Action: Pancreatic hormone causing glucose to enter cells. Promotes conservation of energy as glucose is converted to glycogen (in muscle and liver cells) and triglycerides (in fat cells). Fat mobilization and gluconeogenisis is inhibited, protein synthesis is stimulated.
Use: Treat insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, IDDM, (juvenile onset, type I). Also for noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus, NIDDM, (insulin independent, maturity onset, type II) unresponsive to diet and or oral hypoglycemics. With glucose to treat hyperkalemia. Also to reduce glycosuria in patients getting hyperalimentation.
Dental Considerations: Local anesthesia with vasoconstrictor ok. Dry mouth, numbness of mouth, headache and hypothermia. If IDDM consider antibiotic prophylaxis with surgery, more prone to infection. Patient should monitor blood sugar and vary
insulin dosage accordingly following dental procedures which alter oral intake. May have delayed or poor healing.
Insulin Preparations (continued)
Dental Drug Interactions: Salicylates and NSAIDs (large doses, chronic use), alcohol and tetracyclines increase hypoglycemic effect. Steroids and smoking decrease hypoglycemic effect.