International spinal cord injury core data set



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INTERNATIONAL SPINAL CORD INJURY CORE DATA SET - VERSION 2.0 - 2016.10.23

INTERNATIONAL SPINAL CORD INJURY CORE DATA SET

VERSION 2.0



The first version of the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Core Data Set was developed by Michael DeVivo, Fin Biering-Sørensen, Susan Charlifue, Vanessa Noonan, Marcel Post, Thomas Stripling, Peter Wing (see DeVivo et al. 2006). Terminology and initial history of the International Spinal Cord Injury Data Sets development is documented in the article by Biering-Sørensen et al.2006.
The second version of the International SCI Core Data Set was developed by Michael DeVivo, Susan Charlifue, Peter New, Vanessa Noonan, Marcel Post, Lawrence Vogel, and Fin Biering-Sørensen.
Acknowledgements

Funding and ”in kind” support for the development of the first version of the International Spinal Cord Injury Core Data Set were received from the International Spinal Cord Society, American Spinal Injury Association, Swiss Paraplegia Fund, Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Rick Hansen Man in Motion Foundation and Paralyzed Veterans of America.

Other persons who helped draft the first version of the International Spinal Cord Injury Core Data Set were Raymond Cripps, James Harrison, Bon San Bonne Lee, Peter J. O’Connor, Renee Johnson, Lawrence C. Vogel, and Gale G. Whiteneck.
Organisations that have endorsed the first version of the International SCI Core Data Set as of April 1, 2006 International Spinal Cord Society

American Spinal Injury Association

International Society for Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine

American Paraplegic Society

Paralyzed Veterans of America

American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

National Spinal Cord Injury Association (USA)

American Association of Spinal Cord Injury Psychologists and Social Workers

American Association of Spinal Cord Injury Nurses

North American Spine Society

Rick Hansen Man in Motion Foundation (Canada)

Ontario Neurotrauma Foundation (Canada)

International Collaboration on Repair Discoveries

Quadriplegic Association of South Africa

American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine

American Association of Orthopedic Surgeons

Christopher Reeve Foundation (USA).

Using the International SCI Core Data Set

It is advised to practice with the training cases before implementing the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Core Data Set in your own setting.



Revisions to the International Spinal Cord Injury Core Data Set – Version 2.0

The International SCI Core Data Set Version 1.0 has been the adopted standard for collecting and reporting minimal data on study population characteristics since it was first published in Spinal Cord (DeVivo et al.2006). Standard methods to analyze and report descriptive statistics that would facilitate comparisons across published studies were also adopted in 2011 (DeVivo MJ et al. 2011). All International SCI Data Sets undergo periodic review to ensure continued relevance, acceptance and usage by the SCI research community. In 2015, the International SCI Data Sets Committee solicited comments and proposed revisions to the International SCI Core Data Set Version 1.0. Many comments were received, and each was reviewed by the Committee. In 2016 the International SCI Data Sets were reviewed to ensure they are relevant for pediatric SCI and some revisions were recommended. When reviewing proposed revisions, the Executive Committee weighed the potential benefits of the proposal against the loss of continuity resulting from any revision. Ultimately, the Committee adopted several changes to the Core Data Set and accompanying analytic and reporting standards. These changes are summarized in the ensuing narrative, followed by the revised data form and syllabus version 2.0.



List of specific revisions incorporated into the International SCI Core Data Set Version 2.0

  1. Clarifying language was added to the instructions for coding date of injury. For non-traumatic cases, the date of injury should be coded as the approximate date of first physician visit for symptoms related to spinal cord dysfunction.



  1. Date of Death was added as a new variable to be included in the Core Data Set.



  1. Total Days Hospitalized for Acute Care and Rehabilitation was deleted from the Core Data Set. Dates of admission and discharge remain, so length of stay can be calculated if needed.



  1. A new category reflecting “transgender and other related” was added to the gender variable, in recognition of some people identifying as transgender, transsexual, intersex or other similar gender affiliation (New and Currie 2016; Reisner et al. 2016).



  1. Several new responses were added to the etiology variable to allow basic categorization of non-traumatic cases and to include pediatric causes of SCI: Congenital or genetic etiology (e.g., spina bifida); Degenerative non-traumatic etiology; Tumor – benign; Tumor – malignant; Vascular etiology (e.g., ischemia, hemorrhage, malformation); Infection (e.g., bacterial, viral); Other non-traumatic spinal cord dysfunction.



  1. Requirements for reporting the neurologic examination results were clarified. For cross-sectional post-discharge studies, the exam to be reported should be the most recent exam, and the unknown code should be used whenever the patient cannot engage in the exam due to age or condition.



  1. A response category was added to the variable on utilization of ventilatory assistance to reflect the use of CPAP for sleep apnea.



  1. The use of staples was added to the methods of internal fixation of the spine.



  1. Place of discharge was clarified to mean place of current residence for post-discharge cross-sectional studies, and place of discharge was also clarified to reflect the intended final disposition rather than a temporary stay in a hospital or nursing home.



  1. Brachial plexus injuries were added to the list of qualifying associated injuries.



  1. Recognizing that most general population data are published in 5 year increments of 0-4, 5-9, 10-14, etc., the recommended grouping for analyzing and reporting age should be changed to 0-14, 15-29, 30-44, 45-59, 60-74, and 75+. If necessary, this could be further reduced to 0-29, 30-59, and 60+ based on available sample size. For studies of the pediatric SCI population, the recommended age grouping is now at 0-5, 6-12, 13-14, and 15-21 so as to match anticipated milestones in the maturation process.  Similarly, years post-injury should be grouped <1, 1-4, 5-9, 10-14, and every 5 years thereafter, collapsing as needed for sample size with categories ending in 4 or 9. The recommended calendar time intervals do no need to be changed (for example 5 year intervals such as 1990-94, 1995-99, 2000-04, 2005-09, etc., with collapsing again as needed for sample size). Each of these variables could still be treated continuously in multivariate analyses. This change should not materially affect the ability to compare with previous research since the intervals are only 1 year different from the past.

Training in the Use of the Core Data Set
Training cases have been contributed by Fin Biering-Sørensen, Michael J. DeVivo, Vanessa Noonan, Pradeep Thumbikat and Peter Wing.
Try first to fill in a blank scoring sheet (see International SCI Core Data Set Collection Form – Version 2.0), and afterwards check with the filled in scoring-sheet to see if the scoring has been done correctly.
The documentation with explanations for the International SCI Core Data Set is found in the Introduction to the International Spinal Cord Injury Core Data Set – Version 2.0.
Questions and suggestions regarding the International SCI Core Data Set should be directed to Vanessa Noonan Vanessa.Noonan@vch.ca or Fin Biering-Sørensen fin.biering-soerensen@regionh.dk.
INTRODUCTION TO THE INTERNATIONAL SPINAL CORD INJURY CORE DATA SET – VERSION 2.0

The purpose of the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Core Data Set is to standardize the collection and reporting of a minimal amount of information necessary to evaluate and compare results of published studies. At minimum, published studies should include information on the age of the study population at the time of injury, the current age of the study population if different from age at injury, the length of elapsed time after injury when data are being collected, the calendar time frame during which the study was conducted, the gender of the study population, the causes of spinal cord dysfunction, and the neurologic status of the study population. In addition, studies of health services and rehabilitation outcomes should also contain information on dates of initial acute admission and rehabilitation discharge, date of death, whether a vertebral injury was present, whether spinal surgery was performed, whether associated injuries were present, whether patients were ventilator-dependent, and the place of discharge from inpatient care. Inclusion of more detailed information will depend on the research topic.

It is extremely important that data be collected in a uniform manner. For this reason, each variable and each response category within each variable have been specifically defined in a way that is designed to promote the collection and reporting of comparable minimal data.

Use of a standard coding scheme (assignment of numeric values to response categories) and format is essential for combining data from multiple investigators and locations. Therefore, all response categories within each variable have been assigned codes that can be used consistently at all locations. However, other formats and coding schemes may be equally effective and could be used in individual studies or by agreement of the collaborating investigators.

The International SCI Core Data Set will often be used together with other International SCI Data Sets related to other SCI specific topics when relevant. All these International SCI Data Sets may be seen and downloaded for free from the International Spinal Cord Society’s website: http://www.iscos.org.uk/international-sci-data-sets.

VARIABLE NAME: Date of Birth

DESCRIPTION: This variable documents the patient's date of birth.

LENGTH: 8

FORMAT: Numeric (yyyymmdd)

CODES: 9999-99-99 Unknown

COMMENTS: Record the year, month, and day of birth. If the month or day is unknown, it should be coded “99”; if the year is unknown, it should be coded “9999”.

Numeric format is used rather than date format for computer storage of the data because the unknown codes are not valid dates.

VARIABLE NAME: Date of Injury

DESCRIPTION: This variable specifies the date the spinal cord injury occurred.

LENGTH: 8

FORMAT: Numeric (yyyymmdd)

CODES: 9999-99-99 Unknown

COMMENTS: Record the year, month, and day of injury. If the month or day is unknown, it should be coded “99”; if the year is unknown, it should be coded “9999”.


For non-traumatic cases, date of injury should be coded as the approximate date of the first physician visit for symptoms related to spinal cord dysfunction.
Numeric format is used rather than date format for computer storage of the data because the unknown codes are not valid dates.
VARIABLE NAME: Date of Acute Care Hospital Admission

DESCRIPTION: This variable specifies the date of admission to the first acute care hospital after the spinal cord injury occurred.

LENGTH: 8

FORMAT: Numeric (yyyymmdd)

CODES: 9999-99-99 Unknown

COMMENTS: Record the year, month, and day of first acute care hospital admission. If the month or day is unknown, it should be coded “99”; if the year is unknown, it should be coded “9999”.

Numeric format is used rather than date format for computer storage of the data because the unknown codes are not valid dates.

VARIABLE NAME: Date of Final Inpatient Discharge

DESCRIPTION: This variable specifies the date of discharge from the last inpatient hospital when all planned acute care and rehabilitation phases of treatment are completed.

LENGTH: 8

FORMAT: Numeric (yyyymmdd)

CODES: 9999-99-99 Unknown

COMMENTS: Record the year, month, and day of discharge from the last inpatient hospital when all planned acute care and rehabilitation phases of treatment are completed. If the month or day is unknown, it should be coded “99”; if the year is unknown, it should be coded “9999”.

Numeric format is used rather than date format for computer storage of the data because the unknown codes are not valid dates.

On this date, patients will typically be discharged home (with no further planned inpatient admissions) or discharged to a long-term care facility. Outpatient rehabilitation or a home rehabilitation program may continue after this date, or limited rehabilitation therapy may continue in the long-term care facility. If the patient dies during inpatient hospitalization, this will be the date of death.

If there is a planned interruption in the inpatient hospitalization and the patient is readmitted for further care, then the date of inpatient discharge is the date of discharge for the planned readmission. An example of this would be a patient who is discharged home temporarily until he is ready for further rehabilitation and then is brought back to the hospital for completion of inpatient rehabilitation. The date of inpatient discharge is the last date of discharge with no further planned hospitalizations. Subsequent admissions and discharges for treatment of unplanned secondary medical complications such as infections or pressure sores are not to be coded in this variable.

_________________________________________________________________________
VARIABLE NAME: Date of Death

DESCRIPTION: This variable specifies the date of death for patients who have died.

LENGTH: 8

FORMAT: Numeric (yyyymmdd)

CODES: 9999-99-99 Deceased but with unknown date

Blank (patient is thought to still be alive)

COMMENTS: Record the year, month, and day of death. If the month or day is unknown, it should be coded “99”; if the year is unknown, it should be coded “9999”.
Numeric format is used rather than date format for computer storage of the data because the unknown codes are not valid dates.

VARIABLE NAME: Gender

DESCRIPTION: This variable specifies the gender of the patient.

LENGTH: 1

FORMAT: Numeric

CODES: 1 Male

2 Female

3 Transgender or other related

9 Unknown

COMMENTS: Record the gender that the patient identifies with. In recognition of some people identifying as transgender, transsexual, intersex or other similar gender affiliation, this can be specified by ‘Transgender or other related’ (New and Currie 2016; Reisner et al. 2016).

VARIABLE NAME: Spinal Cord Injury Etiology

DESCRIPTION: This variable identifies the etiology of the spinal cord injury. SCI is impairment of the spinal cord or cauda equina function resulting from the application of an external force of any magnitude or a dysfunction or disease process.

LENGTH: 2

FORMAT: Numeric

CODES:


  1. Sports

  2. Assault

  3. Transport

  4. Fall

  5. Birth injury or other traumatic cause

  6. Congenital or genetic etiology (e.g., spina bifida)

  7. Degenerative non-traumatic etiology

  8. Tumor – benign

  9. Tumor – malignant

  10. Vascular etiology (e.g., ischemia, hemorrhage, malformation)

  11. Infection (eg., bacterial, viral)

  12. Other non-traumatic spinal cord dysfunction

99 Unspecified or Unknown

COMMENTS: This variable is for the traumatic spinal cord injuries adapted from the International Classification of External Causes of Injuries (ICECI). In its entirety, the ICECI provides a multi-axial description of the event that resulted in SCI. Four axes have been developed, including the External Cause of Injury Axis, the Intent of Injury Axis, the Place of Injury Axis, and the Injury Activity Axis. Use of the complete version of the ICECI (including all four axes and subcategories not included in the core data set) is recommended for injury surveillance activities or other research studies the goal of which would be to provide information useful for the development of interventions targeted at primary prevention of spinal cord injuries.

Because it is possible that an injury event may be classifiable into more than one of these categories, the following prioritization has been established for assigning codes:

First coding priority for traumatic SCI is given to sports. If the injury event involved sports it should be coded as a 1 (Sports) regardless of whether it involved assault, transport or a fall. Code 1 would be appropriate whenever the ICECI Injury Activity Axis would be coded as “sports and exercise during leisure time”

(ICECI Injury Activity code 4) regardless of coding on other ICECI Axes.

Second priority for traumatic SCI is given to Assault. If the event did not involve sports but it did involve an assault, then the event should be coded as a 2 (Assault) regardless of whether it involved transport or a fall. Code 2 would be appropriate whenever the ICECI Intent of Injury Axis would be coded as “assault” (ICECI Intent of Injury code 3) and the ICECI Injury Activity Axis would not be coded as “sports and exercise during leisure time” (ICECI Injury Activity code 4) regardless of other ICECI Axes.

Third priority for traumatic SCI is given to Transport. If the event was neither sports nor assault related but it involved transport, then the event should be coded as 3 (Transport) regardless of whether it involved a fall. Code 3 would be appropriate whenever the ICECI External Cause of Injury Axis would be coded as “transport injury event” (ICECI External Cause of Injury code 1.1) and ICECI Intent of Injury Axis would not be coded as “assault” (ICECI Intent of Injury code 3) and ICECI Injury Activity Axis would not be coded as “sports and exercise during leisure time” (ICECI Injury Activity code 4).

Fourth priority for traumatic SCI is given to Fall. If the event was neither sports, assault nor transport related and it involved a fall then it should be coded as 4 (Fall). Code 4 would be appropriate whenever the ICECI External Cause of Injury Axis would be coded as “falling, stumbling, or jumping” (ICECI External Cause of Injury code 1.5) and ICECI Intent of Injury Axis would not be coded as “assault” (ICECI Intent of Injury code 3) and ICECI Injury Activity Axis would not be coded as “sports and exercise during leisure time” (ICECI Injury Activity code 4).

Use code 5 (other traumatic cause) for birth injuries or all other known (specified) or unknown traumatic causes whenever codes 1 through 4 of this etiology variable do not apply. Paralysis secondary to surgical procedures when the patient does not have a neurological deficit prior to surgery would be coded in this category.

Use codes 6 through 12 (non-traumatic causes) if there is impairment of the spinal cord or cauda equina function that is not caused either directly or indirectly by an external event.

Codes 6-11 include the most common non-traumatic causes as classified by the non-traumatic SCI datasets classification to the second level (New and Marshall 2014).

Code 12 should be used of all other less common causes and cases of non-traumatic spinal cord damage where the exact etiology is unknown.

If more detailed information regarding non-traumatic causes of SCI is needed, additional variables can be selected from the International SCI Non-traumatic Data Set (New and Marshall 2014).

________________________________________________________________________

VARIABLE NAME: Vertebral Injury

DESCRIPTION: This variable documents whether there was a spinal fracture and/or dislocation in addition to the spinal cord injury.

LENGTH: 1

FORMAT: Numeric

CODES: 0 No


    1. Yes

  1. Unknown

COMMENTS: Spinal fracture or dislocation is defined as any break, rupture, or crack through or between any part(s) of the vertebral column from the occiput to the coccyx.

If more detailed information regarding vertebral injury is needed, including information on non-continuous vertebral injuries, additional variables can be selected from the International SCI Spinal Column Injury Data Set (Dvorak et al. 2012).

VARIABLE NAME: Associated Injury

DESCRIPTION: This variable documents whether any of the following pre-specified major injuries occurred at the same time as the spinal cord injury: moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (Glasgow Coma Scale 12 or below at discharge), non-vertebral fractures requiring surgery, severe facial injuries affecting sense organs, major chest injury requiring chest-tube or mechanical ventilation, traumatic amputations of an arm or leg (or injuries severe enough to require surgical amputation), severe hemorrhaging, brachial plexus injuries, or damage to any internal organ requiring surgery.

LENGTH: 1

FORMAT: Numeric

CODES: 0 No


  1. Yes

  1. Unknown

COMMENTS: Do not include other associated injuries not listed above, negative findings from exploratory surgery, and do not include injuries that pre-date the spinal cord injury.

VARIABLE NAME: Spinal Surgery for traumatic spinal cord injuries

DESCRIPTION: This variable documents whether any of the following spinal surgical procedures were performed during the inpatient hospitalization following a traumatic spinal cord injury: laminectomy, neural canal restoration, reduction, spinal fusion, or internal fixation of the spine.

LENGTH: 1

FORMAT: Numeric

CODES: 0 No

1 Yes

9 Not applicable (non-traumatic case) or Unknown



COMMENTS: Laminectomy is defined as removal of normal intact lamina or foreign body at the site of spinal cord damage.

Neural canal restoration is defined as the removal of bone or disk fragments, blood clots, or foreign bodies (such as bullet fragments) from the spinal canal.

Reduction is defined as replacement of one or more dislocated, subluxed or angulated vertebra into anatomic or near anatomic alignment.

Spinal fusion is defined as the addition of a bone graft to the vertebrae for the purpose of achieving intervertebral fusion or stability.

Internal fixation of the spine is defined as attaching rods, plates, wires, staples, etc. to the spine (individually or in combination) to provide internal surgical stabilization of the vertebral column.

If more detailed information regarding surgical procedures is needed, additional variables can be selected from the International SCI Spinal Interventions and Surgical Procedures Data Set (Dvorak et al. 2015).

VARIABLE NAME: Utilization of Ventilatory Assistance

DESCRIPTION: This variable documents any use of any type of ventilatory assistance used to sustain respiration on the date of final inpatient discharge (the date of discharge from the last inpatient rehabilitation hospital or discharge from the last acute care hospital if the patient is not admitted to a rehabilitation hospital). For cross-sectional post-discharge studies, this variable documents current use of ventilatory assistance.

LENGTH: 1

FORMAT: Numeric

CODES: 0 No

1 Yes, less than 24 hours per day at discharge



  1. Yes, 24 hours per day at discharge

  2. Yes, unknown number of hours per day at discharge

  3. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) for sleep apnea

9 Unknown

COMMENTS: Ventilatory assistance includes but is not limited to mechanical ventilators, phrenic nerve stimulators, diaphragmatic pacing, external negative pressure devices, and Bilevel Positive Airway Pressure (BiPAP). Do not include routine administration of oxygen or periodic Intermittent Positive Pressure Breathing (IPPB) administration.

____________________________________________________________________

VARIABLE NAME: Place of Discharge or Current Residence

DESCRIPTION: This variable specifies either the discharge disposition or the current residence of the patient.

LENGTH: 2

FORMAT: Numeric

CODES: 01 Private residence: includes house, condominium, mobile home, apartment, or houseboat



  1. Hospital: includes mental hospital or other acute care hospital for management of continuing medical issues after spinal cord injury-related care and/or rehabilitation is completed

  2. Nursing home: includes skilled nursing facilities and institutions providing essentially long-term, custodial, chronic disease care

  3. Assisted living residence: includes residential non-institutional locations in which some level of support for activities of daily living is provided

  4. Group living situation: includes transitional living facility or any residence shared by non-family members

  5. Correctional institution: includes prison, penitentiary, jail, correctional center, etc.

  6. Hotel or motel

  7. Homeless: includes cave, car, tent, etc.

  8. Deceased

  9. Other, unclassified

  1. Unknown

COMMENTS: If the patient’s place of residence does not fit into any of the above classifications, document it as “other, unclassified”.
Place of residence at discharge should reflect the intended final disposition. If the patient is discharged to a hospital or nursing home temporarily for custodial care only pending home renovations or for other reasons, then the final intended destination should be coded rather than “hospital” or “nursing home”.
For cross-sectional post-discharge studies, this variable documents current place of residence. When the person is currently hospitalized on a temporary basis, the usual place of residence should be coded rather than “hospital”.

VARIABLE NAME: Dates of the Neurologic Examinations

DESCRIPTION: These variables document the dates on which the neurologic examinations were performed:

1) at initial acute care hospital examination



  1. at discharge from the last inpatient hospital

LENGTH: 8 for each entry

FORMAT: Numeric (yyyymmdd)

CODES: Any valid date

8888-88-88 Not Done

9999-99-99 Unknown

COMMENTS: Record the year, month, and day. If the month or day is unknown, it should be coded “99”; if the year is unknown, it should be coded “9999”.

Use the unknown code (“9999-99-99”) when it is not known if there was a neurologic exam, or when the patient cannot engage in an examination due to age or condition.

Date format is not used because the unknown and not done codes are not valid dates.

The International Standards for Neurological Classification of SCI cannot be conducted in children five years of age and younger (Mulcahey and Biering-Sorensen 2014; Mulcahey et al. 2011), thus motor level, sensory level, neurologic level and AIS are recorded as 8888-88-88.

When parts of the exam are done on different dates, the date of the exam should be the day on which most parts of the exam were done.

All admission and discharge exams should be performed within 72 hours of the corresponding admission or discharge date; however, data for exams performed later than 72 hours after admission or more than 72 hours before discharge can be included in the database. For cross-sectional post-discharge studies, this variable documents the date of the most recent neurologic exam.

The complete neurologic exam consists of the sensory and motor levels and the American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS). This exam must be performed by a physician or a designated person who has been trained using the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury guidelines, e.g. by using the International Standards Training e-Learning Program (InSTeP) (http://lms3.learnshare.com/home.aspx). In general refer to the latest published version of The International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury for complete information on the sensory, motor examination etc.

VARIABLE NAME: Sensory Level

DESCRIPTION: The sensory level (which may differ by side of body) is the most caudal segment of the spinal cord with normal sensory function for pinprick and light touch on both sides of the body. Right and left levels are documented separately

1) at initial acute care hospital examination


  1. at discharge from the last inpatient hospital

LENGTH: 3 for each entry

FORMAT: Character

CODES C01-C08 Cervical (C1 - C8)

T01-T12 Thoracic (Dorsal, T1 - T12)

L01-L05 Lumbar (L1 - L5)

S01-S05 Sacral (S1 - S5)

X00 Normal neurologic exam

X99 Unknown or Not Done

COMMENTS: If only the alphabetic part of the level is known, it is permissible to use code C, L, T, or S followed by numeric code "99". Use code X99 if the level is completely unknown, the exam was not done due to age, condition, or other reason, or there was no corresponding admission or discharge.

For cross-sectional post-discharge studies, this variable documents the sensory level from the most recent neurologic exam.

VARIABLE NAME: Motor Level

DESCRIPTION: The motor level (the lowest normal motor segment - which may differ by side of body) is defined by the lowest key muscle that has a grade of at least 3, provided the key muscles represented by segments above that level are judged to be normal (grade 5). Right and left levels are documented separately



  1. at initial acute care hospital examination

  2. at discharge from the last inpatient hospital

LENGTH: 3 for each entry

FORMAT: Character

CODES: C01-C08 Cervical (C1 - C8)

T01-T12 Thoracic (Dorsal, T1 - T12)

L01-L05 Lumbar (L1 - L5)

S01-S05 Sacral (S1 - S5)

X00 Normal

X99 Unknown or Not Done

COMMENTS: The examiner's judgment is relied upon to determine whether a muscle that tests as less than normal (grade 5) may in fact be fully innervated. This may occur when full effort from the patient is inhibited by factors such as pain, positioning and hypertonicity or when weakness is judged to be due to disuse. If any of these or other factors impeded standardized muscle testing, the muscle should be graded as not testable. However, if these factors do not prevent the patient from performing a forceful contraction and the examiner’s best judgment is that the muscle would test normally (grade 5) were it not for these factors, it may be graded as 5. For those myotomes that are not clinically testable by a manual muscle exam (i.e., C1 to C4, T2 to L1 and S2 to S5), the motor level is presumed to be the same as the sensory level.

If only the alphabetic part of the level is known, it is permissible to use code C, L, T, or S followed by numeric code "99". Use code X99 if the level is completely unknown, the exam was not done due to age, condition, or other reason, or there was no corresponding admission or discharge.

For cross-sectional post-discharge studies, this variable documents the motor level from the most recent neurologic exam.

VARIABLE NAME: American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS)

DESCRIPTION: This variable attempts to quantitate the degree of impairment

1) at initial acute care hospital examination

2) at discharge from the last inpatient hospital

LENGTH: 1 for each entry

FORMAT: Character

CODES: A Complete Injury.


No sensory or motor function is preserved in the sacral segments S4-S5.

B Incomplete.


Sensory but not motor function is preserved below the neurological level and includes the sacral segments S4-S5.

C Incomplete.


Motor function is preserved below the neurological level, and more than half of the key muscles below the neurological level have a muscle grade less than 3.

D Incomplete.


Motor function is preserved below the neurological level, and at least half of key muscles below the neurological level have a muscle grade greater than or equal to 3.

E Normal.


Sensory and motor function are normal.

U Unknown or not applicable.

COMMENTS: When an associated injury (e.g., traumatic brain injury) or certain non-neurologic impairments interfere with the performance of a complete neurological examination, or the exam is not done due to age, condition, or other reason, the AIS should be coded Unknown.

For an individual to receive a grade of B, C, or D, he/she must be incomplete, that is, have sensory or motor function in the sacral segments S4-S5. Any sensation felt in the anal area during this part of the exam signifies that the patient is sensory incomplete (at least grade B). In addition, for an individual to receive a grade of C or D, the individual must have either (1) voluntary anal sphincter contraction or (2) sparing of motor function more than three levels below the motor level.

For cross-sectional post-discharge studies, this variable documents the AIS from the most recent neurologic exam.

References



Biering-Sørensen F, Charlifue S, DeVivo M, Noonan V, Post M, Stripling T, Wing P. International Spinal Cord Injury Data Sets. Spinal Cord. 2006 Sep;44(9):530-4.
DeVivo M, Biering-Sørensen F, Charlifue S, Noonan V, Post M, Stripling T, Wing P; Executive Committee for the International SCI Data Sets Committees. International Spinal Cord Injury Core Data Set.Spinal Cord. 2006 Sep;44(9):535-40. 
DeVivo MJ, Biering-Sørensen F, New P, Chen Y. Standardization of data analysis and reporting of results from the International Spinal Cord Injury Core Data Set. Spinal Cord. 2011 May;49(5):596-9.
Dvorak MF, Wing PC, Fehlings MG, Vaccaro AR, Itshayek E, Biering-Sorensen F, Noonan VK. International Spinal Cord Injury Spinal Column Injury Basic Data Set. Spinal Cord. 2012 Nov;50(11):817-821; doi: 10.1038/sc.2012.60.
Dvorak MF, Itshayek E, Fehlings MG, Vaccaro AR, Wing PC, Biering-Sorensen F, Noonan VK. International spinal cord injury: spinal interventions and surgical procedures basic data set. Spinal Cord. 2015 Feb;53(2):155-65. doi: 10.1038/sc.2014.182.
Mulcahey MJ, Biering-Sorensen F, Assessment of Children with spinal cord injury.. In Vogel LC,  Zebracki K, Betz RR, Mulcahey MJ eds. Spinal Cord Injury in the Child and Young Adult. Mac Keith Press, London, UK, 2014, pp 41-66.
Mulcahey MJ, Vogel L, Betz R, Samdani A, Chafetz R, Gaughan J. The International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury: Psychometric Evaluation and Guidelines for Use with Children and Youth. Phys Med & Rehab. 2011;92:1264-1269.
New PWMarshall R. International Spinal Cord Injury Data Sets for non-traumatic spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 2014 Feb;52(2):123-32. doi: 10.1038/sc.2012.160.
New PW, Currie KE. Development of a comprehensive survey of sexuality issues including a self-report version of the International Spinal Cord Injury sexual function basic datasets. Spinal Cord. 2016;54:584-591
Reisner S L, Poteat T, Keatley J, Cabral M, Mothopeng T, Dunham E, Holland C E, Max R, Baral S D. Global health burden and needs of transgender populations: a review. The Lancet. 2016; 388(10042):412 - 436

International Spinal Cord Injury Core Data Set

(Version 2.0) – Data collection Form

Dates (YYYYMMDD)
Birth date __ __ __ __/ __ __/ __ __

Injury date __ __ __ __/ __ __/ __ __
Acute Admission __ __ __ __/ __ __/ __ __
Final Inpatient Discharge __ __ __ __/ __ __/ __ __
Date of Death __ __ __ __/ __ __/ __ __

Gender: □ Male □ Female □ Transgender and other related □ Unknown
Injury Etiology:

□ Sports; □ Assault; □ Transport; □ Fall;

□ Birth injury or other traumatic cause;

□ Congenital or genetic etiology (e.g., spina bifida);

□ Degenerative non-traumatic etiology;

□ Tumor – benign; □ Tumor – malignant;

□ Vascular etiology (e.g., ischemia, hemorrhage, malformation);

□ Infection (e.g., bacterial, viral);

□ Other non-traumatic spinal cord dysfunction;

□ Unspecified or Unknown


Vertebral Injury: □ No □ Yes □ Unknown
Associated Injury: □ No □ Yes □ Unknown
Spinal Surgery: □ No □ Yes □ Unknown
Ventilatory Assistance:

□ No; □ Yes, less than 24 hours per day at discharge;

□ Yes, 24 hours per day at discharge;

□ Yes, unknown number of hours per day at discharge;

□ Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) for sleep apnea;

□ Unknown


Place of Discharge/Current Residence:

□ Private residence: includes house, condominium, mobile home, apartment, or houseboat;

□ Hospital: includes mental hospital or other acute care hospital for management of continuing medical issues after spinal cord injury-related care and/or rehabilitation is completed;

□ Nursing home: includes skilled nursing facilities and institutions providing essentially long-term, custodial, chronic disease care;

□ Assisted living residence: includes residential non-institutional locations in which some level of support for activities of daily living is provided;

□ Group living situation: includes transitional living facility or any residence shared by non-family members;

□ Correctional institution: includes prison, penitentiary, jail, correctional center, etc.;

□ Hotel or motel; □ Homeless: includes cave, car, tent, etc.; □ Deceased;

□ Other, unclassified; □ Unknown

Neurological Data



Acute Admission Final Inpatient Discharge

Date of Exam Date of Exam

__ __ __ __/ __ __/ __ __ __ __ __ __ /__ __/ __ __
Sensory level Sensory level

Left Right Left Right


___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___


Motor level Motor level


Left Right Left Right

___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___

ASIA Impairment Scale ASIA Impairment Scale

____ ___





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