Group Exercise Unit #1 Study Guide Anatomy/Biomechanics/Components and Benefits of a Tabata Workout



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Group Exercise Unit #1 Study Guide
Anatomy/Biomechanics/Components and Benefits of a Tabata Workout:


  • Be able to identify primary function of the five primary "core" muscles (Transversus Abdominis-pulling navel to spine, Rectus Abdominis-spinal flexion, Internal and External Obliques-spinal rotation (Internal Obliques-known as same side rotators; External Obiques-known as opposite side rotators), and Erector Spinae-spinal extension)

  • Be able to list and explain the five basic principles in STOTT Pilates (See below)

  • Be able to determine the difference between an "imprinted" versus a "neutral" spine for performing supine (on your back) Pilates exercises (imprinted-pelvis has slight posterior tilt; neutral-pelvis remains in a neutral position where ASIS and pubis bone are on same plane and maintains natural lumbar spine curve)

  • Proper alignment and biomechanics of the following: Squat, Lunge, Swan Dive, Chaturanga, and general standing exercises

  • Exercises that we have done in class that target the Glutes (Squats, Lunges, Chair Pose, Pilates Shoulder Bridge, etc.)

  • Benefits of a Tabata Workout (Quick and efficient workout, maximum calorie burn, create prolonged EPOC, and can reap same benefits as a longer steady state workout)

  • Type of interval for a traditional Tabata workout (20/10-20 seconds of work 10 seconds of rest)


THE FIVE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF STOTT PILATES:


  1. Breathing-Breathing is performed by inhaling through the nose and exhaling out through pursed lips. We inhale into the lower rib cage by expanding the ribs laterally and also to the posterior side of the body and we exhale while engaging the pelvic floor and transversus abdominis.




  1. Pelvic Placement-There are two different types of pelvis placement, neutral (allowing the weight of the sacrum to rest on the mat and elongating through the lumbar spine and inferior pelvis) or imprinted (slight posterior pelvic tilt with a slight lumbar flexion). Ideally, we should use neutral pelvis for all exercises, but especially when we are lying supine with the feet on the floor (closed-kinetic chain exercises). When we have our feet lifted off the floor, we should use an imprinted spine at first until our abdominals are strong enough to maintain a neutral pelvis without straining the low back. An imprinted position should be used to ensure stability of the pelvis if neutral alignment cannot be stabilized.




  1. Rib Cage Placement-The abdominal wall attaches to the lower ribs and the abdominal muscles must often be recruited to maintain the rib cage and the thoracic spine in good alignment. Often, the rib cage will tend to lift up from a supine position or deviate forward from a sitting position, so we need to pay attention during inhalation or while performing arm gestures overhead and keep the ribs connected to the abdominal wall without lifting up to ensure good alignment of the spine.




  1. Scapular Movement and Stabilization-Stabilizing the scapulae (shoulder blades) on the rib cage is as important as contracting the abdominals during the initiation of every exercise. When this is not done, there is a tendency to overwork the upper trapezius and other muscles around the neck and upper shoulders. A sense of stability not rigidity should always be maintained. The shoulders should not be allowed to either round overly forward or to overly squeeze together toward the spine. The scapulae should lie flat on the rib cage and glide across it without winging (medial border of the scapulae coming away from the rib cage) Focus is on engaging the scapula stabilizers (serratus anterior, middle and lower trapezius, rhomboids, and synergistically latissimus dorsi), rather than on pectoralis minor, upper trapezius or levator scapulae.




  1. Head and Cervical Placement-The cervical spine should hold its natural curve and the skull should balance directly above the shoulders when sitting in neutral and should also be maintained when lying supine. The cervical spine should continue the line created by the thoracic spine during flexion, extension, lateral flexion and rotation. The idea of cranio-vertebral flexion (lengthening the back of the neck away from the shoulders and flexing the cranium on the first two vertebrae of the cervical spine rather than jamming the chin into the chest) should be incorporated anytime the thoracic spine moves into flexion (focus on creating thoracic flexion and not overemphasizing cervical flexion).



Target Heart Rate:
Be able to calculate the target heart rate of a case study using the Karvonen Method
Karvonen Method Calculations (Formula will be given):
220 minus age=Maximum Heart Rate (MHR)

MHR minus Resting Heart Rate (RHR)

HRR (Answer of above step) multiplied by 50% and 85%

Add RHR back in to get your Target Heart Rate (THR)
Yoga:
Be able to identify the type of yoga we perform in class (Hatha)

Modification used to perform Swan dive for someone with tight hamstrings (Bend Knees more)

Be able to identify certain poses included in the Sun Salutation Series that we perform in class (Mountain, Tall Mountain, Swan Dive, Forward Fold, High or Kneeling/Low Lunge, Down Dog or Child’s Pose, Plank or Modified Plank, Chaturanga, Up Dog or Cobra, Monkey/Halfway Lift, and Chair)


Goal Setting:
Be able to identify the acronyms of the SMART goals (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, and Timely)


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