Muscles associated with the pharynx



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SPPA 2050 Speech Anatomy & Physiology

MUSCLES ASSOCIATED WITH THE PHARYNX





muscle

origin

insertion

Mechanical action

Motor supply

Superior Pharyngeal Constrictors














Middle Pharyngeal Constrictors














Inferior Pharyngeal Constrictors















Stylopharygeus
















MUSCLES ASSOCIATED WITH THE SOFT PALATE





muscle

origin

insertion

Mechanical action

Motor supply


Palatoglossus















Palatopharyngeus














Levator Veli Palatini

(Levator Palati)














Tensor Veli Palatini















MUSCLES ASSOCIATED WITH THE MANDIBLE





muscle

origin

insertion

Mechanical action

Motor supply

Anterior Belly of Digastric















Mylohyoid















Geniohyoid















Lateral Pterygoid















Medial Pterygoid















Masseter















Temporalis















MUSCLES OF THE TONGUE

    1. EXTRINSIC MUSCLES




muscle

origin

insertion

Mechanical action

Motor supply


Hyoglossus















Styloglossus















Genioglossus















Palatoglossus















MUSCLES OF THE TONGUE

    1. INTRINSIC MUSCLES




muscle

origin

insertion

Mechanical action

Motor supply


Superior Longitudinal















Inferior Longitudinal















Transverse (lingualis)















Vertical (lingualis)
















MUSCLES ASSOCIATED WITH THE FACE, LIPS & CHEEK





muscle

origin

insertion

Mechanical action

Motor supply


Buccinator















Risorius















Platysma















Orbicularis Oris















Zygomatic Major
















Zygomatic Minor















Levator Labii Superior















Depressor Labii Inferior
















Levator Anguli Oris















Depressor Anguli Oris















Mentalis

















MUSCLES ASSOCIATED WITH THE PHARYNX





muscle

origin

insertion

Mechanical action

Motor supply

Superior Pharyngeal Constrictors


Medial pterygoid plate

Pterygomandibular ligament




Midline pharyngeal raphe


Constricts pharynx


pharyngeal plexus

(CN IX, X)





Middle Pharyngeal Constrictors


Hyoid bone


Midline pharyngeal raphe


Constricts pharynx


pharyngeal plexus

(CN IX, X)




Inferior Pharyngeal Constrictors


Thyroid cartilage

Cricoid cartilage

(cricopharyngeus)


Midline pharyngeal raphe


Constricts pharynx

Constricts upper esophageal sphincter




pharyngeal plexus

(CN IX, X)





Stylopharygeus


Styloid process


Fibers interlace with the fibers of the pharyngeal constrictor


elevates the pharyngeal walls


CN IX



MUSCLES ASSOCIATED WITH THE SOFT PALATE


muscle

origin

insertion

Mechanical action

Motor supply


Palatoglossus


Soft palate


Sides of the tongue


Depress soft palate


CN X (pharyngeal branch)



Palatopharyngeus


Soft palate


Fibers split around the lev. veli palatini and insert into the lateral pharyngeal wall


Depress soft palate


CN X (pharyngeal branch)


Levator Veli Palatini

(Levator palati)


Temporal bone Cartilage of auditory tube


Palatine aponeurosis


Elevates soft palate


CN X (pharyngeal branch)



Tensor Veli Palatini


Sphenoid bone

Juncture of sphenoid & temporal bone Auditory tube




Quickly becomes a narrow tendon which hooks around the hamulus of the medial pterygoid plate and inserts into the palatine aponeurosis


Tense soft palate

Opens auditory tube





CN V

(V3)





MUSCLES ASSOCIATED WITH THE MANDIBLE





muscle

origin

insertion

Mechanical action

Motor supply

Anterior Belly of Digastric


Inside surface of mandible near midline

Intermediate tendon which is attached the hyoid bone

Depress mandible

CN V

(V3)




Mylohyoid


Inner surface of the mandible (deep to digastric)

Midline raphe (tendon) and hyoid bone

Depress mandible

CN V

(V3)




Geniohyoid


Inside surface of mandible near the midline (deep to digastric and mylohyoid)

Anterior surface of the hyoid bone

Depress mandible

C1 through CN XII



Lateral Pterygoid


Lateral pterygoid plate

Greater wing of the sphenoid




Neck of mandible


Depress mandible

Slide mandible forward




CN V

(V3)




Medial Pterygoid


Medial pterygoid plate


Medial surface of angle of mandible


Elevate mandible


CN V

(V3)




Masseter


zygomatic arch


Lateral surface of angle of mandible


Elevate mandible


CN V

(V3)




Temporalis


Temporal fossa of temporal bone


Coronoid process of mandible


Elevate mandible


CN V

(V3)





MUSCLES OF THE TONGUE

    1. EXTRINSIC MUSCLES




muscle

origin

insertion

Mechanical action

Motor supply


Hyoglossus


Hyoid bone


Dorsal half of tongue


retract and depress the tongue


CN. XII




Styloglossus


Styloid process


Lateral edges of the tongue dorsum


draws tongue dorsally (posteriorly) and rostrally (upward)


CN. XII




Genioglossus


Inner side of the midline of the mandible


Dorsum of the tongue

Hyoid bone




Largest and most powerful extrinsic muscle

Protrude tongue tip

Depress the tongue

Form a midline groove




CN. XII




Palatoglossus


Soft palate


Sides of the tongue


elevate the tongue and groove the dorsum


CN X (pharyngeal branch)



MUSCLES OF THE TONGUE

    1. INTRINSIC MUSCLES




muscle

origin & INSERTION

Mechanical action

Motor supply


Superior Longitudinal


Fibers runs along the length of the tongue dorsum just deep to mucosal membrane


Shortens the tongue, and turns the tip upward


CN. XII




Inferior Longitudinal


Fibers run from the apex to the root parallel to the length of the tongue


Shortens the tongue or pulls the tip down



CN. XII




Transverse (lingualis)


Fibers run from tongue center to sides


Narrows and elongates the tongue


CN. XII




Vertical (lingualis)


Fibers run rostral-caudal (up and down)


Flattens the tongue


CN. XII



MUSCLES ASSOCIATED WITH THE FACE, LIPS & CHEEK


muscle

origin

insertion

Mechanical action

Motor supply


Buccinator


Pterygomandibular raphe/ligament

Muscles of lips

Compress cheek

CN VII





Risorius


Fascial sheath overlying masseter

Angle of the mouth

Retract angle of mouth

CN VII





Platysma


Thin flat muscle with no definite origin and insertion




Tense skin of neck

CN VII





Orbicularis Oris

(Superior & Inferior)


Fibers run around the orifice of the mouth with a variety of attachments

Often subdivided into superior (OOS) and inferior fibers (OOI)






Sphincter action to compress the lips

CN VII





Zygomatic Major



Lateral surface of zygomatic b.

Fibers of OOS

Elevate angle of mouth

CN VII





Zygomatic Minor



Medial to z. major on the lateral margin of the orbit

Fibers of OOS

Elevate angle of mouth

CN VII




Levator Labii Superior



Lower margin of the orbit

Fibers of OOS

Elevate upper lip

CN VII





Depressor Labii Inferior



Mandible

Fibers of OOI

Depress lower lip

CN VII






Levator Anguli Oris


Deep to levator labii superior on the maxillary bone

Fibers of OOS

Elevate angle of mouth

CN VII






Depressor Anguli Oris


Mandible

Fibers of OOI

Depress angle of mouth

CN VII






Mentalis


Mandible, just below the incisors

Skin of the chin

Elevate lower lip

CN VII







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