Table S4. Terms for bananas in the database used in this study. Where no latitude and longitude are given, precise coordinates for this language’s centroid are not known. In those cases where a language appears more than once, or a language is listed with more than one term, the different terms represent different species of bananas; rarely is identifying information available for the different terms (that is, we cannot in most cases associate a particular term with a specific cultivar). The presence of multiple terms in the table in most cases reflects the availability of good etymological data, rather than the linguistic resources of the language in question. Note that we have not attempted to identify all possible cognates, only those that appear to be relevant to the Melanesian/Island Southeast Asian dispersal. Work on related terms outside this area will reveal further cognate sets, such as those found in Dravidian languages27, and possibly link some of the currently proposed cognate sets. Additional reflexes of, eg., *qaRutay can be found in Munda (Austro-Asiatic) languages of eastern South Asia27.