Introduction Distinguish between mechanical and chemical digestion



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  1. Introduction

    1. Distinguish between mechanical and chemical digestion.

      1. Mechanical Digestion:




      1. Chemical Digestion:




    1. List five major components of the alimentary canal.














    1. Name 4 accessory glands to the alimentary canal.












  1. Alimentary Canal

    1. Name each layer of the alimentary canal wall. Then describe their tissues and their functions.

      1. Inner most layer =

        • Tissue:

        • Function:




      1. Second layer is called:

        • Tissues included in this layer:

        • Functions of this layer:




      1. Third layer is called:




      1. Outermost layer is called:

        • What tissue makes up this layer?

        • What is the function of this layer?




    1. Neural Innervations of the Alimentary Canal




      1. The alimentary canal has its own nervous system, called the __________________.




      1. Identify two plexuses within this nervous system, and describe their actions.











      1. __________________ impulses generally increase the activities of the digestive system, while _____________ impulses inhibit digestion activities.


  1. Mouth

    1. Overview

      1. The process of chewing and mixing food with saliva is called ________________.




      1. Identify the two major divisions of the mouth








      1. What tissue lines the mouth?



    1. Components of the mouth

      1. Cheeks

        • Which facial muscles form the cheeks?




        • The fat pad that forms the cheeks is called the _____________




      1. Lips

        • Describe the tissue that forms the lips.




        • Why do the lips appear red?




      1. Tongue

        • A membranous fold, called the ________________ connects the tongue to the floor of the mouth

        • Distinguish between the body and the root of the tongue.

        • Rough projections that cover the surface of the tongue are called ________.




      1. Palate

        • Which two bones make up the hard palate?




        • What is the function of the soft palate and the uvula?




      1. Tonsils

        • _________ tonsils are located at the root of the tongue

        • _________ tonsils are associated with the soft palate

        • _________ tonsils are also called adenoids




      1. Teeth

        • Primary Teeth

          1. Primary teeth from age ____ to age ____.

          2. How many primary teeth does a child have?




        • Secondary Teeth

          1. Secondary teeth begin to erupt around the age of _____.




          1. How many of the following secondary teeth does an adult usually have?

Also include the function for each type of tooth.

            1. Incisors: number ______, function ___________

            2. Canines: number ______, function ___________

            3. Premolars: number ______, function ___________

            4. Molars: number______, function ___________




        • Describe the composition for each of the following parts of a tooth.

          1. Enamel –

          2. Dentin –

          3. Pulp cavity –

          4. Root canal –

          5. Alveolar Process –

          6. Cementum –

          7. Periodontal Ligaments –

          8. Crown-

          9. Root-




      1. Salivary Glands

        • Distinguish between mucus and serous saliva.







          1. Submandibular Gland




          1. Sublingual Gland



  1. Pharynx & Esophagus

    1. Pharynx

      1. Identify the regions of the pharynx described by the following locations

        • Portion that is located superior to the soft palate :




        • Located between the soft palate and the epiglottis:




        • Portion that is located between the epiglottis and the esophagus:



      1. Distinguish between the actions of the longitudinal muscles and the constrictor muscles within the pharynx.



      1. What is the function of the inferior constrictor muscle?



    1. Esophagus

      1. What tissue lines the esophagus?




      1. To reach the stomach, the esophagus passes through an opening in the diaphragm called the _________________.




      1. Describe a hiatal hernia




      1. What muscle prevents regurgitation from the stomach?



    1. Describe three phases of the swallowing Mechanism

      1. Volunteer Stage



      1. Reflex Stage


      1. Peristalsis



  1. Stomach

    1. Anatomy

      1. Identify the four main regions of the stomach












      1. What muscle controls the rate at which contents leave from the stomach into the small intestine?




    1. Histology

      1. What type of tissue for ms the lining of the stomach?




      1. The surface of the stomach is studded with many small openings, called ______.




      1. Describe the functions of each cell type within the gastric glands

        • Parietal Cells –




        • Chief Cells –




        • Mucous Cells –



    1. Physiology

      1. Name two functions of the stomach?




      1. Illustrate a chemical reaction that depicts the formation of pepsin from gastric gland secretions.




      1. Why is it important that pepsin is not formed until it reaches the surface of the stomach?



    1. Regulation of gastric juice secretions

      1. Which hormone inhibits gastric juice secretion during non-digesting conditions?




      1. Which neurotransmitter promotes gastric juice secretions? Is this neurotransmitter released in response to sympathetic or parasympathetic impulses?




      1. Which hormone promotes gastric juice secretion (there may be more than one)? Is this hormone released in response to sympathetic or parasympathetic impulses?




      1. Name and describe the three phases of gastric juice secretion:













      1. Food particles mixed with gastric juices in the stomach is called _________.




      1. Describe the enterogastric reflex.




      1. What is the primary cause of peptic ulcers?




  1. Pancreas

    1. Anatomy

      1. Describe the shape and location of the pancreas




      1. Which pancreatic cells provide endocrine functions? Which cells provide exocrine functions?




      1. The pancreatic duct joins the common bile duct to form a dilated tube, called the _________, just before connecting to the duodenum.




    1. Pancreatic Juice

      1. Identify the substrate for each of the following enzymes:

        • Pancreatic amylase

        • Pancreatic lipase

        • Trypsin

        • Chymotrypsin

        • Nuclease




      1. Illustrate a reaction that depicts the formation of trypsin.



      1. Why is enterokinase secreted within the duodenum and not within the pancreas?




      1. What is the purpose of secretin? What stimulates the secretion of secretin?




      1. What is the purpose of cholecystokin? What stimulates the secretion of cholecystokinin?




  1. Liver

    1. Describe the anatomy of the liver. Include the four quadrants and two major ligaments.




    1. What is the functional unit of the liver called?




    1. Describe the structure of hepatic lobules?

      1. ______ cells remain fixed to the endothelium of hepatic sinusoids, and remove bacteria by Phagocytosis.




      1. What is meant by a countercurrent flow of blood and bile through hepatic sinusoids?




      1. Where does blood go after it has entered the central vein of a hepatocyte?

      2. List 8 major functions of the liver

















      3. What is the major function of bile?




      1. Where is bile stored?




      1. What hormone stimulates the secretion of bile?



  1. Small Intestine

    1. Overview

      1. Name three sections of the small intestine and include the approximate length of each.










      1. Name three functions of the small intestine










    1. Peritoneum

      1. The jejunum and ileum are suspended from a double layer foled of peritoneum, called __________.




      1. A double fold of the peritoneum, called the ________ drapes from the stomach over the small intestine.




    1. Small intestine wall

      1. Describe three folds that greatly increase the surface area of the small intestine wall.







      2. What muscle controls the rate at which waste leaves the small intestine into the large intestine?




      1. What tissue lines the small intestine wall?




      1. What are lacteals? What purpose do they serve in digestion?




      1. Describe the location and function of intestinal glands.




    1. Secretions into the small intestine

      1. What are Brunner’s glands and where are they located?




      1. Identify the substrate for each of the following enzymes:

        • Peptidase-

        • Sucrose-

        • Maltase-

        • Lactase-

        • Intestinal lipase-

  1. Large Intestine

    1. Name three functions of the large intestine.










    1. The blind pouch at the beginning of the large intestine is called the ________. What vestigial organ is attached to this structure?




    1. Name the 5 sections of the colon.




    1. Two muscles guard the anus. Name each muscle, and indicate whether they are under voluntary or involuntary control.




    1. What is the intestinal flora?


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