Lower Motor Neuron in Spinal Cord



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Lower Motor Neuron in

Spinal Cord

Upper Motor Neuron in Cortex

Corticospinal Tract

Cerebellum influences

Basal Ganglia influences

Normal
















Efferent part of monosynaptic reflex

Voluntary willed movement

Rapid coordinated, alternating skilled movements that are learned

Facilitates voluntary intentional movements and inhibits extraneous movements




Affects muscle tone by inhibiting antagonists

Muscle tone. Inhibition of lower motor neurons, so there is not too much muscle tone

Eye-head coordinated movements

Fast saccadic eye movements of both eyes in the same direction



procedural learning of automatic movements such as walking, eating, running, drinking, dressing




Maintains muscle fibers (trophic factors)

Fine control, espec. finger flexors

Posture and Gait

Select appropriate behavior to execute based on cognitive, emotional and executive functions. “Behavior Switching”










Balance, equilibrium, orientation in space













Timing, duration, and amplitude of movements





COMPARISON OF MOTOR SYSTEMS with examples from NeuroLogic Exam Website:

http://library.med.utah.edu/neurologicexam/html/home_exam.html

Normal examination samples are also on the same site.



COMPARISON OF MOTOR SYSTEMS with examples from NeuroLogic Exam:

http://library.med.utah.edu/neurologicexam/html/home_exam.html




Lower Motor Neuron

Spinal Cord

Upper Motor Neuron

Corticospinal Tract

Cerebellum

Basal Ganglia

Abnormal
















Weakness or paralysis

Weakness or paralysis; spastic paralysis

http://library.med.utah.edu/neurologicexam/movies/gait_ab_08_x2.mov

No weakness

No weakness







Hyperreflexia

Hyperactive deep tendon reflexes



http://library.med.utah.edu/neurologicexam/movies/motor_ab_09_x2.mov

Truncal ataxia,

http://library.med.utah.edu/neurologicexam/movies/coord_ab_10_x2.mov

gait ataxia

http://library.med.utah.edu/neurologicexam/movies/coord_ab_11_x2.mov

Shuffling or festinating gait, small steps, hard to turn or start moving typical of Parkinson’s Disease

http://library.med.utah.edu/neurologicexam/movies/gait_ab_12_x2.mov






Fasciculation

http://library.med.utah.edu/neurologicexam/movies/motor_ab_01_x2.mov

Babinski- extensor plantar reflex

http://library.med.utah.edu/neurologicexam/movies/motor_ab_10_x2.mov

Nystagmus, Dizziness,

http://vimeo.com/7563593

Masked facies, few blinks see at end of

http://library.med.utah.edu/neurologicexam/movies/gait_ab_12_x2.mov




Muscle Atrophy

http://library.med.utah.edu/neurologicexam/movies/cranialnerve_ab_25_x2.mov

Spasticity

http://library.med.utah.edu/neurologicexam/movies/motor_ab_02_x2.mov

Dysmetria- ataxia of arms

http://library.med.utah.edu/neurologicexam/movies/coord_ab_02_x2.mov

Difficulty turning or starting, hypokinetic = bradykinesia

Turning en bloc http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6XoHBqw8GnI




Flaccid paralysis




Decomposition of movement

http://library.med.utah.edu/neurologicexam/movies/coord_ab_06_x2.mov

Paucity of associated movements







Lower Motor Neuron

Spinal Cord

Upper Motor Neuron

Corticospinal Tract

Cerebellum

Basal Ganglia










Dysynergia













Dysdiadochokinesia- inability to do rapid alternating movements

http://library.med.utah.edu/neurologicexam/movies/coord_ab_05_x2.mov

Chorea, athetosis, hyperkinetic typical of Huntington’s Disease

http://library.med.utah.edu/neurologicexam/movies/gait_ab_13_x2.mov










Hypotonia- pendular reflexes

Rigidity (cogwheel), lead-pipe










Intention tremor

http://library.med.utah.edu/neurologicexam/movies/coord_ab_02_x2.mov

Resting tremor seen in third video

http://library.med.utah.edu/neurologicexam/movies/coord_ab_02_x2.mov










Scanning speech

http://library.med.utah.edu/neurologicexam/movies/coord_ab_01_x2.mov

Soft speech





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