EGYPT AND THE SAHARA 1 :PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT 1.1 Landforms 001. The Sahara is the world's largest desert, extending 4,000 kms from the Atlantic Ocean to the Red Sea, and from the Mediterranean Sea southwards to merge with the tropical savannas of West Africa. With an area of almost 10 million square kilometres it covers almost a third of the African continent!
002. This region has not always been arid. In places the surface of today’s desert is littered with fossils, which demonstrate that at different stages in geological time the area was covered by sea. (Fossil bed near Bir Wahed in the Libyan Sand Sea) 003. Its initial desiccation was caused by changes in atmospheric circulation in late Cainozoic time (roughly 3 million years ago), and by plate tectonics -- notably the movement of the northern portion of the African plate from wet equatorial latitudes into the dry tropics. (Part of the Erg d’Admer near Djanet) 004. Its progressive desiccation thereafter was caused in part by prehistoric peoples who contributed to the destruction of the local plant cover. It is a process that continues to this day because of overgrazing and the ploughing of lands ill-suited to cultivation. So the desert continues to grow in size. (Cave painting of prehistoric herding in the Tassili-n-Ajjer) 005. The word "Sahara" is derived from the Arabic word sahra, which indicates an "empty area" or "wilderness". It is one of the most hostile environments on earth, where all life -- plant, animal and human -- must adapt if it is to survive. (The Erg d’Admer near Djanet) 006. There are deserts in Australia, too, but nowhere where you could you climb on to the roof of a 4WD, look around you and see no vegetation at all. In the Sahara, though, you can drive for days and not see a single plant! (South of In Amenas) 007. When they think of the Sahara most people imagine an ocean of large sand dunes. However, sand seas (or ergs) cover only a sixth of its area. The sand itself is driven by the wind and can assume several different forms. (Grand Erg Occidental near El Golea) 008.Barchans like this form where there is plenty of sand and winds that blow consistently from one direction. In plan they are crescent shaped, with arms pointing downwind in the direction of their advance. (Libyan Sand Sea near Bir Wahed) 009. They have a steep leeward slip face and a gentler windward slope. Some appear to be stationary but others are definitely moving. At In Salah they are advancing by almost half a metre annually. (Libyan Sand Sea near Bir Wahed) 010. Where there is less sand it may be scraped into long narrow dune ridges parallel to the direction of the prevailing wind. They are known as “seif” dunes, after the Arabic word for a “sword”. (Grand Erg Occidental near El Golea) 011. Pyramid or star-shaped dunes are characteristic of areas where winds change direction with the season; and they can be hundreds of metres in height. (South of In Amenas) 012. Invasion by moving dunes threatens many agricultural areas. The commonest technique used to stem their advance is to build fences from the branches of date palms pushed into the ground. It works for a while, but they will be over-run eventually and a new battle line will be drawn closer to the settlement. (Oasis in Grand Erg Oriental near El Oued ringed by fences) 013. However, the greater bulk of the Sahara is occupied not by sand dunes but by featureless plains covered in small stones, from which the sand has been blown away. Surfaces like these are termed reg in the Western Sahara and serir in the east. (North of In Amenas) 014. Since none of the intermittent streams that flow here after rain actually leave the region, the Sahara is covered by the waste products of weathering and erosion. Across flat areas the wind develops its full force, and moves pebbles as well as sand, sorting them according to size.(Edge of Hoggar massif near Ideles) 015. The plateau north of In Salah is named appropriately, in the language of the local Tuareg, “Tademait,” meaning “naked as the palm of a hand” -- for you won’t see a blade of grass here for hundreds of kilometres. (Plateau du Tademait) 016. In places, too, the surface of the reg may be covered by a desert varnish of iron and manganese oxides, brought to the surface by capillary action and deposited following the evaporation of soil moisture. (Tassili-n-Ajjer) 017. Elsewhere you will find wind-scoured rocky plateaux -- hammada -- flattened by the work of water in times past, and polished later by wind abrasion. (Near Arak; between In Salah and Tamanrasset) 018. And the centre of the desert is actually mountainous. In southern Algeria the Ahaggar Mountains, also known as the Hoggar, rise to heights in excess of 3,000 metres. (The Assekrem highlands of the Hoggar)
019. The surface of the mountainous heart of the Sahara is dissected by dry river channels (wadis), for the streams which drain these slopes flow only intermittently, after rain. (Tassili-n-Ajjer between Illizi and Serouenout)
020. You sometimes find pools of water even in the Sahara, but they do not last long. There are no perennial streams here, for obvious reasons. The Nile only flows year-round because it is nourished by well-watered lands to the south, far beyond the boundaries of the desert. (Hoggar Massif south of Ideles)
1.2 Climate 021. The Sahara is actually the western end of a zone of extreme aridity which extends from the Atlantic to beyond the Red Sea to include the deserts of Arabia, the coastal deserts of Iran and Pakistan, and the Sind Desert in India.
022. It is a zone characterized year-round by high pressures and descending air masses -- which are warmed adiabatically by the compression caused by the increase in pressure as air descends. Their relative humidity is reduced in the process, so hot dry “tropical continental” air masses are dominant here for most of the year.
023. The bareness of the land is, of course, a reflection of its climate -- which is characterized by extreme aridity, high temperatures and violent winds. The average annual rainfall will almost everywhere total less than one hundred millimeters, and many places average only 3 or 4 days with rain annually. In some areas it has not rained for years! (Erg Occidental near El Golea) 024. The strong winds of the Sahara raise both dust and sand grains and drastically reduce visibility. Particles of dust can be carried to great heights and produce brilliant sunsets: but sand grains remain within a metre or two of the surface, forming a moving carpet that is a health hazard. (Sunset at Assekrem) 025. The number of days with sandstorms varies from year to year and from place to place. In Salah averages 55 days with sandstorms per year, but some places get a lot more. (Start of sandstorm at In Salah) 026. Dust and sand particles driven by strong winds will penetrate your clothing, your luggage and your tent; but they can also have direct and harmful impacts of your skin, eyes, and respiratory system -- which explains (in part) the facial coverings worn by those who travel here. (In the market at Tozeur) 027. Sandstorms almost always occur during the day, because there is little wind during the night. The still air then, and the low humidity, is reflected in clear skies and spectacular moonrises. (Moonrise near In Salah) 028. And because the atmosphere high above deserts is usually free of cloud, it does not filter out damaging ultraviolet rays to the same degree as in a humid environment. With little or no cloud year-round, solar radiation is both prolonged and intense. (Midday radiation near Ain Khudra in the Sinai) 029. Many places register more than 10 hours of sunshine per day. Tamanrasset averages 3686 hours per year. In addition bare land surfaces in deserts reflect more of the sun’s rays, so that protection from solar radiation is essential. (My guide near Ain Khudra in the Sinai)) 030. The fine, hot and dry weather of the central Sahara is broken from time to time by atmospheric disturbances from either the north or the south. The southern fringe gets most of its rain in summer (between July and September), when more is lost by evaporation. (Remains of roadside pool south of Illizi) 031. The Sahara’s northern fringe displays a Mediterranean rhythm, with rain in winter (between October and February). This is welcomed by nomads as well as cultivators, but it can disrupt transportation. After a storm the wet heavy sand sticks to the tyres of motor vehicles. (Flooded road north of Tozeur in southern Tunisia) 032. The rainfall is unreliable as well as low. It comes in sudden storms at irregular intervals. One year no rain at all may fall: then, without warning, there will be a violent downpour which will destroy the camps of those foolish enough to camp in dry river beds and also cut roads ... which justifies expensive causeways across normally dry channels. (Dry riverbed at Biskra) 033. Over-grazing reduces the beneficial effects of rain, because, instead of percolating downwards, most of the water runs off the bare surface of the ground ... reducing the agricultural value of the moisture and increasing its destructive power. (Herding near El Oued) 034. The building materials used in the construction of houses in the Sahara are also susceptible to storm damage. In light of the prevailing aridity, most are built of clay and will be damaged by heavy rain. At Siwa, on the eastern edge of the Libyan Desert, houses which had stood for 600 years were destroyed when it rained for 3 days in 1926! (The Shali section of Siwa) 035. Tamanrasset received 160mm of rain one year but only 6mm a year or two later. In many places significant showers may well occur only once every 10 years. And the variability of the rainfall is paralleled by a limited number of rainy days. In Salah averages 17mm a year, with only 5 days receiving a measurable amount of precipitation. Cairo (shown here) averages 29mm annually, with 7 rainy days. (The al-Urman gardens in Cairo in winter ... its wet season) 036. The climatic consideration of greatest biological and cultural significance, therefore, is not the annual total rainfall but the average length of the period between storms of sufficient magnitude for some of the water to remain long enough in favoured localities for seeds to germinate, grow into mature plants, and re-seed themselves. On such plants nomadic animals, and indirectly their owners, depend for food. (Pool of rainwater dammed by road in the Tassili-n-Ajjer) 037. Low lying areas of fine-textured and impermeable soils may fill with water following rain, but such lakes are typically less than a meter in depth and soon evaporate, to produce glistening salt lakes or playas. (Near Touggourt) 038. In places, oases lying below sea level (the result in part of eolian defoliation) are fed by relatively fresh groundwater, which supports areas of cultivation. But they are saline around their margins, where water flow is insufficient to maintain an adequate movement of water downwards through the soil. (On the outskirts of Siwa) 039. In addition to being one of the driest places on earth, the Sahara is also one of the hottest, with average annual mean temperatures exceeding 30 degrees Celsius. Clothing is loose to allow air to circulate and evaporate perspiration. (Women in El Oued) 040. The hottest months in central and northern areas are June, July and August. Relative humidities below 20% are normal then and sometimes drop to 5%. To be free of dehydration under these conditions a person needs between 8 and 15 litres of water each day. (Cafe in Tozeur) 041. But the Sahara is also notorious for wide annual ranges in temperature. Shade temperatures in the 50s are common in summer but at the very same place it may freeze in winter. (Winter clothing at Kairouan in December) 042. Also, throughout the year, with clear skies, temperatures drop off rapidly after sunset and the nights are cool; so tourists warm themselves around campfires in winter. Most places in the Sahara will experience temperatures below zero at least once a year, and daily ranges in excess of 35 degrees are common. (Below zero temperatures at Fort Serouenout on Christmas Day) 043. Because of such wide ranges in temperature between summer and winter and between day and night, what matters most to plants regarding temperature is not the mean but the incidence of high temperatures likely to cause heat damage and low temperatures which may also impact on plant growth. (Sun-scorched plant near Tozeur) 044. Since there is little if any shade, official temperature readings taken in shaded instrument enclosures are less representative of the actual conditions experienced during the heat of the day than they might be elsewhere. Similarly, due to the paucity of both vegetation and soil moisture, soil temperatures will be higher also. In summer the temperature of the sand may reach 70 degrees Celsius -- so it is best not to go barefoot then! (At Ain Khudra in winter)) 045. The walls of houses can be just as hot, and temperatures inside may exceed 40 degrees. So walls are usually thick, with few windows, and many people spend the night in the open on their rooftops. [See frames 350-354] The white and pink walls of houses in Ghardaia are made of sand, clay and gypsum to reflect at least some of the sun’s heat rays. (Ghardaia) 046. Temperatures are moderated slightly by altitude ... especially daily maxima, both mean and extreme. The annual precipitation is also likely to be higher in mountain areas. North of the Sahara the Atlas Mountains are covered by snow in winter but all the streams that flow south from there are intermittent. (Atlas Mountains north of Biskra) 047. Assekrem in the central Sahara averages164 mm of precipitation per year. Snow may fall here in winter, and waterholes freeze over. The vegetation of damper sections is different here also, and includes Mediterranean species like the olive and the fig, together with stunted cypresses and myrtles. Assekrem was for 11 years the home of the famous French writer and hermit Father Charles de Foucauld, murdered nearby at Tamanrasset in 1916. (Assekrem Mountains of the Hoggar) 048. The climatic implication of which tourists are reminded most forcefully, though, is that with so little rain and such dry air, nothing decays here and the use of toilet paper is actively discouraged ... since it can blow around for decades. (Garbage outside Illizi) 1.3 Plant and Animal Life 049. With high temperatures and strong winds, cloudless skies and low humidities, the little rain that does fall is quickly evaporated. Everything and everyone is threatened by dehydration. So the key to survival here -- the survival of plants, animals and human beings -- is the ability to obtain enough water, and to avoid losing it. The diversity of plant and animal species is inevitably limited, but they display a wide range of strategies for survival. (Wild melons on the Hoggar Massif) 050. Much of the central Sahara averages less than 20 mm annually. Most perennial plants simply cannot survive under these conditions. Such areas can only support annuals. These spring up after heavy rain, when the desert will briefly be green: but they will flower and seed quickly, wilt and die -- living on as seed lying dormant in the soil. (Plant in seed in the Tassili-n-Ajjer) 051. Some plants have thorns instead of leaves, offering a smaller surface area from which water can be evaporated. Others store the water that falls in the occasional thunderstorm. The Sahara lacks the cacti of American deserts, but it has comparable succulent species. And plants in shaded locations can survive on less moisture. (Flowering plant at foot of narrow steep-sided wadi in the Sinai) 052. Many annuals are able to adjust their size to reflect the amount of water available. When there is ample rainfall they flourish, but when the rains during which they germinated are followed by a long period without rain such plants adopt a dwarf form with fewer and smaller leaves, and produce fewer flowers and fruits. They also produce these in a shorter period of time than comparable species growing under wetter conditions. (After rain in the Tassili-n-Ajjer) 053. Though the surfaces of most desert soils are dry year-round (save for days following the occasional rains) there is often a damp layer within the soil profile and also water in the crevices of underlying rocks. Together they are capable of supporting a few perennials, though these may need to adapt to a high salt content. In the heat of the day, though, many plants will wilt, so that the surfaces of their leaves are no longer at right angles to the sun. (Stressed perennial near Ain Khudra in the Sinai) 054. Trees and shrubs are rare, found only where their roots can reach ground water, as in wadis occupied briefly by intermittent streams following rain. (Floor of wadi in the Hoggar after rain) 055. The tamarisk, or “salt cedar”, is the commonest species of tree found in the Sahara. It is evergreen and typically between 5 and 15 metres in height. Its presence is an indication that there is ground water to be found here at a depth of between 5 and 15 metres. (Tamarisk bluff near Ideles) 056. Falling water-tables threaten the survival of localized tree-covered bluffs like this, however, as do travelers hacking off branches, it being one of the few sources of firewood in the desert. (Near Ideles) 057. Acacias, too, are deeply rooted. In contrast the roots of succulents typically extend for only 3-4 cm beneath the surface so they can make the most of every shower even when the rain does not sink very far into the ground. (South of Illizi) 058. Most plants also collect water from a wide area and so are spaced far apart. Only in an oasis will you find areas of continuous plant cover: everywhere else plants are widely scattered. (North of In Amenas) 059. Animals display a similar range of adjustments -- to regulate their body temperature and/or conserve moisture. Some sleep underground throughout the hot summer (much as some species hibernate in cold climates). Others only come out at night, so that by day the only signs of their presence are the tracks they leave in the sand. (North of El Oued) 060. The existence of animals is also revealed by their dung ... which is drier (and their urine more concentrated) than it would be in a humid environment ... and by their remains when they die. (Horn of gazelle north of Ghardaia) 061. Most desert mammals are light in colour: this means not only that their skin absorbs less heat, but also that they are less obvious to predators -- in an environment where there is little protective cover. Those that do move around during the day -- gazelles, camels, donkeys etc. -- usually move to shady spots in mid-morning and rest there till late in the afternoon. (Riding camels at Ain Khudra in the Sinai) 062. The reproduction of animal species is also influenced by the climate. Most gazelles here calve about a month after the onset of the rains, when plenty of grazing is available. Camels have a pronounced rutting season at the time of the rains and a pregnancy lasting twelve months. (Young camel courtesy http://puzzles-games.eu/data/media/1/Dromedary-with-Baby-Camel-Sahara-Egypt.jpg) 063. The fertility of jerboas and voles declines during dry weather and their population levels drop off accordingly: also no rodents here sweat. And lizards run between patches of shade with their body held high to reduce the rate at which heat is absorbed from the surface: and when they reach the shade they flop down to allow their body to lose heat by contact with the cooler ground. (Long-eared jerboa courtesy http://25.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_me88g3f2I01rxyvj1o1_500.jpg) 2 : HISTORICAL OVERVIEW 2.1 The Prehistoric Era 064. Beds of shells bear witness to the fact that at various times in the past large parts of the Sahara were under water. In recent geological time the Sahara has in fact experienced a succession of climate cycles each lasting about 100,000 years. The first 90,000 years of each cycle was marked by increasing aridity, cold and wind ... followed by a rapid but short lived return to milder and wetter conditions. (Shell-rich strata near Bir Wahed in Libyan Sand Sea) 065. The last such dry cycle ended 12,000 years ago, and for the next 6,000 years the Sahara was a land of lakes and flowing rivers (as it had been previously following the droughts). The rock paintings of the people who lived then around the Tassili massif show how their way of life changed in response to these changes in climatic conditions. (Site of the “Tassili Frescoes”) 066. “Tassili n’Ajjer” in the language of the Tuareg means “Plateau of the Rivers” and 8,000 years ago the Neolithic people who lived there hunted giraffes and antelopes and other animals characteristic of the tropical savanna that covered the land then. (Hunters equipped with bows and arrows) 067. Some 2000 years later they switched from hunting to pastoralism and, practicing transhumance, grazed immense herds of cattle -- which were clearly not zebu, as they had no humps. The colours used in these paintings were produced using earth ochres containing oxides of iron; also goat’s milk, and the rubbery sap of certain acacias. (Herding cattle) 068. The most recent pictures are between 2000 and 3000 years old and show camels, but after that the people here disappeared in the face of increasing aridity and military conquest. (Camel) 069. And elephants, lions, ostriches and crocodiles disappeared in the years that followed -- due at least in part to the expansion of the desert as a result of overgrazing by domestic animals, the felling of trees for fuel, and small-scale but poor agricultural practices that ruined the soil. (Elephant) 2.2 Indigenous Peoples 070. During recorded history, which has been a time of diminishing rainfall, the greater bulk of the Sahara has been occupied by pastoral nomads. Originally most of these were Berbers, who ranged over vast areas in search of fodder for their camels, sheep and goats; and traded their milk, meat and hides for the crops of the oases that existed then (notably for fruit and cereals). Some of them also owned cropland, which was worked for them by slaves. (Berber herders inspecting stock in the market at Kairouan) 071. In the 7th and 11th centuries, however, when the Arabs swept across North Africa, the Berbers lost their best croplands and pastures and were either banished to the mountain ranges of the north or pushed further south into the desert. (Berber farmstead north of Biskra; in winter) 072. Those Berbers who live in the mountains today graze livestock ... practicing transhumance (or vertical nomadism) moving up and down slopes according to the season. (Berber farmstead and pastures near Constantine) 073. They usually combine herding with cultivation ... on terraced hillsides where water is available for irrigation, and/or taking advantage as here of winter rain. (Field near Constantine)