North-Western State medical University n a. I. I. Mechnikov Program for General Medicine Department

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North-Western State medical University n.a. I.I. Mechnikov

Program for General Medicine Department:
Theory & practice: theoretical lectures and state-of-the-art clinics
Introduction to dentistry: dentistry as a science: current problems & main tasks. Anatomy and morphology of craniofacial region: teeth development & eruption time

  1. Main tasks & Dentistry branches.

  2. Craniofacial development.

  3. Anatomy of craniofacial complex: bones, muscles, organs.

  4. Innervation features of craniofacial region.

  5. Vascularization features of craniofacial region.

  6. The lymphatic system of craniofacial region.

  7. Salivary glands: types, anatomy, topography, morphology.

  8. Teeth, oral mucosa, periodontium structure & anatomy.

  9. Dental and jaws function.

  10. Dental formula.


Age-related changes in craniofacial morphology. Jaw & tooth abnormalities: diagnostic tools & modern treatment possibilities.

Diagnostic and current treatment protocols.

  1. Anatomy of teeth and jaws. Dental eruption sequence.

  2. Craniofacial abnormalities. Types.

3. Diagnostics in dentistry.

4. Clinical methods in diagnosing diseases.

5. Instrumental methods in diagnosing diseases.

6. Functional methods in diagnosing diseases.

7. Treatment of jaw & tooth abnormalities.

8. Treatment steps of jaw & tooth abnormalities.

9.Age-related changes in jaws and teeth.
Caries & non-carious lesions of the hard dental tissues. Classification, aetiology, pathogenesis, clinical features of manifestation and diagnostics, treatment approaches. Clinical features of dental diseases in patients with somatic pathology.

1. Caries: aetiology&pathogenesis

2. Classification of dental caries, clinical features.

3. Treatment goals.

4. Complicated forms of dental caries.

5. Non-carious lesions-non- carious pathological loss of tooth tissue before eruption. Aetiology & pathogenesis, clinics, diagnostics.

7. Differential diagnosis of caries & non-carious lesions.

8. Relationship between dental and somatic health.

Periodontal diseases: classification Etiology& pathogenesis of inflammatory periodontal diseases. Diagnostic and clinical characteristics. Treatment strategy. The impact of periodontal diseases on somatic preexisting pathology.

  1. The periodontal diseases classification system (1983, 2001).

  2. Etiopathogenesis of inflammatory periodontal diseases. Primary & secondary impact factors. Dental biofilm: what is that for? Periodontal pathogenic microorganisms in association with somatic diseases.

  3. Main and additional diagnostic tools in managing periodontal diseases.

  4. Diagnostics & clinical features of chronic and acute gingivitis

  5. Diagnostics & clinical features of necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis

  6. Diagnostics & clinical features of chronic periodontitis

  7. Diagnostics & clinical features of aggressive forms of periodontitis.

  8. Main principles of non-surgical therapy of inflammatory periodontal diseases.


Pathomorphology of oral mucosa. Classification of oral mucosal diseases. Oral mucosa condition due to hematologic, endocrine disorders, gastrointestinal diseases etc. HIV-associated oral mucosal diseases.

  1. Oral mucosa structure.

  2. Main pathomorphological oral mucosal processes.

  3. Primary lesions of oral mucosa.

  4. Secondary lesions of oral mucosa.

  5. Classification of oral mucosal diseases.

  6. Manifestation of oral mucosal diseases accompanied by insufficiencies of red blood cells and hemorrhagic diathesis.

  7. Manifestation of oral mucosal diseases as a result of preexisting white blood cell disorders.

  8. Oral mucosal changes due to gastrointestinal diseases.

  9. Oral mucosal changes due to endocrine diseases.

  10. HIV infection. Pathogenesis, clinical features. Classification of HIV-associated oral mucosal lesions. Diagnostics & prevention.

Dental anesthesia. Techniques & methods of local anesthesia. Dental injections. The tooth extraction procedure. Complications.

1. What is general anaesthesia? Four stages of general anaesthesia?

2. General anesthetics?

3. What is the difference between local and general anaesthesia?

4. According to what main principle local anesthetic drugs are classified?

5. Anatomical landmarks for maxillary and mandibular nerve block techniques?

6. Causes, factors of local anesthetic complications. Procedures for prevention.

7. Indications and contraindications for tooth extraction.

8. What are surgical tooth preservation procedures? What are the indications? (root tip resection and etc).

9. How to manage complications during tooth extractions?

10. Resorptive effects of local anesthetics.

  1. 1,2.











Craniofacial trauma: classification, complications, prevention, principles of treatment. Fractures of the Jaw and Face.
1. Classification of maxillary and mandibular fractures.

2. Clinical applications in diagnosis: tooth and alveolar ridge trauma.

3. Сlassification of facial bones fractures (upper, lower jaws, zygomatic bone fracture).

5. Rehabilitation after facial trauma: goals and principles.

6. Complications after facial bone fractures and their prevention.

7. Surgical methods and prosthodontic rehabilitation maxillofacial trauma.

8. Osteogenesis: stages and optimization.

9. Fractures of the midfacial bones: diagnosis and clinics. Principles of treatment.

10. Zygomatic arch and orbital fractures: diagnosis, clinics and management.

11. Main symptoms (pathognomonic clinical signs) of facial bone fractures.


Oral and Maxillofacial Infections: odontogenic & non-odontogenic.  Clinical presentation and etiology.
1. Main inflammatory processes: odontogenic and non-odontogenic.

2. Anatomical predisposal (spreading of infection) of maxillofacial region to inflammatory process.

3. Etiology of osteomyelitis. Causes of osteomyelitis.

4. Main features of acute and chronic osteomyelitis. What are the differences?

5. Main treatment strategy for acute and chronic osteomyelitis.

7. What are the differences between abscess and phlegmon?

8. Main principles of phlegmon classification?

9. Purulent processes of the orofacial region: main causes. 

10. Main clinical features of phlegmon, abscess and lymphadenitis?

11. Main surgical incisions for dissection and opening purulent maxillofacial processes?

12. Current management and approaches for drainage purulent maxillofacial processes.

13. Main rule for classification of skin and soft tissue infections of head and neck?

14. Clinical features of phlegmon and abscess upon certain localization.

15. What is the main factor affecting treatment success and prognosis of inflammatory processes in maxillofacial region?

16. Furuncle and carbuncle diagnosis and treatment strategy?

17. Sinusitis of odontogenic origin: diagnostics and clinics. Complications.

18. Specific inflammatory diseases of maxillofacial region (actinomycosis, tuberculosis, syphilis).

19. Potential complications of purulent processes of maxillofacial region?

10. Current views on odontogenic sepsis, mediastinitis and treatment strategy.


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ORAL CARE. Preventive healthcare: primary, secondary, tertiary levels. Caries prophylaxis. Oral hygiene procedures. Prevention of dental facial abnormalities. Role of preventive dental procedures in somatic pathology prevention.

  1. Primary, secondary and tertiary levels of preventive dental programs.

  2. Dental caries prophylaxis in children and adults.

  3. Oral hygiene in dental caries and periodontal diseases prophylaxis.

  4. Oral hygiene index.

  5. Preventing dentofacial abnormalities.

  6. Role of preventive dental procedures in somatic pathology prevention.

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