Genes are the basic unit of inheritance by which characteristics are passed on from one generation to another

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  • Well adapted eyesight for hunting

  • eyes shadowed by bony ridge that keep sun from glaring.

  • Feet has sharp talons. Bottom of feet have bumps that increase traction and can hold onto prey.

  • Beak tapers down to hook to tear into flesh of prey.

  • Digestive system, regurgitates part of undigested animal like bones.

  • Flight- large wingspan. Soaring keeps from wasting energy.


  • Lives in desert where winds blow sand and extreme temperature variations and scarcity of water.

  • Has long eyelashes, closed nostrils and ears covered with hair to prevent sand from going into eyes, nose and ears.

  • Can drink 36 gallons of water at a time and can survive without water for a week.

  • Body temperature changes with environment so it doesn’t lose water through sweating.

  • Stores fat in hump to be converted as energy, can live without food for month

  • Color blends with surrounding

  • Wide feet to walk across desert sand

Polar Bear

  • Polar bears are strong swimmers. They can swim for several hours at a time over long distances. A polar bear's front paws propel them through the water dog-paddle style

  • A polar bear's nostrils close when under water

  • excellent insulation keeps a polar bear warm through a thick layer of fur, a tough hide, and an insulating fat layer 

  • White fur provides insulation from cold and camouflage

  • Small ears to reduce heat loss


  • Chameleons can move their eyes independently and 360 degrees to see all around them, to protect them from predators

  • Tail helps them hang from trees

  • Changes in skin color to communicate with other chameleons and regulate body temperature.

  • Can extend tongue out by a foot to catch insects


  • National Geographic Animal Encyclopedia





Punnett Squares

  • Gregor Mendel, a priest was very curious about how traits were passed from one generation to another. He experimented with peas (29,000 plants!) for seven years and used mathematical principles to figure it all out.

  • Mendel determined that traits aren't blended but are instead passed on, intact, from parent to child. He found that everyone got two genes for each trait — one from the mom and one from the dad.

  • He also concluded that some traits are dominant and some are recessive.

  • Mendel took a tall pea plant and crossed it with a short one. He expected medium pea plants, but what he got was all tall pea plants! Mendel then crossed these tall babies (he called them the F1 generation) and he got three tall plants and one short plant.
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