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This article is about the construction material. For other uses, see Concrete (disambiguation).

Not to be confused with cement.

Outer view of the Roman Pantheon, still the largest unreinforced solid concrete dome.[1]

Inside the Pantheon dome, looking straight up. The concrete for the coffered dome was laid on moulds, probably mounted on temporary scaffolding.

Opus caementicium exposed in a characteristic Roman arch. In contrast to modern concrete structures, the concrete used in Roman buildings was usually covered with brick or stone.

Concrete is a composite material composed mainly of water, aggregate, and cement. Usually there are additives and reinforcements included to achieve the desired physical properties of the finished material. When these ingredients are mixed together, they form a fluid mass that is easily molded into shape. Over time, the cement forms a hard matrix which binds the rest of the ingredients together into a durable stone-like material with many uses.[2]

Famous concrete structures include the Hoover Dam, the Panama Canal and the Roman Pantheon. The earliest large-scale users of concrete technology were the ancient Romans, and concrete was widely used in the Roman Empire. The Colosseum in Rome was built largely of concrete, and the concrete dome of the Pantheon is the world's largest unreinforced concrete dome.[3]

After the Roman Empire collapsed, use of concrete became rare until the technology was re-pioneered in the mid-18th century. Today, concrete is the most widely used man-made material (measured by tonnage).


  • 1 History

    • 1.1 Ancient additives

    • 1.2 Modern additives

  • 2 Impact of modern concrete use

  • 3 Education & Research

  • 4 Composition of concrete

    • 4.1 Cement

    • 4.2 Water

    • 4.3 Aggregates

    • 4.4 Reinforcement

    • 4.5 Chemical admixtures

    • 4.6 Mineral admixtures and blended cements

  • 5 Concrete production

    • 5.1 Mixing concrete

    • 5.2 Workability

    • 5.3 Curing

  • 6 Properties

  • 7 Concrete degradation

  • 8 Microbial concrete

  • 9 Environmental and health

  • 10 Concrete shortage

  • 11 Concrete recycling

  • 12 Use of concrete in infrastructure

    • 12.1 Mass concrete structures

    • 12.2 Prestressed concrete structures

    • 12.3 Concrete textures

  • 13 Building with concrete

    • 13.1 Energy efficiency

    • 13.2 Pervious concrete

    • 13.3 Nano concrete

    • 13.4 Fire safety

    • 13.5 Earthquake safety

    • 13.6 Useful life

  • 14 World records

  • 15 See also

  • 16 References

    • 16.1 Notes

    • 16.2 Bibliography

  • 17 External links


The word concrete comes from the Latin word "concretus" (meaning compact or condensed),[4] the perfect passive participle of "concrescere", from "con-" (together) and "crescere" (to grow).

Perhaps the earliest known occurrence of cement was twelve million years ago. A deposit of cement was formed after an occurrence of oil shale located adjacent to a bed of limestone burned due to natural causes. These ancient deposits were investigated in the 1960s and 1970s.[5]

On a human time-scale, small usages of concrete go back for thousands of years. The ancient Nabatea culture was using materials roughly analogous to concrete at least eight thousand years ago, some structures of which survive to this day.[6]

German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann found concrete floors, which were made of lime and pebbles, in the royal palace of Tiryns, Greece, which dates roughly to 1400-1200 BC.[7][8] Lime mortars were used in Greece, Crete, and Cyprus in 800 BC. The Assyrian Jerwan Aqueduct (688 BC) made use of fully waterproof concrete.[9] Concrete was used for construction in many ancient structures.[10]

The Romans used concrete extensively from 300 BC to 476 AD, a span of more than seven hundred years.[5] During the Roman Empire, Roman concrete (or opus caementicium) was made from quicklime, pozzolana and an aggregate of pumice. Its widespread use in many Roman structures, a key event in the history of architecture termed the Roman Architectural Revolution, freed Roman construction from the restrictions of stone and brick material and allowed for revolutionary new designs in terms of both structural complexity and dimension.[11]

Concrete, as the Romans knew it, was a new and revolutionary material. Laid in the shape of arches, vaults and domes, it quickly hardened into a rigid mass, free from many of the internal thrusts and strains that troubled the builders of similar structures in stone or brick.[12]

Modern tests show that opus caementicium had as much compressive strength as modern Portland-cement concrete (ca. 200 kg/cm2).[13] However, due to the absence of reinforcement, its tensile strength was far lower than modern reinforced concrete, and its mode of application was also different:[14]

Modern structural concrete differs from Roman concrete in two important details. First, its mix consistency is fluid and homogeneous, allowing it to be poured into forms rather than requiring hand-layering together with the placement of aggregate, which, in Roman practice, often consisted of rubble. Second, integral reinforcing steel gives modern concrete assemblies great strength in tension, whereas Roman concrete could depend only upon the strength of the concrete bonding to resist tension.[15]

Eddystone Lighthouse

The widespread use of concrete in many Roman structures ensured that many survive to the present day. The Baths of Caracalla in Rome are just one example. Many Roman aqueducts and bridges such as the magnificent Pont du Gard have masonry cladding on a concrete core, as does the dome of the Pantheon.

After the Roman Empire, the use of burned lime and pozzolana was greatly reduced until the technique was all but forgotten between 500 AD and the 1300s. Between the 1300s until the mid-1700s, the use of cement gradually returned. The Canal du Midi was built using concrete in 1670,[16] and there are concrete structures in Finland that date from the 16th century.[citation needed]

Perhaps the greatest driver behind the modern usage of concrete was the third Eddystone Lighthouse in Devon, England. To create this structure, between 1756 and 1793, British engineer John Smeaton pioneered the use of hydraulic lime in concrete, using pebbles and powdered brick as aggregate.[17]

A method for producing Portland cement was patented by Joseph Aspdin on 1824.[18]

Reinforced concrete was invented in 1849 by Joseph Monier.[19] In 1889 the first concrete reinforced bridge was built, and the first large concrete dams were built in 1936, Hoover Dam and Grand Coulee Dam.[20]

Ancient additives[edit]

Concrete additives have been used since 6500BC by the Nabataea traders or Bedouins who occupied and controlled a series of oases and developed a small empire in the regions of southern Syria and northern Jordan. They later discovered the advantages of hydraulic lime—that is, cement that hardens underwater—and by 700 BC, they were building kilns to supply mortar for the construction of rubble-wall houses, concrete floors, and underground waterproof cisterns. The cisterns were kept secret and were one of the reasons the Nabataea were able to thrive in the desert.[6] In both Roman and Egyptian times it was re-discovered that adding volcanic ash to the mix allowed it to set underwater. Similarly, the Romans knew that adding horse hair made concrete less liable to crack while it hardened, and adding blood made it more frost-resistant.[21]

Modern additives[edit]

In modern times, researchers have experimented with the addition of other materials to create concrete with improved properties, such as higher strength, electrical conductivity, or resistance to damages through spillage.[22]

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