Pedo lecture (3)



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Pedo lecture (3)

Pulpotomy

Apulpotomy is performed in aprimary tooth with extensive caries but without evidence of radicular pathology . (when radicular pathology present we do pulpectomy or extract the tooth).

Indications:



  1. Asymptomatic tooth or tooth with transient pain.

  2. To remove the caries and we have caries of dental exposure of vital coronal pulp tissue we go for pulpetomy rather than direct pulp capping .

The coronal pulp is amputated ,and the remaining vital radicular pulp tissue surface(pulp stumps) is treated with along- term clinically –successful medicament .

Procedure:



  1. Good local anesthesia(never starts pulpotomy, even a deep cariesremoval without giving anesthesia before; don’t wait until the patient is in pain). The type of local anesthesia is determined according to the rule of 10 (in the lower arch anesthesia: age of the patient + number of the tooth <= 10 , we give infiltration local anesthesia , otherwise we give a nerve block anesthesia)

  2. Isolation (rubber dam,cotton roll,suction)

Ideally it is recommended that all pulp therapy be performed with rubber-dam or other equally effective isolation (suction and cotton rolls) to minimize bacterial contamination of the treatment site.

  1. Remove all the caries from dentinoenamel junction first then from the surface close to the pulp with large round bur or with large sharp spoon excavator .

  2. If a small carious pulp exposure is disclosed, evaluate the pulp condition, and perform a coronal pulpotomy following complete caries removal.

(if drop happen and bleeding doesn’t occur that mean the pulp is necrotic then the treatment plan will change )

  1. So after complete removal of caries open wide access to the pulp chamber using high speed bur (complete unroofing using high speed or low speed bur because we afraid from perforation when the child close his mouth and we use high speed bur)

  2. When the bur passes through the roof of the chamber, a ‘dip’ is felt.( Once this is felt the bur isn’t taken any deeper but side way to remove the roof of pulp chamber) .

  3. Complete removal of roof of pulp chamber.

  4. Then again we Judge the condition of the exposed pulp based on the pulp tissue color and hemorrhage

1- none (no bleeding, no pulp tissue) necrotic pulp tissue
2- profuse inflammation of the coronal pulp tissue and radicular one, so the tooth needs pulpectomy.

  • Removal of coronal pulpal tissue with sharp sterile excavator or large round bur in a slow handpiece.

  • Attain initial radicular pulpal hemostasis by gentle application of cottonpledget moistened with saline(don’t put it dry because when we remove it tear to blood vessels will happen and bleeding will reoccur) (hemostasis should be achieved within four minutes).

  • Evaluate bleeding again :
    1- No bleeding indicates that your diagnosis was right and the tooth needs pulpotomy
    2- Profuse bleeding we need to remove the coronal pulp tissue and the radicular one (your diagnosis was wrong and the tooth needs pulpectomy)

  • What if you do not achieve hemostasis?
    This indicates :
    1- Inadequate unroofing of the pulp chamber(the most common reason )( blood vessels still present in the pulp chamber) , we need to check for that :

  • Check for ledges and remove them if present, by widening the opening,then evaluate the bleeding

2-radiular pulp involvement (extraction or pulpectomy based on the patient and the tooth and what we want to do)

9.If bleeding stop we need to put medicament on radicular pulp stumps and re-evaluate the pulp stumps.

Medicaments:


  1. Formocresol:

19% formaldehyde

35%cresol

15%glycerol with 31%water

1in 5 dilution of buckleys formecresol solution has been found to be just as effective (less harmful locally and systematically )



  • Concern over the use of formaldehyde has been voiced for over 20 years.

In June 2004, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified formaldehyde as carcinogenic to human beings.

In pediatric dentistry has inconsequential carcinogenic effect (when use in right way for 3-5 minutes on radicular pulp in primary teeth)



  • applied to radicular pulp on a cotton pledget for five minutes to achieve superficial tissue fixation.

  • Histologic Picture when we use formecresol:

  • Fixation of the pulp occurred in coronal third of the root.

  • The middle third showed loss of cellular integrity.

  • Apical third showed an ingrowth of granulation tissue.



  • A cotton pellet used with only a trace of formocresol.

  • Squeeze excess formocresol off on a cotton roll (be sure to get rid of this cotton roll to not re-use it by mistake on the soft tissue for isolation and retraction).

  • Leave for 5 minutes (during this 5 minutes, start mixing the base).

  • Be careful.

  • Evaluate the pulp stumps.

  • Use IRM as a base material directly over the pulp stumps.

  • Thick mix of IRM.

  • Then gentle condensation of IRM with moistened cotton pellet.

  • Put stainless steel crown

2-Ferric Sulfate

Promotes pulp hemostasis through achemical reaction with blood (it forms aclot wich protect the pulp from overlying restoration )which seals blood capillaries and act as abarrier

  • Safe to use

  • Used in a 15.5% for 15 seconds on the pulp stumps to stop bleeding.

  • Control hemorrhage with cotton pellets.

  • Apply (rub) ferric sulfate to pulp stumps for 15 seconds

  • Rinse with water.

  • Evaluate the pulp stumps.

  • Use glass ionomer as a base and not zinc oxide eugenol.

  • Internal resorption after IRM use.

  • It is considered to be a good substitute to formecresolpulpotomy with the same success rate

  • Ferric sulfate, because of its lower toxicity, may become a replacement for formocresol in primary molar teeth.

3-MTA:

  • Clinical trials show that MTA performs equal to or better than formocresol or ferric sulfate and may be the preferred pulpotomy agent in the future.(more expensive)

4-Calcium Hydroxide (powder):

  • Facilitates the formation of a dentine bridge and promotes the healing of the radicular pulp tissue.

  • Lower success rates than formocresol.

  • Causes internal resorption in some cases.(because it is highly alkaline when mixed with water)

  • First agent used in pulpetomy

  • Cause dentin degeneration,necrosis and dystrophic calcification of pulp tissue so not recommended to use in primary teeth(pure powder)

  • Most common to cause internal resorption in primary teeth.

5-Gluteraldehyde:

  • Better fixative and lower toxicity.

  • Similar to lower success rate than formocresol.

  • Gluteraldehyde does not penetrate the periapical tissues as formocresol does.

  • May cause hypersensitivity and difficult in handling.

6-Electrosurgery:

  • A non-chemical devitalization process.

  • Carbonizes and heat denatures the pulp.

  • After amputation of the coronal pulp, the pulp stumps are cauterized using this technique.

  • A layer of coagulation necrosis that is caused by the electrosurgery applicationprovides a barrier between healthy radicular tissue and any base material placed in the pulp chamber.

  • The odontoblasts are stimulated to form a dentine bridge and the tooth is maintained in the arch with vital radicular tissue until it exfoliates.

  • Similar success rates to formocresol.

  • Requires the purchase of special equipment

7-Laser:

  • Laser irradiation creates a superficial zone of coagulation necrosis that remains compatible with the underlying tissue.

  • Pulp retains its vitality and capability of normal pulp healing.

  • High success rate when compared with formocresol.

  • Much research is still needed to investigate this technique taking into consideration the high cost of equipment.

Clinical outcome of pulpotomy:

  • The available evidence suggests that the formocresolpulpotomy, the ferric sulphatepulpotomy, electrosurgery or pulpectomy are equally successful techniques.

  • More recent studies are also reporting good success rates with the use of MTA in pulpotomised primary molars.

  • The tooth is restored with a restoration that seals the tooth from microleakage.

  • The most effective long-term restoration has been shown to be a stainless steel crown.

  • If there is sufficient supporting enamel remaining, amalgam or composite resin can provide a functional alternative when the primary tooth has a life span of 2 years or less.

Review after pulpotomy:

  • Pulp therapy requires periodic clinical and radiographic assessment of the treated tooth and the supporting structures.

  • Keep initial radiographs to compare.

  • Post-operative clinical assessment generally should be performed every 6 months and could occur as part of a patient’s periodic comprehensive oral examinations.

Signs of failure of pulpotomy:

  1. Pain

  2. Abscess

  3. Increased mobility.

  4. Fistula.

  5. Radiographic interadicular resorption.

  6. Internal or external resorption

Pulpectomy:

Indications:

  • Tooth diagnosed as having irreversible pulpitis on basis of reported symptoms and /or clinical findings (e.g. profuse hemorrhage following pulpotomy procedure).

  • Non-vital radicular pulp.

  • Good patient compliance.

Difficulties:

  • Primary molar radicular morphology (curved roots).

  • Inherent physiological root resorption.

  • Close proximity of the permanent successor tooth.

However, primary molar pulpectomy is achievable with practice and appropriate patient selection.

Rationale:

  • To remove irreversibly inflamed or necrotic radicular pulp tissue and gently clean the root canal system.

  • To obturate the root canals with a filling material that will resorb at the same rate as the primary tooth and be eliminated rapidly if accidentally extruded through the apex.

Technique:

  • Pre-operative radiograph showing all roots and their apices

  • Local anesthetic.

  • Rubber dam.

  • Removal of caries.

  • Removal of roof of pulp chamber.

  • Removal of any remains of coronal pulp tissue with sharp sterile excavator or large bur in slow speed handpiece

  • Note whether radicular pulp is bleeding (one-stage procedure) or necrotic (usually requiring two-stage procedure).

  • Identify root canals.

  • Estimate working lengths of root canals keeping 2 mm short of the radiographic apex.

  • Insert small files (no greater than size 30) into canals and file canal walls lightly and gently.

  • Irrigate the root canals with normal saline (0.9%), Chlorhexidine solution (0.4%) or sodium hypochlorite solution (0.1%).

  • Dry canals with pre-measured paper points, keeping 2 mm from root apices.

  • If infection present (canal exudate and/or associated sinus) dress root canals with non-setting calcium hydroxide and temporize (two-stage procedure).

  • If canals can be dried with paper points, obturate root canals by injecting or packing a resorbable paste.

  • IRM base packed on top of root canal filling.

  • Definitive restoration to achieve optimum external coronal seal (ideally a preformed crown).

Materials used for obturation of canals:

  1. Zinc Oxide Eugenol:

  • High clinical success rates.

  • Rate of resorption different from that of root.

  • Slow absorption when pushed into the apical tissues.



  1. Non-setting calcium hydroxide paste:

  • Favorable antibacterial effects.

  • Easily resorbed and causes no foreign body reaction.

  • High clinical success rates over a 6-month period.

  1. Premixed calcium hydroxide and iodoform paste:

  • (VitapexTM).

  • Very high clinical success rates.

  • Lack of toxic effects.

  • Radiopacity

  • Resorbability

Objectives of pulpectomy:

  • Radiographic infectious process should resolve in 6 months, as evidenced by bone deposition in the pretreatment radiolucent areas.

  • Pretreatment clinical signs and symptoms should resolve within a few weeks.

  • There should be radiographic evidence of successful filling without gross overextension or underfilling.

Success Rate:

  • 86% clinical success at 36 months follow up (lower success rates found at longer follow-up times).

Desensitizing pulp therapy:

  • Rationale:

  • To reduce pulpal inflammation and/or symptoms in order to facilitate subsequent pulpotomy or pulpectomy procedure.

  • Indications

  • Carious pulpal exposure but no signs/symptoms of loss of vitality.

  • Non-compliant child who may require inhalation sedation for further treatment.

  • Hyperalgesic pulp (adequate analgesia not achieved).

  • Local anesthetic and removal of caries.

  • Tooth is usually too sensitive to remove entire roof of pulp chamber.

  • Place a small pledget of cotton wool loaded with steroidal antibiotic paste (LedermixTM) directly over exposure site.



  • Place a well-sealed temporary dressing (IRM - without undue pressure) over the cotton pledget

  • Recall after 7–14 days and proceed with a pulpotomy or pulpectomy technique depending on clinical finding.

NEVEEN AL-MHAIRAT


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