ii). Functions of the endocrine glands
iii). Effect of under-secretion or over-secretion of endocrine hormones
ii). Functions of the mammalian skin
iii). Care of the mammalian skin
ii). The central nervous system (CNS)
iii). Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
ii) The position, structure and function of the spinal cord
ii) The somatic NS
(iii) Autonomic NS
iv) Sympathetic N.S and parasympathetic N.S
ii). Structure of a neuron.
iii). Transportation of nerve impulse
iv). Reflex actions voluntary actions (examples)
v). Pavlov experiment on dog, food and bell
(iii) adaptation for survival e.g. animals (dog) sniff during hunting
Presence of chemoreceptors in insects (butterflies). Antenna for sensing the environment.
Taste buds on tongue and part played in testing.
Sensory nerve ending/receptors associated with skin touch, deep pressure, heart and pain
Structure of the ear and past played by the various parts.
ii) Note the area of tongue, which are sensitive to sweetness and bitterness etc
ii) Functions of the different parts of the eyes
iii) The role of the eyes in image formation and accommodation
iv) Eye defects: Myopia, hypermetropia, presbyopia, astigmatism
Eye problem/diseases: Cataract, night blindness, colour blindness etc.
i). meaning of succession
ii). Structural change in species composition, variety and increase in number
iii). Primary succession in an aquatic habitat
iv). Secondary succession : meaning and examples
v) characteristics of a stable community
i). Population density studies and available resources
ii). Importance of factors affecting population space
ii) Factors that cause overcrowding
iii). Ways of avoiding overcrowding .
Effect of food shortage: competition, reproduction, emigration rate
- biotic - Abiotic
ii) Dynamic equilibrium in nature
iii) Factors that maintain dynamic equilibrium such as
availability of food
iii) Family planning
- Natural and artificial methods of population control (sex education)
ii) Plant seedling to show inter-specific and intra-specific competition
iii) Display a chart showing the family planning methods
b. alkanoic acids.
5. Test tubes, test-tube racks, etc.
1. Periodic law
2. Blocks of elements:-
Metals, non-metals, metalloids and transition metals.
3. Families: s-p-d-f (according to group I-VIII, i.e. group IA-Alkali metals, Group IIA – Alkali Earth and other family names).
Use the periodic table template and the atomic structure of common elements to guide students to deduce the periodic law and group elements into families based on shared characteristics.
1. Periodic table chart of elements
2. Blank periodic table template.
-changes in sizes and changes down the group and across periods and accompanying changes in properties.
5. Diagonal relationships
6. Ionization energy and electron affinity; changes down the group and across the period
Initiates and guide class discussions on:
-Atomic and ionic sizes
-Ionization energy and electron affinity
-Gradation in properties of elements down the groups and across periods.
1. Sodium metal
2. Magnesium ribbon
3. Aluminium metal
4. Heat source
1. Basic concepts:
Reactants, products, reaction time and reaction rate.
2. Introduction to collusion theory.
-Guide the students to identify reactants and products of chemical reaction
-Use simple experiments to illustrate:-the concept of reaction rates.
3. Factors affecting the rate of chemical reactions:
- Nature of substance
4. Types of chemical reactions:
1. Effects of the nature of substances, concentration/pressure, temperature and catalyst on reaction rates, using simple experiments to illustrate.
2. Use simple experiments also to illustrate endothermic and exothermic reactions.
3. Initiate class discussion of the energy relationships in endothermic and exothermic reactions i.e. ΔG=ΔH-TΔS (graphical representations only).
1. Common reagents like HCl, CuSO4, NH4Cl, NaCl, NH4OH, etc.
2. Heat source, water, test-tubes and beakers.
5. Chemical equilibrium:
Introduction using simple equations; Le chatellier’s principles.
6. Factors affecting equilibrium of chemical reactions:
1. Explain Le chatellier’s principle
2. Demonstrates the effects of changes in temperature, concentration and pressure on chemical reactions.
3. Guides students to write and balance equations for chemical reactions on equilibrium.
Common chemical equations.
-Mole, molar quantities, molality.
-Standard temperature and pressure (s.t.p).
-Relative densities and relative molar mass.
1. Explain the concept of mole, molar, s.t.p. relative densities and relative molecular mass etc and their units.
2. Guide students to calculate:
-masses of reactants and products
-number of moles of reacting substances and products.
1. Students’ textbooks and workbooks.
2. HCl, NaOH, magnesium ribbons, copper, copper oxide, etc.
2. Calculations involving mass and volume
3. SI units of quantities i.e. length, mass, volume etc.
1. Relative densities of substance:
-volumes of gas in chemical reactions
2. Give students practice questions
3. Mark and review students assignment
4. guide students to deduce the SI units of quantities.
Students’ textbooks and workbooks.
1. Common indicators and their pH ranges
2. Simple acid-base titrations.
1. Guides students to:
-prepare standard solutions
-identify appropriate indicators for acid-base titrations.
2. Display and explain the apparatus necessary for carrying out simple titrations.
3. Demonstrates the process of acid-base titration according to instructions.
4. Guide students to carry out the acid-base titration according to instructions.
5. Ensures students record properly and perform relevant calculations.
1. Distilled water or deionized water
2. Titration apparatus. Retort stand, beaker, burettle conical falsk, pipette, white tile, etc.
4. Weighing balance
5. Acids, Bases
7. Practical notebooks
8. Measuring cylinder and funnel.
3. Simple acid-base titration continued.
Same as above.
4. Heat of neutralization (introductory)
5. Construction of wooden retort stand.
Make arrangement for students to visit the introductory technology workshop to construct wooden retort stands.