Please see the instructions and Myositis Damage Index Glossary of Terms Prior to Assessment (pp. 5-8). Subject’s IMACS number:____________ ASSESSOR:_____________________ Date Assessed:_____________Assessment number:______
Maximum Value Guidelines (Examples of maximal score)
Maximum Value Guidelines (Examples of maximal score)
IMACS MYOSITIS DAMAGE INDEX (MDI) - 2001
(Modification of the SLICC/ACR Damage Index, Brit J Rheum 1996; 35: 248-54) Damage is defined as persistent changes in anatomy, physiology, pathology or function, which are present for at least 6 months. Damage may be the result of prior active disease (causing scarring, fibrosis and atrophy), complications of therapy, co-morbid conditions, or other events. A portion of disease damage is disease chronicity. Features of damage are ascertained by clinical assessment and must be present for at least 6 months (or the pathology that led to the feature must have been present for at least 6 months) despite prior immunosuppressive or other therapy, including exercise and rehabilitation. Only items present since date of diagnosis should be included. Damage is often permanent and cumulative. Damage scores most often increase over time, but in some cases may decline (i.e., a manifestation which was previously present which has currently resolved would receive a score of 0 in the present assessment).
For each organ system, please assess the severity and extent of damage exhibited by the patient at this time. To assess the severity, please rate your overall assessment of the current disease damage for each of the systems below by drawing a vertical mark on the 10-cm. line according to the following scale: -Left end of line = no evidence of disease damage,
-Midpoint of line = moderate disease damage, and
-Right end of line = extreme or maximum disease damage.
-Please write in NA if the system cannot be assessed.
To assess the extent of damage in that organ system, please indicate the following for the specific items that are assessed:
-A score of 0 indicates the item has never been present.
-A score of 1 indicates the damage manifestation at a single point in time that has been present for at least six months.
-NA = cannot be assessed.
At the end of each organ system section, items in italics represent specialised objective testing items that are optional for the assessment and will be scored separately in an extended score. When absolute values are requested, please provide these even if they are within normal limits.
IMACS MYOSITIS DAMAGE INDEX Scoring System The MDI has three proposed scores: an extent of damage score, a severity of damage score and an extended damage score.
The proposed scoring system for the MDI extent of damage score is the sum of all 0 or 1 scores for the eleven individual organ systems (MUSCLE, SKELETAL, CUTANEOUS, GASTROINTESTINAL, PULMONARY, CARDIOVASACULAR, PERIPHERAL VASCULAR, ENDOCRINE, OCULAR, INFECTION, MALIGNANCY) divided by the total possible score (range = 0 – 35 in children, 0-37 for adolescents and 0-38 in adults). If one or more items were not assessed, the resulting score would be divided by the maximum possible score of the assessed items. The categories of OTHER DAMAGE and global DAMAGE are not included in the MDI extent of damage score but are scored separately.
The proposed MDI severity of damage score is the sum of the 10 cm visual analogue scale scores for each of the eleven individual organ systems (MUSCLE, SKELETAL, CUTANEOUS, GASTROINTESTINAL, PULMONARY, CARDIOVASACULAR, PERIPHERAL VASCULAR, ENDOCRINE, OCULAR, INFECTION, MALIGNANCY) divided by the total possible score (range = 0 – 110). If one or more organ systems were not assessed, the resulting score would be divided by the maximum possible score of the assessed items. The categories of OTHER DAMAGE and GLOBAL DAMAGE are not included in the MDI severity score but are scored separately.
The proposed MDI extended damage score is the sum of the optional items listed in italics under the systems MUSCLE, SKELETAL, GASTROINTESTINAL, PULMONARY, ENDOCRINE divided by the total possible score. Each optional item is scored 0 or 1, providing a range of 0 – 16 for the extended damage score. If one or more items were not assessed, the resulting score would be divided by the maximum possible score assessed.
Muscle weakness not attributable to active muscle disease: weakness present for at least 6 months, demonstrated on clinical examination, not thought to be due to active muscle inflammation based on assessments of clinical and laboratory measures, such as serum muscle enzymes, magnetic resonance imaging, or repeat muscle biopsies.
Muscle dysfunction, decrease in aerobic exercise tolerance by clinical history or assessed by aerobic exercise testing, due to muscle damage and not attributable to cardiac, pulmonary, psychologic or other factors.
Muscle atrophy: assessed by radiographic methods, including T1 MRI, CT scan, DEXA scan (body composition) (optional assessment
Joint contractures: fixed limitation in the normal range of motion of joints, in the absence of synovitis, excluding reducible deformities, avascular necrosis and deforming arthropathy.
Osteoporosis with fracture or vertebral collapse (excluding avascular necrosis): demonstrated by any imaging technique.
Avascular necrosis: demonstrated by any imaging technique.
Osteoporosis without clinical fracture: requiring treatment of osteoporosis beyond calcium and vitamin D (prophylactic) therapy, demonstrated by any imaging technique (OPTIONAL ASSESSMENT)
Calcinosis: dystrophic calcification, observed clinically or radiologicallyin the skin, subcutaneous tissue, fascia, or muscle. Calcinosis can be clinically or radiographically distinguished into 4 subtypes (Blane CE et al, 1984, AJR, 142: 397-400): (the 4 subtypes are part of the OPTIONAL ASSESSMENT)
Superficial plaques or nodules: circumscribed lesionsconfined to the cutaneous or subcutaneous tissue
Tumoral: large circumscribed nodules, which are intramuscular. Can ulcerate if subcutaneous.
Planar or fascial: linear accumulations of calcinosis that are along the fascial plane of subcutaneous tissue or muscles.
Exoskeleton/calcinosis universalis: widespread sheets of calcium in the muscle, fascia and subcutaneous tissue, often encasing the patient. Can ulcerate when subcutaneous.
Alopecia: hair loss with scarring present
Cutaneous scarring or atrophy: dermal or epidermal, with or without telangiectasia
Poikiloderma: fine speckled pattern of hyper- and hypopigmented macules interspersed with telangiectasias and cutaneous atrophy (requires all 3 features) usually in areas of photosensitivity
Lipodystrophy: loss of subcutaneous fat (localised or widely distributed) observed clinically or radiologically.
Dysphagia: persistent difficulty swallowing by history or persistent changes documented by radiography or other objective measures.
Infarction or resection of bowel or other GI organs, by history.
Steatosis (OPTIONAL ASSESSMENT): persistent fatty changes of liver, documented by ultrasound, CT scan or biopsy on at least 1 occasion, with persistent changes on reexamination
Dysphonia: persistent alteration in voice quality, resonance, articulation or speech rate from normal.
Impaired lung function due to respiratory muscle damage: shortness of breath not thought to be due to active muscle inflammation or intrinsic pulmonary disease
Pulmonary fibrosis: shortness of breath or rales on physical exam for at least 6 months, with previously documented abnormal chest radiograph, computed tomography scan, or biopsy evidence of interstitial lung disease (ILD)/pulmonary fibrosis.
Pulmonary hypertension: Right ventricular prominence, or loud P2, or by direct measurement of pulmonary pressures (greater than 10% above upper limit of normal).
Hypertension: Diagnosed by blood pressure > 95% of upper limits of normal for age and gender, requiring treatment > 6 months
Ventricular dysfunction/Cardiomyopathy: ventricular dysfunction documented clinically or by echocardiography.
Assessed only in adult patients:
Angina: episodes of angina present for a period of at least 6 months.
Myocardial infarction: documented by electrocardiogram and enzymes.
PERIPHERAL VASCULAR DAMAGE
Tissue or pulp loss: tissue loss such as pulp space loss or loss less than entire digit.
Growth velocity over 6 months less than 3rd percentile for age
Crossing at least 2 centiles (5%, 10%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 95%) on growth chart
(See http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/about/major/nhanes/growthcharts/clinical_charts.htm to obtain growth charts for U.S. patients)
Delay in development of secondary sexual characteristics: greater than 2 standard deviations beyond mean for age in Tanner staging (see Harriet Lane Handbook: A Manual for Pediatric House Officers, Ed. G.K. Sidberry, or Tanner, JM and Davies, PS, J Pediatr 1985; 107:317-29 for age-defined mean values for North American children).
Assessed in both pediatric and adult patients:
Hirsutism: excessive terminal hair growth in an adult male distribution, i.e., lip, chin, chest, back. This is to be assessed only in girls, women and pre-pubertal boys. Hyptertrichosis: Generalised increase in body hair.
Irregular menses: Missing more than one ovulatory menstrual cycle (i.e., 24 – 37 days in duration) in one year, assessed at least 3 years after menarche or before menopause.
Primary amenorrhea: the absence of any menstruation within 4.5 years of reaching puberty (i.e., in a girl without genital malformations who has reached her complete morphological development, including a bone age of at least 15 years, breasts for at least 2 years, and adult type pubic hair)
Secondary amenorrhea: cessation of menstrual periods before menopause, after initially menstruating
Diabetes mellitus: fasting glucose > 140 mg/dl or 2 hour glucose in Oral Glucose Tolerance Test > 200 mg/dl
Hyperlipidemia (OPTIONAL ASSESSMENT): Cholesterol or lipoprotein levels >95% of age appropriate reference ranges
References: Summary of the Second Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel II). JAMA. 1993; 269:3015-3023; “Report of the expert panel on blood cholesterol levels in children and adolescents” by the National Cholesterol Education program (NCEP), NIH Publication No 91-2732, September 1991.
Assessed in adult patients and adolescents when applicable:
Infertility (female or male): no pregnancy after one year attempting to conceive via regular sexual intercourse
Sexual dysfunction: patient dissatisfaction with sexual function (female or male)
Cataract: lens opacity in either eye, ever, whether primary or secondary to steroid therapy, documented by ophthalmoscopy, and resulting in visual loss.
Visual loss, other: legal blindness, with vision less than or equal to 20/200.
Chronic infection: Infection (presumptive diagnosis with or without positive culture) requiring > 6 months of antimicrobial treatment, ORpersisting with or without clinical symptoms > 6 months and associated with disability (absence from school, work, day-care)
Multiple infections: > 3 infections (at same or different sites, with same or different organisms) requiring antimicrobial treatment or disability (absence from school, work, day-care) over a 6 month period
Documented by pathology, excluding dysplasias, including myositis associated malignancies.
Death should be recorded under OTHER, and the date and cause of death noted (OPTIONAL ASSESSMENT)
Any other features of myositis damage not listed but felt to be of importance to the patient or physician. Please specify the feature in as much detail as possible. (These are not scored)
GLOBAL DAMAGE ASSESSMENT
Your expert clinical judgement of the totality of disease damage in all systems