The Mitterrand Doctrine provided amnesty for members of this group who had renounced violence. This group carried out its most famous action to oppose attempts at a “historic compromise”. This group’s deadliest act was the bombing of the Central Train Station in Bologna. Mario Moretti led this group, which primarily operated during the Years of Lead. For ten points, name this group of Italian communists who kidnapped and murdered Prime Minister Aldo Moro in 1978.
ANSWER: Red Brigades(or Brigate Rosse)
This empire was ruled under the Kouroukan Fouga constitution, which established the Gbara legislature. A victory at the Battle of Kirina solidified this empire’s rule over the Sosso leader Sumanguru. Chihab al-Umari documented the travels of one ruler of this empire, who supposedly built a mosque every Friday on his hajj to Mecca. For ten points, name this West African empire that was founded by Sundiata Keita and led in the 14th century by Mansa Musa.
ANSWER: Mali Empire
This successor of John Smith was investigated after his party accepted loans in exchange for peerage appointments in the Cash for Honours scandal. This politician was proponent of a “Third way” between capitalism and socialism and he mediated the Good Friday Agreement, which ended the Troubles in Northern Ireland. This Prime Minister backed George W. Bush’s invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq. For ten points, name this “New Labour” Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1997 to 2007.
ANSWER: Tony Blair
Prokhorovka Cathedral commemorates the victory in this battle, which was followed by the Third Battle of Kharkov. The Allied invasion of Sicily led Heinz Guderian to argue that Nazi forces should be held back as a reserve during this battle. This battle, also known as Operation Citadel, saw the introduction of the Panther tank as a counter to Soviet T-34s. For ten points, name this most destructive aerial battle and largest tank battle in history, fought in 1943 near a namesake Soviet town.
ANSWER: Battle of Kursk (or Operation Citadel before “Citadel” is read)
Darwin Judge and Charles McMahon were killed in a rocket strike on this city’s airport. Irving Berlin’s “White Christmas” was used to signal Operation Frequent Wind, which evacuated this city via airlift. Helicopters were ditched into the sea to provide more room on aircraft carriers for refugees from this city, whose Tan Son Nhut airport was bombed starting on April 29th, 1975. For ten points, name this South Vietnamese capital city, now named for Ho Chi Minh, whose fall marked the end of the Vietnam War.
ANSWER: Saigon(accept Ho Chi Minh City before his name is mentioned)
Two answers required. These two universities co-founded edX, an online education platform, in 2012. Dr. Eric Lander, who published a controversial revisionist history of the development of CRISPR [”crisper”] DNA segments in January 2015, directs the Broad Institute, a collaboration between these two schools. These schools also collaborate in a Masters’ program between one’s Sloan School of Management and the other’s Kennedy School of Government. For ten points, name these two universities, both located on the north side of the Charles River in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
ANSWER: Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (or MIT; accept in either order; prompt if only one is given)
Childe Wills, Joseph Galamb, and Eugene Farkas designed this product, which was “large enough for the family, but small enough for the individual to run and care for.” Scraps of wood from the making of this product led to the formation of Kingsford Charcoal. After six years of production, its inventor decided it can be “painted any color [the customer] wants, so long as it’s black.” Factories in Highland Park and Detroit made, for ten points, what affordable automobile that was phased out by Ford in 1927 in favor of the Model A?
ANSWER: Ford Model T (prompt on partial answers)
This artist depicted one of his subjects wearing the Collar of Esses livery chain. A much-copied, though lost, work by this artist depicts his royal patron holding a glove in one hand and reaching for a dagger in the other. He included a polyhedral sundial and a lute with a broken string in a double portrait best known for a memento mori rendered in anamorphic perspective. For ten points, what portraitist of Sir Thomas More and Henry VIII included a distorted skull in The Ambassadors?
ANSWER: Hans Holbeinthe Younger
This leader had a nuclear bunker built in the town of Gbadolite. This leader was personally protected by the Special Presidential Division, and changed his name to refer to him going “from conquest to conquest, leaving fire in his wake” in the “Authenticity” campaign. This ruler came to power at the end of a civil war sparked by the secession of the Katanga region, but Laurent Desire-Kabila overthrew him during the First Congo War. For ten points, name this former dictator of Zaire.
ANSWER: MobutuSese Seko
The term "cold war" was coined by this man in his work "You and the Atomic Bomb." He described working class attitudes towards socialism in The Road to Wigan Pier and documented the Spanish Civil War in another work. In Burmese Days, this man recounted the necessity of upholding his reputation by shooting an elephant. A pig named Napoleon features in an allegorical work by this man, who also wrote Winston Smith's life under Big Brother. For ten points, name this dystopian author of Animal Farm and 1984.
ANSWER: George Orwell (or Eric Arthur Blair)
This ruler ceded territory to Safavid Persia in the Treaty of Resht and the Treaty of Ganja. This ruler’s reform of the church was implemented by Theophan Prokopovich. During the early years of his reign, this ruler reigned alongside his brother, Ivan V. This ruler won territory from Charles XII after signing the Treaty of Nystad at the end of the Great Northern War. The Battle of Poltava was won by forces under, for ten points, what westernizing Russian tsar who built a city once known as Leningrad?
ANSWER: Peter the Great(or Peter I; or Pyotr I; or Pyotr Veliky; prompt on Peter/PyotrAlexeyevich)
BONUS: Peter undertook a Grand Embassy to the west, but returned prematurely to brutally address this 1698 uprising of these Russian armed guards.
ANSWER: StreltsyUprising (or Revolt, etc.)
While playing against one team from this city in 2012, Joey Barton earned a 12-game suspension for attacking Carlos Tevez, Vincent Kompany, and Sergio Aguero. In one game, Aguero’s 94th minute goal for a team from this city defeated Queens Park Rangers to clinch a title at the expense of another team from this city. That team from this city has suffered under managers David Moyes and Louis van Gaal since the 2013 retirement of Sir Alex Ferguson. For ten points, name this English city whose rival clubs, City and United, have won fifteen of the 23 Premier League titles.
ANSWER: Manchester BONUS: The only teams to win an English Premier League title are the two Manchester clubs, Arsenal, Blackburn Rovers, and this club, which defended its 2015 title by falling as far as 16th in the table.
During this war, the Zetra Olympic Hall, a former ice rink, was reduced to rubble and civilians were bombed twice at the Markale open-air market. During this war, the Scorpions paramilitary force assisted troops under Ratko Mladi’c [m’lah-ditch] in killing over 8,000 Muslims in the Srebrenica [s’reh-breh-NEET-zah] Massacre. NATO forces eventually brought this war to a 1995 ceasefire. For ten points, name this war, which began with Slobodan Milosevic’s Serbian forces laying siege to Sarajevo.
ANSWER: Bosnian War
BONUS: The agreement ending the Bosnian War was signed in Paris after being negotiated at this western Ohio city’s Wright-Patterson Air Force Base.
This event prevented a plebiscite proposed by Kurt Schuschnigg [shush-nig]. The Mauthausen-Gusen camp was established shortly after this event, which was declared null and void by the Moscow Declaration. This event was encouraged by Arthur Seyss-Inquart, and led to the resignation of President Wilhelm Miklas. This event established the province of Ostmark under the justification of lebensraum, and was followed by the annexation of the Sudetenland. For ten points, name this 1938 event in which Nazi Germany annexed Austria.
ANSWER: Anschluss(accept Nazi annexation of Austriabefore 1938 is mentioned, prompting on partial answers)
BONUS: A political union between Austria and Germany was explicitly forbidden by the Treaty of Versailles, signed by Germany, and this treaty, signed by Austria at the end of World War I.
ANSWER: Treaty of St. Germain-en-Laye
This empire faced the Alid revolt of Mohammed the Pure Soul, and a century later, the slaves of Basra rose up against this empire in the Zanj rebellion. One ruler of this dynasty sent a chess set and water clock to Charlemagne and built a House of Wisdom that was destroyed in Hulagu Khan’s 1258 siege of its capital, Baghdad. Avicenna and al-Khwarizmi worked during, for ten points, what third Islamic caliphate, the successors of the Umayyads?
ANSWER: Abbasid Caliphate
BONUS: In Joyce’s Ulysses, Stephen Daedalus dreams of this aforementioned ruler, the builder of the House of Wisdom.
ANSWER: Harun al-Rashid
This leader was first elected as part of the Fifth Republic Movement. This leader called Vincente Fox “the puppy dog of the empire.” During an Ibero-American Summit, King Juan Carlos I asked this leader “Why don’t you shut up?” This leader’s funding led to the establishment of the TeleSUR TV network. He’s not Evo Morales, but this leader promoted “Socialism in the 21st century” as part of his Bolivarian Revolution. For ten points, name this socialist President of Venezuela during most of the 2000s.
ANSWER: Hugo Chavez BONUS: Chavez was succeeded by this man as president of Venezuela. The Popular Will Party staged protests against this leader in 2014.
ANSWER: Nicolas Maduro
Twenty-two baboons line the upper frieze of the larger of two structures in this complex, which was rediscovered by Jean-Louis Burckhardt and Giovanni Belzoni. The inner walls of this pair of structures align with the sun in February and October, illuminating statues of Ptah, Ra-Horakhty, Amun, and the pharaoh who constructed these temples. This portion of the Nubian Monuments was moved to protect it from flooding caused by the Aswan High Dam. For ten points, name this pair of Egyptian temples fronted by massive statues of Nefertari and Ramses II.
ANSWER: Abu Simbel (prompt on “Nubian Monuments” before it is read)
BONUS: The Temple of Nefertari at Abu Simbel is dedicated to the queen and this cow-headed Egyptian goddess of motherhood.
In one work, crowds shout "Glory!" as this man passes by after taking power. Later in that work, this man is compared to Herod by a holy fool who sings "Flow, flow, bitter tears!" at the end of the opera. This man is warned by Prince Shuysky that a pretender by the name of Dmitri has risen in Lithuania. For ten points, name this boyar, the subject of a Pushkin play and an opera that are both set during Russia's Time of Troubles.
ANSWER: Boris (Fyodorovich) Godunov
BONUS: That opera about Boris Godunov was composed by this Russian composer of Night on Bald Mountain.
ANSWER: Modest Mussorgsky
The categories are ...
Discourses on Livy
1. Greek Politics
In the history of Greek politics, both ancient and modern, name the...
Modern capital city, which ostracized potential tyrants during its ancient Golden Age.
7th century BC lawmaker whose remarkably harsh law code inspired a common adjective.
ANSWER: Draco(accept draconianand word forms)
Term for intense spending cuts and tax increases imposed on Greece by the EU in return for a bailout. ANSWER: austeritymeasures (accept word forms)
Modern right-wing, neo-Nazi party, which holds the third most seats in Greek parliament behind Syriza and New Democracy.
ANSWER: Golden Dawn(or Chrysi Avgi; accept XAor chi alpha)
Leader of Syriza and current Prime Minister of Greece.
ANSWER: Alexis Tsipras
So-called “first citizen” of his city-state, who used the Delian League’s treasury to build the Parthenon. ANSWER: Pericles
Milesian immigrant and lover of the aforementioned “first citizen,” who may have run a brothel. ANSWER: Aspasia
Hill just west of the Acropolis, used by Cleisthenes to deliver political reforms to popular assemblies.
ANSWER: Pnyx[niks OR p’niks]
In the life and times of Saladin, name the...
Modern-day country, whose city of Tikrit was the birthplace of both Saladin and Saddam Hussein.
Egypt-based dynasty founded by Saladin after the fall of the Fatimid caliphate.
Series of Middle Ages religious conflicts, the third of which ended with Saladin’s victory over Christian forces.
ANSWER: Crusades (accept Third Crusade)
The holy city defended by Saladin in that conflict.
ANSWER: Richard the Lionhearted (or Richard I; prompt on Richard)
The type of payment collected in England to fund that conflict against Saladin, consisting of a 10% tax collected by bishops.
ANSWER: tithe(accept tallage)
July 1187 battle near a twin-peaked volcano where Saladin captured Guy of Lusignan [loo-sin-yon], triggering the aforementioned conflict.
ANSWER: Battle of (the Horns of) Hattin
City in modern northern Israel, captured in that conflict by the freed Guy of Lusignan.
DISCOURSES ON LIVY
Who or what was...
the ancient Italian city whose history was chronicled by Livy?
ANSWER: Rome medieval political scientist who wrote Discourses on Livy and The Prince?
ANSWER: Niccolo Macchiavelli group of commoners who contrasted with patricians?
ANSWER: plebians leaderless form of government that author claimed was the natural consequence of democracy? ANSWER: anarchy
process by which the Five Good Emperors took the throne, exemplified by Trajan to Hadrian?
Roman emperor who defeated Hannibal at the Battle of Zama?
ANSWER: Publius Cornelius ScipioAfricanus
lawgiver of Sparta praised by that author?
(8) second king of Rome praised for bringing it religion?
The losing general of this battle “had not despaired of the Republic” after escaping with seventy horsemen. In the aftermath of this battle, Tarentum and Capua revoked their allegiance with the loser. The winning side placed (+) Celtic and Spanish forces in the center, where they pulled back, allowing hidden, experienced Libyan soldiers to entrap the losing army in a double-envelopment. Gaius Terentius Varro survived this battle, though (*) 70,000 Romans did not. Victories at Trebia and Lake Trasimene were followed by a massive defeat at, for ten points, what 216 BC battle in southern Italy, a massive tactical victory for Hannibal?
ANSWER: Battle of Cannae
In one book by this author, the title peasant is adopted by Frederick Barbarossa and goes in search of the mythical Kingdom of Prester John. In one work by this author, the Abbe della Piccola is the alter-ego of Simone Simonini, who is inspired by real-life individuals and forgeries to write The Protocols of the Elders of Zion. This author of (+)Baudolino and The Prague Cemetery included a fictionalized version of Roger Bacon, (*) William of Baskerville, in a historical novel about murders in a monastery. For ten points, name this Italian author of The Name of the Rose.
ANSWER: Umberto Eco
Karl Marx referred to this man as the “most miserable and meanest of blackguards.” While Santiago Mariño fought in the east, this man worked with José Félix Ribas on the west to defeat an army led by Domingo de Monteverde. This man (+) wrote about the failures of the First Republic in an 1812 document; nine years later, his forces were victorious at the Battle of Carabobo, allowing this man to (*) establish, and become the first president of, Gran Colombia. For ten points, name this South American “Liberator,” honored as the namesake of a country with capitals La Paz and Sucre.
ANSWER: Simon Bolivar
The Duchess of Valentinois [val-en-tin-wah] was adopted by a ruler of this country in order to avoid a succession crisis. This country’s highest point is the Chemin de Revoirs [she-min de reh-VWAR], and it built the Fontvielle [font-vee-ell] district by reclaiming (+) land from the sea. An institution in this country names a set of algorithms for simulating and computing probabilities. This country is currently ruled by the House of (*) Grimaldi, whose Prince Rainier III married American actress Grace Kelly in 1956. For ten points, name this principality on the French Riviera, known for its casino at Monte Carlo.
ANSWER: Principality of Monaco (or Principauté de Monaco)
This ruler backed the Occasional Conformity Act to bar Catholics from public office. Abigail Masham replaced this ruler’s friendship with Sarah Churchill. William, Duke of Gloucester was the only (+) child of this ruler to survive past infancy. The Act of Settlement was passed during this ruler’s reign, establishing Electress Sophia as the heiress (*) presumptive. For ten points, name this British queen, the last monarch of the House of Stuart, during whose reign the Acts of Union united England and Scotland.
ANSWER: Queen Anne
This man fathered an illegitimate son named John Sage while he was a failed West Indies merchant in Saint John, New Brunswick. This man was promoted to Major General after a victory at the Battle of Ridgefield. He led a force that raided New London as part of the Battle of (+) Groton Heights. Along with Richard Montgomery, his general led one half of a 1775 expedition to capture (*) Quebec. After he was wounded taking the Breymann Redoubt, this man was stripped of his position by Horatio Gates, and he contacted Henry Clinton. For ten points, name this American general who conspired to handover West Point to the British.
ANSWER: Benedict Arnold
An abandoned opera by this composer depicted the secret Vehmic courts of medieval
Germany. This composer wrote an opera based on the memoirs of Florentine sculptor Benvenuto Cellini. This composer of Les francs-jugesdedicated a work to veterans of the July (+) Revolution; four offstage brass bands are called for in that Requiem. He also wrote a five-movement work that includes a “scene in the fields” and combines the Dies Irae [dee-ACE ee-RAY] with its (*) idée fixe [ee-DAY feex] in the final movement, a dream of a witches’ Sabbath. For ten points, what composer’s unrequited love for the singer Harriet Smithson inspired his Symphonie Fantastique?
ANSWER: Hector Berlioz
(8) This speech notes that Tito did not fall at the shaking of a finger because it had the support of a state behind him. This oration prompted Enver Hoxha [[ho-cha]] to condemn the speaker as a revisionist, and audience members at this oration allegedly (+) fell ill and had to be carried out of the room. This oration was read at many meetings of the Konsomol, rendering its (*) nickname somewhat misleading. For ten points, name this Nikita Khrushchev speech that attacked the personality cult of Joseph Stalin.
ANSWER: Secret Speech (or On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences)
Only read if you need a backup or tiebreaker!
(1) Margaret Chase’s Declaration of Conscience Speech criticized this man. This man’s speeches were broadcast on See it Nowby Edward Murrow. The (+) Tydings Committee formed to investigate claims by this man made to the Republican Women’s Club. Joseph (*) Welch chided this man during, saying “You’ve done enough. Have you no sense of decency, sir?” during a set of Army hearings. For ten points, name this Wisconsin senator who claimed that “card-carrying Communists” were rampant in the U.S. government in the 1950s.
ANSWER: Joseph McCarthy BONUS: Phineas Riall was captured by American forces at Niagara Falls during what battle?
ANSWER: Battle of Lundy’s Lane(prompt on Battle of Niagara Falls)