Period: Unit 2/Chapter 7: Skeletal System (p. 192-242)



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Unit 2/Chapter 7: Skeletal System (p. 192-242)

OBJECTIVES:

Note: Italicized objectives (not single words) at this time are optional and are not required of you

1. Name the four classifications of bones by shape and give an example of each.



2. Define the terms sesamoid bone and Wormian (sutural) bone and give an example of each.

3. Illustrate the major features of a long bone including the following: diaphysis epiphyses epiphyseal line periosteum endosteum medullary cavity nutrient foramen and note the locations of spongy bone compact bone yellow marrow red marrow and articular cartilage.

4. List the functions of the periosteum.

5. Compare and contrast the organic and inorganic components of bone matrix in terms of structure and function.

6. List the terms that are synonymous with inorganic bone matrix.

7. Discuss the different types of bone cells in terms of origin location and function.

8. Distinguish between compact bone and spongy bone in terms of structure and function.

9. Discuss the Haversian (Osteon) System as the structural unit of compact bone using the following terms: osteocytes lacunae lamellae Haversian canal blood vessels bone matrix and canaliculi.

10. Explain how adjacent Haversian Systems communicate with one another (i.e. exchange nutrients gases and wastes).

11. Discuss the significance of the spongy bone within a flat bone.

12. Define the term hematopoiesis and name the major skeletal locations where it occurs.

13. Name the important function that the trabeculae in spongy or cancellous bones allow for.

14. Define the term ossification.

15. Distinguish between intramembranous and endochondral ossification and denote which parts of the skeleton are formed by each.

16. Discuss the structure of the epiphyseal plate explain its significance and discuss its fate.

17. Compare and contrast appositional bone growth and longitudinal bone growth.

18. Explain why ossification is a lifelong event.

19. List the vitamins and minerals involved in bone remodeling and discuss the action (and any resulting deficiency) of each.

20. List the major hormones involved in bone development and remodeling.

21. Compare and contrast the functions of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in bone remodeling.

22. Fully discuss the negative feedback mechanisms involved in blood calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis and explain how this is related to bone remodeling.

23. List and discuss at least 6 functions of bone tissue.

24. Distinguish between the axial and appendicular skeleton.

25. Define the term suture and designate the major sutures on a diagram of the skull.



26. Be able to distinguish right from left of any paired bone.

27. Name the eight bones that protect the brain (i.e. cranium).

28. Identify the 4 skull bones that contain paranasal sinuses and give two possible functions for sinuses.

29. Illustrate the location of the following structures, name the bone that each is part of, and name the significance of each: foramen magnum, sella turcica, crista galli, occipital condyles, external auditory meatus, mastoid process, nasal conchae, zygomatic process, cribriform (horizontal) plate, styloid process, and perpendicular plate.

30. Name the major bones that shape the face.

31. Define the parts of the zygomatic arch.

32. Name the seven bones that compose the orbit of the eye.

33. Explain how the nasal septum is actually composed of two different bones.

34. Identify the only skull bone which is not fused or locked in place and name the joint at which it moves.

35. Define the term fontanel and explain its significance.

36. Describe the structure location and function of the hyoid bone.

37. List the 4 major curvatures of the vertebral column and 5 regions of the vertebral column and identify the number of vertebrae in each.

38. Explain how the 33 infantile vertebrae become 26 adult bones.

39. Name the substance that acts as a "shock absorber" between individual vertebrae.

40. Denote the 10 structures all vertebrae have in common.

41. Distinguish between the three types of vertebrae.

42. List the components of the thoracic cage.

43. Distinguish between true false and floating ribs.

44. Distinguish between the manubrium body and xiphoid process of the sternum.

45. Name the bones in the upper limbs and denote them on a skeleton.

46, Name the bones that compose the pectoral (shoulder) girdle, and denote medial and lateral portions, glenoid cavity (fossa), coracoid process, acromion, spine, body, and inferior angle.

47. Given a humerus, denote the location of the proximal head, distal capitulum and trochlea, neck, greater and lesser tubercles, deltoid tuberosity, body, lateral and medial condyles, and olecranon fossa.



48. Distinguish between capitulum and trochlea name the bone they are part of and discuss their significance.

49. Note the relative positions of the radius and ulna and name the significance of the olecranon (process).

50. Given a radius, denote the location of the head, neck, radial tuberosity, ulnar notch, and styloid process

51. Given an ulna, denote the location of the olecranon process, trochlear notch, coronoid process, radial notch, head, and styloid process.

52. Identify the number of bones that make up the wrist palm region of hand and fingers and give the scientific name for each.

53. Name the bones that compose the pelvic girdle, and denote the following features on each: ilium, ischium, pubis, iliac crest, acetabulum, obturator foramen, and ischial spine.

54. Explain how the bones of the pelvis articulate anteriorly and posteriorly.

55. Name the tissue that composes the anterior articulation of the coxal bones.

56. Distinguish between a male and female pelvis in terms of differences in the greater (false) pelvis the pelvic brim (inlet) the pubic arch (angle) the acetabulum.

57. Name the longest strongest and largest bone in the body.

58. Given a femur, denote the location of the head, fovea capitis, neck, greater and lesser trochanters, linea aspera, lateral and medial condyles, epicondyles, and patellar surface.

59. Identify the significance of trochanters.

60. Explain why the patella is unique.

61. Compare and contrast the structure location and function of the tibia and fibula and denote the location of the lateral and medial malleolus.

62. Identify how many bones compose the ankle foot and toes and give the scientific name for each.

63. Distinguish between the talus and calcaneus.



  1. Understanding Words (p. 192) Define, give an example and explain the following:

    1. ax-

    2. –blast -

    3. canal-

    4. carp-

    5. –clast –

    6. clav-

    7. condyl-

    8. corac-

    9. cribr-

    10. crist-

    11. fov-

    12. glen-

    13. inter-

    14. intra-

    15. lamell-

    16. meat-

    17. odont-

    18. poie-



  1. Bone Structure (p. 193-196). List and describe the four shapes that bones can be classified as (Fig 7.1 on p. 194):











  1. Sketch and label parts of a Long Bone Fig 7.2 on p. 194:



  1. Explain the following long bone terms (p. 193-195);

    1. Epiphysis –

    2. Articular (hyaline) Cartilage –

    3. Diaphysis –

    4. Periosteum –

    5. Process –

    6. Grooves –

    7. Depression –

    8. Compact (cortical) bone –

    9. Spongy (cancellous) bone –

    10. Trabeculae –

    11. Medullary Cavity –

    12. Endosteum –



    1. Marrow (and types) –



  1. Microscopic Structure: Label Fig 7.4 on p. 196:



    1. Explain the following terms (p. 159 [Chap 5] and 195):

      1. osteocytes –

      2. osteoblasts –

      3. lacunae –

      4. Haversian canals/central canals –

      5. canaliculi –



      1. extracellular matrix –

      2. perforating (Volksmann’s) canals –

      3. compact bone –

      4. spongy bone –



  1. What are the two ways that bone can form?







  1. Explain the development (ossification) of intramembranous bones (p. 197-198):



  1. Explain the ossification of endochondral bones (p. 198-200):



  1. Explain growth at the Epiphyseal Plate (p. 199-200; Fig 7.9 on p. 199):

Be familiar with Figure 7.8 (endochondral ossification) on p. 198:



07_08

  1. Explain why sports-related injuries to the epiphyseal plates in young people are of concern (green box on p. 200):



  1. Explain bone remodeling as a function of homeostasis (p. 200):



  1. Explain how the following factors affecting bone development, growth and repair (p. 200-201):

    1. Nutrition/sunlight:



    1. Hormones:



    1. physical exercise/stress (p. 201):



  1. Summarize Clinical Application 7.1 on p. 202-203 (Fractures)

    1. Traumatic fracture vs. spontaneous/pathologic fracture:



    1. Fracture types (Fig 7A on p. 202):

    • Greenstick

    • Fissured

    • Comminuted

    • Transverse

    • Oblique

    • Spiral



    1. Fracture repair (Fig 7B on p. 203):



  1. Read Bone Function (p. 203-205) and summarize:

    1. Support, Protection and Movement (p. 203)



    1. Blood Cell Formation (p. 204)

    • Hematopoiesis:



    • Marrow:



    1. Inorganic Salt Storage (p. 204-205)

    • ECM = collagen + inorganic salts

    • Inorganic salts = 70% of ECM

      • Mostly calcium phosphate crystals (hydroxyapatite)

      • Calcium required for:



      • Low blood calcium (hypocalcemia not in book until later):



      • High blood calcium (hypercalcemia not in book until later):



      • Bones also store:

        • Lead

        • Radium



  1. Be familiar with Fig 7.13 on p. 204 (bone hormonal regulation)

  2. Read Clinical Application 7.2 on p. 205 (Osteoporosis) and summarize:



  1. Use Table 7.4 on p. 208 to begin to learn the “Terms Used to Describe Skeletal Structures”:

    Term

    Definition

    Example





















































































































































































  2. List the general structures of the following divisions of the skeleton:

    1. Axial skeleton



    1. Appendicular skeleton



  1. Label Figure 7.15 on p. 207 with the bones of the body:



  1. Skull - number of bones in this region (p. 209):



    1. cranium (p. 209-213):



      1. function:



      1. number of bones in this region:



      1. define/explain the following terms:

        1. suture



        1. paranasal sinuses



      1. Label Figure 7.17 (p. 209):



      1. Label Figure 7.19 (p. 210):



      1. Label Figure 7.20 (p. 212):



    1. facial skeleton:



      1. function:



      1. number of bones in this region:



      1. Label Figure 7.25 (p. 214):



      1. Label Figure 7.27 (p. 216):



      1. Label Figure 7.29 (p. 217):



    1. Describe the infantile skull (p. 217):



      1. define/explain the following terms:

        1. fontanel:



        1. molding:



      1. Label Figure 7.31 (p. 219):



  1. Describe the vertebral column (p. 219):



      1. define/explain the following typical vertebral terms:

        1. vertebrae:



        1. body:



        1. intervertebral disks:



        1. vertebral canal:



        1. anterior and posterior ligaments:



        1. pedicles:



        1. vertebral foramen:



        1. laminae:



        1. spinous process:



        1. vertebral arch:



        1. transverse process:



        1. superior and inferior articulating processes



        1. intervertebral foramina:



      1. Label Figure 7.32 (p. 220):



      1. Label Figure 7.36(c) on p. 223:



    1. Describe the cervical spine (p. 221)/how many bones?:



      1. Define/explain the following typical vertebral terms:

        1. transverse foramina:



        1. bifid:



        1. vertebra prominens:



        1. atlas:



        1. axis:



        1. dens:



      1. Label Figure 7.34 (p. 222):



    1. Describe the thoracic spine/how many bones?:



      1. Label Figure7.33 on p. 221:



    1. Describe the lumbar spine/how many bones?:



    1. Describe the sacrum/how many bones?:



    1. Describe the coccyx/how many bones?:



      1. Label Figure7.33 on p. 221:



  1. Describe the thoracic cage (p. 225):

    1. Describe ribs/how many bones?:

    2. Describe Sternum

    3. Label Figure 7.38a on p. 226:



    1. Label Figure 7.38a on p. 226:



  1. Describe pectoral girdle (p. 227):



    1. Label Figure 7.41a on p. 228:



    1. Label Figure 7.41b on p. 228:



  1. Describe upper limb (extremity) on p. 229:



    1. Label Figure 7.42 on p. 229:



    1. Describe humerus p. 229):



      1. Label Figure 7.43 on p. 230:



    1. Describe radius and ulna (p. 230-231):



      1. Label Figure 7.44 on p. 231:



    1. Describe hand (p. 231-232):



      1. Label Figure 7.45 on p. 232:



  1. Describe the pelvic girdle (p. 233) and explain the following terms:



    1. coxae



      1. ilium



      1. ischium



      1. pubis



      1. acetabulum



      1. iliac crest



      1. sacroiliac joint



      1. anterior superior iliac spine



      1. greater sciatic notch



      1. symphysis pubis



    1. Label Figure 7.47a and b on p. 234:



    1. Label 7.48a and b on p. 235:



  1. Describe the lower limb (extremity) on p. 236:



    1. Label Figure 7.50b on p. 237:



    1. Describe the femur (p. 236):



    1. Describe the patella (p. 236):



    1. Describe the tibia (p. 237):



    1. Describe the fibula (p. 237):



    1. Label Figure 7.50b on p. 237:



    1. Label Figure 7.50c on p. 237:



    1. Label Figure 7.50d on p. 237:



    1. Label Figure 7.52 on p. 238:



    1. Describe the foot (p. 238):



    1. Label Figure 7.53b on p. 239:



    1. Label Figure 7.54a on p. 239:



  1. Summarize life span changes (p. 240):

2/13/2011




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