABP) if severe. NOTE: When rewarming, anticipate vasodilation and volume depletion (CVP and Scv02+/- MAP), and treat with IVF boluses based on same algorithm.
c. Institute appropriate critical care protocols for sepsis, GI /DVT/ VAP prophylaxis, low stretch protocol, etc.
2. Initiate TTM if indicated
a. Goal: Achievetarget temp of 33C (range 32-34 C) within 4 hrs and maintain for 24 hours from time cooling target temperature is reached.
b. Induction:Sedative and paralytic medications are begun prior to inducing hypothermia and are continued until patient is rewarmed to 36C. If patients temp is ≤ 34° on presentation, maintain temp at 32-34°C with cooling blanket. Hold paralysis unless shivering is evident or temp rises to > 34°C despite cooling measures.
1. Use an HME for vent humidification.
2. Initiate sedation and analgesia with fentanyl (50 to 100 mcg IV bolus followed by 50 mcg/hour infusion) and/or propofol (5-10 mcg/kg/min infusion). Note: Propofol interferes with measurement of aPTTs. Please consider this when ordering propofol on patients already on heparin and use Factor Xa levels to monitor anticoagulation Lorazepam (2mg/ml) can be used as alternative to propofol. Consider BIS monitor to titrate sedatives (ICU) to 40-60.
3. Initiate neuromuscular blockade before cooling. Pancuronium (0.1 mg/kg loading dose followed by a continuous infusion of 0.33-2 mcg/kg/minute) is recommended unless there is concomitant renal or hepatic insufficiency in which case cisatracurium should be used. Cisatracurium (0.1-0.2 mg/kg IV bolus followed by 0.5-10 mcg/kg/min IV infusion) can be used in patients with renal insufficiency defined as a creatinine clearance <10 ml/min and/or hepatic insufficiency defined as a total bilirubin >3mg/dl. Paralysis guided by nerve stimulator (TOF) and patient assessment as per RN policy (#BCC-03-26) Use TTM TOF protocol for titration.
4. Infuse 2 liters (or 30 ml/kg) of 4C NSS over 30 minutes (stored in ED and ICU refrigerators).
Initiate active external cooling using Gaymar Medi-therm III 7900 cooling system with Rapr-Round cooling wraps. Check skin q4 hours, especially under the cooling wraps.
Gaymar Medi-Therm III Cooling Unit
Keep device plugged in at all times
Connect circumferential torso pad to first cooling hose, fill with water, then apply to patient
Connect (in series) circumferential thigh cooling pads to second cooling hose, fill with water, then apply to patient
Connect temperature monitoring foley to temperature monitoring port on cooling device (if urine output less < 4 cc/hr switch to esophageal temperature probe)
Frequent assessment of wraps to ensure proper cooling.
Blue faced Gaymar: Set to Automatic mode, rapid cooling, with target temperature of 33°C
Gray faced Gaymar: Set to Automatic mode, rapid cooling, set point 34ºC. Once patient reaches 34ºC set to Gradual mode at 33ºC
6. If target temperature not achieved within 4 hours:
a. Contact house officer
b. Add ice packs to groin and axillae (wrapped in sheet or pillow case)
c. If temp < 31C, consider infusing 250 mL boluses of warm 40°C IV NSS or LR until temperature > 32C
c. Maintenance (Once core temp of 33°C is achieved)
1. Maintain cooling device at automatic setting with set point 33°C rapid mode for blue-faced machine and gradual mode for gray-faced machine.
2. Continue sedation, analgesia, and paralysis for 24 hours, even if patient becomes hemodynamically unstable
d. Rewarming (24 hrs after target temperature reached):
1. Important Considerations:
a. Anticipate reduction in venous return (cardiac output) and BP (with CVP) as cooler blood shifts from core to extremities. K+ shifts to extracellular compartment.
b. Vitals signs q 1 hour until temp reaches 37°C.
Prior to rewarming
a. Volume load aggressively with NS to compensate for reductions in BP/Scv02/CVP.
b. Discontinue all K+ containing fluids but always correct hypokalemia, and other electrolyte abnormalities, to the normal range.
c. Follow K+ closely q 6 hours and as needed.
d. Caution: check blood sugar prior to rewarming. Monitor for hypoglycemia during the rewarming phase.
d. Follow ABG q 1-2 hours and do not temperature correct results.
3. Rewarm gradually:
a. Re-warm to 37° C and maintain paralysis until patient reaches 36°C.
b. If using the BLUE-faced gaymar machine, program cooling unit to rewarm patient by increasing set point to 37°C.
Gaymar Medi-Therm III Cooling Unit
Set in Automatic mode, Moderate, with target temperature of 37°C (this will rewarm patient @ 0.33°C/hr, [1°C/3hrs]).
c. Note: During re-warming, do not change mode from Automatic mode to Manual. This will re-set the re-warming algorithm and affect the re-warming time.
Do not change the set point temperature as this will also re-set the re-warming algorithm and affect the re-warming time.
d. The Gaymar Medi-Therm III will re-warm the patient at the set temperature and speed based on the mode selected and will not allow the patient to re-warm any faster.
If the patient is re-warming faster than the machine allows (If the patient’s temperature deviates from the set point for more than 60 seconds) it will alarm. If this occurs consult the treating physician and consider that endogenous fever may be causing this phenomenon.
Gaymar Medi-Therm III Cooling Unit
Rapid: Re-warms as fast as possible
Moderate: Re-warms 0.33° every hour (~12 hours)
Gradual: Re-warms 0.17°every hour (~24 hours)
e. If using the GRAY-faced gaymar machine:
Gaymar III Cooling Unit
In the Gradual Automatic mode, increase the patient target temperature setting by 0.33° C every 1 hour until patient temperature reaches 36° C, then discontinue cooling system
4. When TOF is 4/4 discontinue BIS monitor and titrate Propofol and Fentanyl to RASS and comfort/vent synchrony.
5. Meperidine 12.5-25 mg q4-6 hrs IVP (not to exceed 100 mg) can be used to treat shivering once NMBs have been stopped (if renal failure or oliguria isn’t present and patient not taking an MAO inhibitor, or SSRI). Warming: Should NOT be given at all in late term pregnancy or for prolonged use at any time during pregnancy. Use caution: there is a potential interaction between Meperidine and Buspirone although no known cases of an interaction have been documented in the literature.
6. Maintain active normothermia for 48 hours: keep cooling wraps on the patient for 48 hours after rewarming and administer acetaminophen around the clock for the same 48 hour time period. Monitor skin breakdown closely during this time.
7. Note: Acetaminophen should not be administered in patients with fulminant hepatic failure. Use caution in patients with chronic liver disease or acute liver injury. Consider decreased dosing in this patient population, not to exceed 2 grams daily."
3. Treat acute coronary syndrome
a. Treat everyone with single dose Aspirin per rectum (300 mg suppository) or OG (325mg Tab), unless contraindicated (allergy or active bleeding).
b. If ST segment MI or new LBBB, and no prolonged arrest time, cardiology may perform early cath. NOTE: Patients may receive cardiac interventions as needed while hypothermic.
4. Treat hyperglycemia Use HUP/ICU Insulin Infusion Protocol
5. Fever prophylaxis Acetaminophen 1 gram per rectum or per NGT, then 500 mg q 6 hours. Maintain active normothermia for 48 hours: keep cooling wraps on the patient for 48 hours after rewarming and administer using acetaminophen around the clock for the same 48 hour time period. Monitor skin breakdown closely during this time.
a. If bilateral pulmonary infiltrates, use low stretch protocol based on Predicated Body Weight (obtain patient height) 13.
b. Pneumonia prevention with mouth care protocol and HOB > 30° at all times (unless hypotensive).
c. GI and DVT prophylaxis with ranitidine and SQ Heparin & Intermittent Compression Stockings.
XI. Assessment of Neurologic Prognosis (Determined 72 hours after rewarning)
Determination of neurological prognosis is unreliable before 72 hours after rewarming.
Recommended criteria for initiating DNR status and/or withdrawal of care10:
72 hours POST-ROSC
Specificity for poor outcome
Cortical and brainstem
HUP Brain Death Protocol
Absence of pupillary light reflex
88 to 100%
Absence of motor response to pain
93 to 100%
Bilateral absence of early cortical SSEPs
98 to 100%
1. Zeiner A, Holzer M, Sterz F, et al. Hyperthermia after cardiac arrest is associated with an unfavorable neurologic outcome. Arch Intern Med. Sep 10 2001; 161(16):2007-2012.
2. Hypothermia after Cardiac Arrest Study G. Mild therapeutic hypothermia to improve the neurologic outcome after cardiac arrest. [see comment][erratum appears in N Engl J Med 2002 May 30; 346(22):1756]. New England Journal of Medicine. Feb 21 2002; 346(8):549-556.
3. Bernard SA, Gray TW, Buist MD, et al. Treatment of comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with induced hypothermia.[see comment]. New England Journal of Medicine. Feb 21 2002; 346(8):557-563.
4. Spaulding CM, Joly LM, Rosenberg A, et al. Immediate coronary angiography in survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. [see comment]. New England Journal of Medicine. Jun 5 1997; 336(23):1629-1633.
5. Adrie C, Laurent I, Monchi M, et al. Postresuscitation disease after cardiac arrest: a sepsis-like syndrome? Curr Opin Crit Care. Jun 2004; 10(3):208-212.
6. Rivers E, Nguyen B, Havstad S, et al. Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock. [see comment]. New England Journal of Medicine. 2001; 345(19):1368-1377.
7. van den Berghe G, Wouters P, Weekers F, et al. Intensive insulin therapy in the critically ill patients. [see comment]. New England Journal of Medicine. Nov 8 2001; 345(19):1359-1367.
8. Van den Berghe G, Wouters PJ, Bouillon R, et al. Outcome benefit of intensive insulin therapy in the critically ill: Insulin dose versus glycemic control.[see comment]. Crit Care Med. Feb 2003; 31(2):359-366.
9. Annane D, Sebille V, Charpentier C, et al. Effect of treatment with low doses of hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone on mortality in patients with septic shock.[see comment]. JAMA. 2002; 288(7):862-871.
10. Zandbergen EG, de Haan RJ, Stoutenbeek CP, et al. Systematic review of early prediction of poor outcome in anoxic-ischaemic coma. [see comment]. Lancet. Dec 5 1998; 352(9143):1808-1812.
11. Rello J. Risk factors for developing pneumonia within 48 hours of intubation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999; 159:1742-1746.
12. Sirvent JM. Protective effect of intravenously administered cefuroxime against nosocomial pneumonia in patients with structural coma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1997; 155:1729-1734.
13. ARDSnet. Ventilation with lower tidal volumes as compared with traditional tidal volumes for acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome. The Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network. [see comment]. New England Journal of Medicine. 2000; 342(18):1301-1308.
14. Rittenberger JC et al. Successful outcome utilizing hypothermia after cardiac arrest in pregnancy: a case report. Critical Care Med 2008; 36(4):1354-6.
Therapeutic goal: Prevention of shivering. Patients may initiate breaths on ventilator without shivering occurring. NOTE: Lower doses of NMBs are effective to prevent shivering. Consider increased doses of NMB to paralyze diaphragm when there is need to decrease oxygen consumption, decrease plateau pressures or hypoxemia is present. Determine baseline TOF Administer loading dose
Begin infusion TOF 1-2/4
Therapeutic goal met:
TOF 1-4/4 and shivering -
Therapeutic goal NOT met:
Administer ordered bolus dose
infusion by 25%
Recheck in 1hr
TOF 3-4/4 or 1-4/4 and shivering -
Therapeutic goal NOT met:
Administer ordered bolus dose
infusion by 25%
Recheck in 1hr
*Continue to decrease dose by 10% until evidence of shivering is present or minimum
recommended dose in dosing range is reached. Do not discontinue drug.