Sheikh-ul-Hadith & Tafseer, Sheikh Al-Maqool –o-Manqool, Mohajir fesabeel-il-Allah, Hazrat Molana Mufti Niaz Muhammad Bin Sabit Bin Adam Khotani Trakistani (China) Sum Pakistani)
He was Turkish by Origin and belonged to the Turkish Tribe known as “Uygur”. He was born in 1907 in a locality named “Shor Bagh” which is situated near the famous city of “Khotan” in eastern Turkistan. Profession of my grandfather was agriculture and he owned land measuring 350 Acre, Most of his land consisted of orchards and he was one of the richest and influential person of the locality. He was brought up in a blandishment atmosphere, My grandfather performed pilgrimage in year 1920 and during this journey he took his nephew Abdul Hameed Takhta (R.A) with him and left him in Madina Sharif. By the Grace of Almighty Allah his family/progeny is even now residing in Madina Sharif bearing Saudi Nationality.
APPEARANCE AND DRESS
My respected Father, had normal height, strong body, pinkish white complexion, gorgeous and handsome face, spacious forehead was the symbol of his virtue. He was a man of sound nerves and strong will, beard was light and was limited to his chin only. His hands were soft and cozy. He used to be in white dress with big white “Amama” on his head, pin head indigenous brown “Khussa” (shoes), and his dressing was an addition to his very handsome personality. Pajama always remained above his ankles. He also used to wear waistcoat and “Bukhari Jubba” (Overcoat) with green lining. In winter season he used to wear “Chitrali Jubba” some times he held the stick in his hand, He was a very impressive personality. His appearance explained in the Register of “Dar-Ul-Uloom Deoband” is as under; Normal Height, wheatish complexion (Due the sufferings of journey his complexion was turned to wheatish) Round face, spacious forehead, absorbed eyebrows, wide eyes and beard less.
KHOTAN OR HOTAN
Allama Yaqoot Bin Abdullah Al-Hamomi Al-Baghdadi (R.A) has explained the correct and true pronunciation and accent of “Khotan” in 2nd volume of his book “Mooajam-al-Baldan” ()
It is a city and a kingdom between the Kashghar and Youzkand, It is considered to be in balad turkestan. It is a valley between the mountains in the center of Balad-Turk From where, Suleman Bin Dawood Bin Suleman Abu-Dawood is said to belong, who famous as Hajjaj Khotani (R.A), who has learned the Hadith from Abu Aali Bin Ali Bin Suleman Al-Marghinani(R.A) and Allama Abu Hafs Umar Bin Al-Ahmad Nisfi (R.A) has mentioned that he came to seek knowledge to him in year 533 (Mooajam Al-Baldan)
ISLAMIC STATE OF KHOTAN
My Revered Father told that before the Communist Revolution, Khotan was an Islamic State and Qazis (Islamic magistrate) used to held the justice. Procedure of justice was that, a Qazi (Islamic magistrate) was assisted upto to 20 Mufti’s, and each Mufti kept a Quran, a Book of Hadith and a Book of Fiqah Hanfia with him. Whenever a matter was brought for adjudication, The Qazi (Islamic magistrate) used to refer the matter to the Mufti’s who analyze the same in the light of Islamic law’s and they issued their Fatwa on it, and the Qazi (Islamic magistrate) decided the matter accordingly, in this way the even the most complicated matters were also resolved very easily.
Implementation of Islamic Laws (Hudood & Qassas) the whole state was enjoying the peace and harmony, Due to the same reason, my father had advised General Zia-ul-Haq that if only Islamic Laws (Huddod & Qassas) be implemented, the law and order will be maintained in the whole country, he also said if even non‑Muslims may opt this system, they also can maintain the law and order.
Qaizis (Islamic magistrate) also used to visit the markets, with measuring and weighing equipment with them along with whips (staff to execute the punishment of whipping on spot). Baked bread was weighed on hotels and if found less then the standard weight, then the hotel’s owner was whipped in front of whole market, similarly, measuring tools were checked, and all deceptions were punished. By virtue of Islamic state there was a habit of learning and teaching. English historians have also mentioned the people of Khotan as “Literacy” i.e. “learners and teachers”
MR. AUREL STEAN’S VISIT OF KHOTAN.
English Tourist Mr. Aurel Stein visited the Khotan in year 1909 on demand of British Government, in his book “Ancient Khotan” he has narrated about Khoton that “Khotan which is now known as Hotan, is a oasis and is situated at the brink of a desert. There were a lot of Mulberry trees that’s why the silk was a major product of Khotan besides that it is also famous for its Precious Stones and Pot making.
Budhist King “Ashoka” founded it in year 300 B.C. who established his kingdom here.
Khotan is the first place outside china, where the silk production was started, and it happened when in the beginning of first century, the King of khotan got married with the princess of China, she brought the eggs of silk worms with her, resultantly silk production was started here.
Initial inhabitants of the Khotan were Budh by religion. In Year 1006 A.C. Turk Muslim Military launched an attack in the leadership of Muslim General Yousaf Qadir Khan and occupied the Khotan. Famous English Tourist MarcoPolo visited the Khotan in between 1271 to 1275 and mentioned in his memorandum, that all the peoples of that area are the followers of Muhammad’s (PBUH) religion.
Yousaf Qadir Khan was the brother or relative of King of Kashghar and all his Muslim solders were Turkish, whom caused the dominance of Islam in Khotan, Onwards the Turkish Race spread so widely there that it became an important state of Eastern Turkistan and even now it is considered as a state of Turkish Uygurs.
Although, it is a part of China and situated in the Province Xingiang even then it is known as locality of Uygur people and on atlas it is shown “Xingiang uyger autonomous resion.
Khotan was also famous for Musk and many of Urdu and Persian poets have mentioned “Musk of Khotan” in their verses, Road connecting China & Pakistan is also called the Silk Rout. Now days it is famous for trade of precious stones, Carpet making,
For more information in this regard please refer to Page No.______ of this Book under the title of “Mufti Khaleeq Ahmad Visit of Khotan”
TRAGEDY OF ORPHAN HOOD
My father was just a child when the plague spread out in the Khotan and claimed 200 people in a very short time, He also suffered from the plague, but by the Grace of Almighty Allah he survived, but its spots were visible on his body till his last, In that misfortunate incident, he, his two sisters, and paternal cousin survived whereas who were taken away to another city his maternal uncle Molana Haji Saeed Ahmad Akhoon(R.A). So he had to face the tragedy of getting orphan right from he early child hood, when he lost both his mother and father.
SCHOOLS OF KHOTAN AND HIS EDUCATION.
He was sent to an academy for his early studies, after that he was admitted in a school. At that time there were about 100 schools in Khotan and each school has its own properties to earn for its expenses and requirements of teachers and administration. Their parents or close relatives sponsored most of the students; all the schools were bounded by harmony and affection with each other. A Committee of High Class intellectuals (Ulmas) having 5 members, used to manage the Schools with the powers of hire and fire the teachers. Students of one schools often used to consult even other school’s teachers. If a lessen was not clarified to a student in his own school, they freely attended the same lesson in another school at any other time and it was not restricted by the teachers or administration of any school. Students were very pious and always studied facing Qibla, They regularly recited a part of “Quran” and “Dalial-ul-Khairat”. Always kept their heads caped and had graceful virtuous faces. He told that his teacher was Molana Israf Ullah Dam Ullah (R.A) who was a great scholar. People also respected the scholars a lot. If any Scholar visited the market, the people used to greet him and shake hands.
REVOLUTION IN THE LIFE
He cruising to maturity but he was not paying much attention to his studies. He was found of wrestling and used to spend a lot of time in it. Once he went to a village with his friends for recreation and visited a school there, where a teacher was conducting a lesson of Persian. That teacher asked him what do you study? He answered “Kafia” then that teacher asked him to read a paragraph from the said book, In fact my father had studied that book, so he started reading the paragraph, but he made a lot of mistakes, That teacher seriously humiliated him on his mistakes. He was too much embarrassed and ashamed, and this embarrassment got so severe that he decided to suicide and in the evening he went up a hill to suicide, it was very cold there, and that cold also cooled him down, he came back and dwelled that night in farmer’s hut, and in the morning he returned to the City of Khotan with a new ambition.
HARD WORK ON PERSIAN.
After his return he started studying Persian, he said good by to leisure and got committed to his studies, He worked so hard on Persian that in only six months he became master of it, meanwhile he and seek the help of almost 100 teachers and some of them were females.
ADVANTAGES OF LEARNING “MATHNAWI SHARIF”
In Khotan, there was a master of Mathnawi of Maulana Roomi (R.A), and used to conduct the lectures on the same. Scholars and literates used to come to him to attend his lectures and their boarding and lodging was arranged in the different schools, two of such scholars were settled in his room. Once they were revising their lesson and at a point their opinion differed, He was also present in the room he explained that point in grammatical sense in such a manner that both of them were astonished and said “you are a master of Persian, you must attend the Mathnawi lessons with us in the morning, it will help us in revision, but younger students were not allowed by the teacher, his room mates said they will try to get the permission, so the very next day he proceeded for the lesson, the teacher angrily said “why have you brought this chap” they replied “he is a master of Persian and joint study with him will be a great assistance for us. The teacher tested his skill in Persian, and he was satisfied, so he permitted him to join the class. In this way his hard work for learning Persian was rewarded by the Almighty Allah, that he was provided with the opportunity to learn the Mathnawi Sharif that consist of 28500 verses full of wisdom and love for Almighty Allah, at the peak of his youth, which developed the love for Allah in his heart in early age. Some
Guidance of Hazrat Moulana Thaboot-Ullah Dam-Ullah, (Rehmat Ullah Elaih)
As it has been earlier explained that a governing body of scholars governed the Schools of Khotan, the said governing body also appointed teachers. In those days in Balad Turkistan Logic, Philosophy and Fiqah were dominant subjects, and the Tafseer and Hadith were not in such focus as they would have been, although the great Mudahis and Muffasir belonged to that region. There was a young man from Kashghar Moulana Thaboot Ullah (R.A) who was famous as “Moulana Muthalith” (Moulana Triangle) as he could not properly understand a law of logic regarding triangle. To get the said concept cleared he traveled a lot and visited many cities, he went even to the Bukhara, he was satisfied from the teachers of Bukhara and it gave him the fame in the name of Moulana Muthalath. He went to the subcontinent for studies. He was admitted in “Dar-ul-uloom Deoband” where he enjoyed the learning by Khotanim-ul-Mohaddathin, Hafiz Al-Hadith Hazrat Maulana Syed Muhammad Anwar Shah Kashmiri (R.A), after completing his studies he returned to Khotan, and applied to the committee of scholars for his appointment in any of the schools. He was a man of Hadith and Tafseer, so the committee hesitated to appoint him in any prominent school of the city, and he was appointed in a relatively smaller school, which was situated in a graveyard out side the city, and only a few students used to study there. Although it was tradition of schools of Khotan that students of one school were not prohibited from seeking knowledge from another school, but the Scholars of the city did not like Moulana Thaboot Ullah(R.A) so they did not appreciated their students to concern him, and they also discouraged and even stopped their students to consult him, but that school in the graveyard was situated in the pathway of my father, once, when he was passing by the graveyard, he attended the school, where he observed that a teacher is conducting the lesson “Shamsia” of the Book of Logic “Qutbi” and they were discussing it. My father had also been studying the same in those days, and he had memorized the same, he to joined the lecture, deep knowledge of the teacher really impressed him he never had attended such a comprehensive tutorial. It was his first meeting with Moulana Thaboot Ullah (R.A). Next day he joined his class again, Moulana asked questions about the previous lesson and he answered correctly, and Moulana was quite satisfied, He decided to Join Moulana continuously, and started to seek knowledge from Moulana in his spare time, and very soon he won a soft corner in his teacher’s heart, and attracted his special attention.
Hazrat Moulana Thaboot Ullaha (R.A) was a specialist of different real and virtual subjects alongwith this he was also interested in spiritualism. He was not only a complete teacher but also a complete spiritual guide. He had been taught by the great personalities of Dar-Ul-Uloom DeoBand, specially Hazrat Moulana Syed Muhammad Anwar Shah Kashmiri (R.A) had really impressed him a lot. He used to talk about his great teacher very passionately, and told about his knowledge and wisdom with affection and love, and this attitude of the teacher has made Hazrat Khotani (R.A) a Fan of Moulana Syed Muhammad Anwar Shah Kashmiri (R.A), Even Moulana Thaboot Ullah (R.A) himself had directed him that “if I pass away before the completion of your studies, then you must go to sub-continent and seek knowledge from Syed Muhammad Anwar Shah Kashmiri (R.A).
An incident regarding the teacher’s dedication with studies
Moulana Thaboot Ullah (R.A) was too much dedicated to his studies, which evident from the following incident. As Moulana was a foreigner, so the administration of the Dar-ul-uloom Deoband had allotted him a separate room over the main entrance, where he was studied alone. That year he was studying “Matool”. One day after attending the class he came to his room after sunset, and started reading Matool, he was so occupied by the book that he did not even notice that whole night and next half day has elapsed. When his class fellows found him absent in next day’s lesson they thought he might be ill, so after the class they came to his room to see him, and found him studying the book, they asked “why have you not attended the class today” and he replied “ I have just come after attending the class with you” his class fellows said “No you have attended today”, but he had a sound stance that he has attended the class, then one of the fellows asked what have we studied today, and he told about the lessen, and all of them affirmed that it was the yesterday’s lesson, then he realized the fact. Another fact that indicated towards reality was that one of his hand with which support he was sitting, had paralyzed and it was rehabilitated after the massage and physiotherapy of two months.
FIRST MARRIAGE OF MY FATHER
Just after, he got matures, his Maternal Uncle Haji Saeed Ahmad(R.A) had solemnized his first marriage (Nikah) with his daughter just after he was matured, no child was born out of that wedlock and his wife passed away after a few years.
Then his teacher solemnized his second marriage with his own daughter and made him his son in law from his student.
REVOLUTION IN THE COUNTRY AND MARTYRDOM OF MOULANA THABOOT ULLAH (RAHMATULLAH ALAYHAY) My father had hardly received the preliminary guidance when the red storm of turmoil and communist revolution began to blow in the country and an endless period of bloodshed and massacre started. Because of the training of the Maulana and the fighting sprit, he was filled not only with educational and spiritual love but also with the passion of Jihad. The presence of heretical ideas made him disturbed and he came out of the boundary of school and plunged into the battleground of Jihad. He fought with his back to the wall and raised the call of Jihad. The scholars and the pious responded to his call and following suit, started Jihad. Though the party of scholars possessed almost nothing but was intoxicated martyrdom.
Moulana Thaboot Ullah (rahmatullah alayhay) made my father the guardian of the house and advised again, “if I achieve martyrdom then you must proceed to India for the completion of your studies. My father very successfully shouldered the responsibility assigned by his respected teacher. He also joined the fight against the attacking heretics in locality. After some time the shocking news of the death of Moulana created a stir in the vicinity. He was greatly shocked at the bereavement of his affectionate teacher and gracious father in law.
JOURNEY TO THE SUB-CONTINENT.
When he came out of the shock of his teacher’s death, then he remembered his teacher’s will about going to sub-continent, some fellows who have gone to the Dar-Ul-Uloom Deoband, also called through an enthusiastic letter, so he made his mind for the journey and started preparation. My father loved very much his wife who was also the daughter of his teacher, and that relationship was looking like an obstacle or hurdle in way of seeking knowledge. Although his wife had sweetly permitted him, but his feelings were too strong to control. To get control of his feelings he started practice living apart from his wife, and after two months when he felt better, he decided to start his journey and told his wife that if I do not come back within five years, you will be free, but her beloved wife could not bear the grief of his severance and passed away within four years.
In his journey his brother-in-law and few other young fellows accompanied him, and that small group of students commenced towards Sub-continent carrying on mules. It was a hard and breath-taking journey, as they had to travel through sky high snow capped mountains and very deep canyons. They crossed the highest peaks of the world Himalaya and K-2 on foot in two months. Some times such narrow passages came in their way, where only one person can pass through with his face towards the mountain. They lost many of their mules there as they fell in deep canyons. They also crossed rivers with frozen surface, where one fellow used to check the hardness of ice with his stick and other followed him, most of their stuff they were carrying was lost. But their courage did not bow before the storm of such hurdles, and after traveling of few months; they finally reached the sub-continent via Kashmir in a very ruined state, at the end of Ramzan-ul-Mubarak.
After reaching sub-continent, this caravan went to Bombay, there were some traders of Khotan, whom warmly welcomed them and treated them with great hospitality. They were surprised to see the Fenten Car and train for the first time, as they were familiar with only horses and mules used as conveyance. When they got refreshed, they went to Deo Band.
IN DAR-UL-ULOOM DEOBAND
After a long hard journey, that small group of very keen students finally reached Dar-Ul-Ulaoom Deoband which was found by pride of freedom fighters and great scholar Hazrat Moulana Rasheed Ahmad Gangohi (rahmatullah alayhay), They could not believe their eyes, it was like a dream come true.
What would they have felt is unexplainable? After reaching Dar-ul-ulaoom Deoband, my father’s first priority was to meet the great personality of Khotanim-ul-Mohadatheen Hazrat Moulana Syed Muhammad Anwar Shah Kashmiri (rahmatullah alayhay), about whom he had heard so much from his affectionate teacher and he was already impressed with this knowledge and wisdom, so he inquired from the senior students to see the Shah Sahib, this query made them so upset that he himself got confused, and then he was shocked with the news that Shah Sahib have passed away two years ago.
His heart was broken, He was dejected and hopeless, he felt his dreams spoiling, in distress he intended to return back, but the kind consultation of Moulana Shabbir Ahmad Usmani (rahmatullah alayhay), Hazrat Mufti Muhammad Shafi (rahmatullah alayhay), other companions and senior students of Turkistan, he changed his mind and stayed and decided to complete his studies.
ADMISSION IN DAR-UL-ULOOM
Now the first challenge was the admission in Dar-Ul-Ullom Deoband, as their admission test was very tough. Majority of students were unable to clear the test, although the first preference of students was Dar-Ul-Uloom Deoband, but after failure in getting admission the they used to go to other school. For my father a big hurdle was the language, as he could neither speak Urdu not he had any practice of speaking Persian, he was fluent only in Turkish, so the senior students suggested that he should join any other school for a while and after one or two years when he get good command over Urdu, he might try to get admission in Dar-ul-Uloom Deoband, otherwise he might fail in your first attempt. Although the suggestions were very discouraging, but he was so dedicated to his aim that he said If I failed to get admission in Dar-Ul-Uloom Deoband, I will go back. He said “although I could not avail the guidance of teacher of my teacher, but at least I can study in the same institute where my teacher had studied. So, he applied for admission and was nominated as candidate for the admission test of Hidaya Awaleen.