Head and Neck – Session 5



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Head and Neck – Session 5


1

What bones make up the roof of the orbit?












Max.


Mark

Frontal and Sphenoidal (x1)

Actual


Mark

1










2

What bones make up the floor of the orbit?












Max.


Mark

Maxilla, Zygomatic & Palatine (x1)

Actual


Mark

1










3

What bones make up the medial side of the orbit?












Max.


Mark

Ethmoid, Maxilla and Lacrimal (x1)

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1









4

What bones make up the lateral side of the orbit?












Max.


Mark

Zygomatic and Sphenoid (x1)

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1










5

Where do fractures of the orbit usually occur?












Max.


Mark

Usually at bony sutures (x1)

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1









6

What areas of the orbit are the most vulnerable and why? What sinuses can be involved?












Max.


Mark

Medial and Lateral walls because they are thin (x1)

Medial wall fractures can involve ethmoidal and sphenoidal sinuses (x1)

Lateral wall fractures can involve the maxillary sinus (x1)

Actual


Mark

3








7

What is a ‘Blow Out’ fracture and describe some signs/symptoms/conditions that a ‘Blow Out’ fracture can cause












Max.


Mark

Fracture that displaces orbital walls and contents (x1)

Muscle entrapment (x1)

Diplopia (x1)

Infection (x1)

Actual


Mark

4










8

What is enophthalmos? What may happen to reverse it?












Max.


Mark

Depression of the eye/opposite of exophthalmos (x1)

Infraorbital bleeding may push the eye back out (x1)

Actual


Mark

2









9

Describe the contents of the optic canal












Max.


Mark

Optic nerve (x1)

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1










10

Describe the contents of the Superior Orbital Fissure from medial to lateral












Max.


Mark

Sympathetic Nerves

Ophthalmic Veins

Abducens Nerve (CN VI)

Inferior branch of Oculomotor Nerve (CN III)

Nasociliary Nerve

Superior branch of Oculomotor Nerve (CN III)

Trochlear Nerve (CN IV)

Frontal Nerve

Lacrimal Nerve
(x1 for every two correct answers. If 9 correct answers, reward self with congratulatory pat on the back)

Actual


Mark

4









11

Describe the covering of the Optic Nerve and the clinical relevance of this.

What can be found in the centra of the Optic Nerve?












Max.


Mark

Coverings of pia, arachnoid and dura mata of meninges (x1)

Continuous with the brain (x1)

Infection of the orbit can spread, tracking backwards along the meninges causing meningitis (x1)

Central artery and vein (x1)

Actual


Mark

4










12

Give the name and actions of the 4 recti muscles that move the eyeball












Max.


Mark

Superior – Looks up (x1)

Inferior – Looks down (x1)

Medial – Looks medial (x1)

Lateral – Looks lateral (x1)

Actual


Mark

4










13

Give the name and actions of the 2 oblique muscles that move the eyeball












Max.


Mark

Superior – Look down (x1)

Inferior – Look up (x1)

Actual


Mark

2









14

What muscle lifts the upper eyelid?












Max.


Mark

Levator Palpebrae Superioris (x1)

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1










15

Describe the innervation of the muscles that move the eye and upper eyelid












Max.


Mark

Lateral Rectus – Innervated by the Abducens (CN VI) (x1)

Superior Oblique – Innervated by the Trochlear (CN IV) (x1)

Everything Else – Innervated by Oculomotor (CN III) (x1)

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3









16

What nerve palsy is this? Explain why it presents like this. Explain how it can be caused












Max.


Mark


Abducens Nerve Palsy (x1)

Loss of innervation to the lateral recuts (x1)

Unable to move eye laterally (x1)

Pupil is fully adducted due to unopposed pull of medial sinus (x1)

Caused by fracture involving orbit or cavernous sinus (x1)

Actual


Mark

5









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