Human Anatomy Study Emphasis sheet – The Skeletal System Microscopic

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Human Anatomy

Study Emphasis sheet – The Skeletal System

  1. Microscopic: Know and be able to identify all components of the Haversian system.

  2. Major landmarks of bones and terminology – i.e. tuberosity, facet. Condyle, foramen, etc.

  3. Classification of bones and example of each – long, irregular, sesamoid, etc.

  4. Regions and components of a typical long bone- epiphysis, , diaphysis, periosteum, etc.

  5. Cartilage: classifications and locations – i.e. fibrocartlage, intervertebral discs , etc.

  6. Axillary skeleton – bones and specific structures

  1. Skull

  1. Frontal: frontal sinuses, glabella region

  2. Parietal

  3. Temporal: mastoid process, zygomatic process, external auditory meatus, mandibular fossa, petrous portion, internal auditory meatus

  4. Occipital: occipital protuberance, foramen magnum, condyles

  5. Sphenoid: greater wings, lesser wings, sella turcica, optic foramen, pterygoid processes

  6. Ethmoid: cristal galli, cribriform plate, perpendicular plate, lateral masses, ethmoid sinus

  7. Mandible: body, angle, ramus, mandibular condyles, alveolar processes

  8. Nasal

  9. Lacrimal

  10. Vomer

  11. Inferior Nasal Concha

  12. Zygomatic: zygomatic arch

  13. Palatine

  14. Maxilla: alveolar processes

  15. Hyoid

  16. Ear ossicles: incus, malleus, stapes

  17. Sutures: know all

  1. Vertebrae – differentiate between the five types:

  1. Cervical: atlas, axis, spinous process, dens, vertebral foramen, bifid spinous process

  2. Thoracic

  3. Lumbar

  4. Sacral

  5. Coccyx

  1. Ribs - true (7 pairs) and false (5 pairs), costal cartilage, tubercle

  2. Sternum - manubrium, gladiolus, xiphoid process

  1. Appendicular skeleton (Superior)

  1. Clavicle- sternal end, acromial end

  2. Scapula – superior border, vertebral (medial) border, axillary (lateral) border, spine, acromial process, coracoid process, glenoid fossa, supraspinatus fossa, infraspinatus fossa

  3. Humerus: head, anatomical neck, surgical neck, greater tubercle, medial epicondyle, lateral epicondyle, capitulum, trochlea, olecronon fossa, deltoid tuberosity

  4. Radius- ulnar notch, styloid process, radial tuberosity, head, neck (anatomical and surgical)

  5. Ulna – olecranon process, coronoid process, radial notch, trochlear notch

  6. Carpals- know individual bones

  7. Metacarpals

  8. Phalanges- proximal, medial, distal

  1. Appendicualr skeleton ( Inferior)

  1. Pelvis: os coxae (coxal bone), coccyx, obturator foramen

  2. Os coxae (coxal bone)

  1. Ilium: iliac crest iliac spine, greater sciatic notch, acetabulum

  2. Ischum: Ischial tuberosity, ischial spine, lesser sciatic notch

  3. Pubis: pubic symphysis, pubic crest

  1. Femur: head, greater/lesser trochanter, linea aspera, medial/lateral condyle, intercondylar notch.

  2. Tibia:lateral/ medial condyle, tibial tuberosity, medial malleolus, anterior crest

  3. Fibula: head, anterior crest, lateral malleolus

  4. Tarsals: calcaneous talus, know individual bones

  5. Metatarsals

  6. Phalanges: proximal, medial, distal

  1. Fetal Skeleton

  1. Composition of the skeleton (mostly cartilage)

  2. Skull: know all the bones/ sutures/ fontanels; the location of the ossification

  1. Articulations

  1. Structural classification and specific examples: i.e. fibrous – sutures

  2. Movement and specific examples

  3. Cartilaginous joints and specific examples

  4. Synovial joints and structure

  1. Types: gliding, hinged,pivot, etc, and locations

  2. Subcategories: uniaxial, biaxial, multiaxial

e. Joint disorders

  1. Bursitis

  2. Sprain

  3. Dislocations

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