The Neanderthal genome was published in 2010 – analysis showed 1 to 4% of genome of present day humans in Europe and Asia originated from original Neanderthal genome. This suggests that H.sapiens and H. neanderthalensis interbred in Europe after modern H. sapiens had migrated there from Africa. The genome in present day people of Africa does not have Neanderthal DNA.
7. Describe the life style of H. neanderthalensis.
Cave dwellers, hunter gatherers, living in territorial groups, caring for injured and aged, females moving between groups
8. Describe the evidence that suggests that Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis interbred in Europe.
In 2011, genome analysis of bones and teeth found in the Denisova Cave in Siberia identified a group called Denisovans. Analysis suggests that modern humans, Neanderthals and Denisovans shared a common ancestor about 1 million years ago.
Genome analysis suggests:
that Denisovans ranged across SE Asia and bred with modern humans who arrived in SE Asia
two waves of migration into Asia from Europe – first wave interbred, second wave did not
9. What is the evidence that suggests that modern humans, Neanderthals and Denisovans shared a common ancestor?
10. How many waves of migration flowed into Asia?
Two – first wave interbred with Neanderthals and second wave did not
H. neanderthalensis used Mousterian stone tool culture, co-operative hunting and improved communication skills made them effective hunters of large game – ambush using stabbing spears. Diet was largely meat – 90%, cooked with vegetables.