Department of microbiology microbial food technology group a diploma in quality assurance in microbiology diploma

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ISO 22000

[edit]Food safety

Food safety is linked to the presence of food-borne hazards in food at the point of consumption. Since food safety hazards can occur at any stage in the food chain it is essential that adequate control be in place. Therefore, a combined effort of all parties through the food chain is required.

.ISO 22000 standard

The ISO 22000 international standard specifies the requirements for a food safety management system that involves the following elements:

  • interactive communication

  • system management

  • prerequisite programs

  • HACCP principles

Critical reviews of the above elements have been conducted by many scientists [1], [2], [3], [4]. Communication along the food chain is essential to ensure that all relevant food safety hazards are identified and adequately controlled at each step within the food chain. This implies communication between organizations both upstream and downstream in the food chain. Communication with customers and supplies about identified hazards and control measures will assist in clarifying customer and supplier requirements.

Recognition of the organization's role and position within the food chain is essential to ensure effective interactive communication throughout the chain in order to deliver safe food products to the final consumer.

The most effective food safety systems are established, operated and updated within the framework of a structured management system and incorporated into the overall management activities of the organization. This provides maximum benefit for the organization and interested parties. ISO 22000 has been aligned with ISO 9001 in order to enhance the compatibility of the two standards.

ISO 22000 can be applied independently of other management system standards or integrated with existing management system requirements.

ISO 22000 integrates the principles of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system and application steps developed by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. By means of auditable requirements, it combines the HACCP plan with prerequisite programmes. Hazard analysis is the key to an effective food safety management system, since conducting a hazard analysis assists in organizing the knowledge required to establish an effective combination of control measures. ISO 22000 requires that all hazards that may be reasonably expected to occur in the food chain, including hazards that may be associated with the type of process and facilities used, are identified and assessed. Thus it provides the means to determine and document why certain identified hazards need to be controlled by a particular organization and why others need not.

During hazard analysis, the organization determines the strategy to be used to ensure hazard control by combining the prerequisite programmes and the HACCP plan.

ISO is developing additional standards that are related to ISO 22000. These standards will be known as the ISO 22000 family of standards. At the present time, the following standards will make up the ISO 22000 family of standards:

ISO 22000 - Food safety management systems - Requirements for any organization in the food chain.

ISO 22001 - Guidelines on the application of ISO 9001:2000 for the food and drink industry (replaces: ISO 15161:2001).

ISO/TS 22002- Prerequisite programmes on food safety -- Part 1: Food manufacturing

ISO TS 22003 - Food safety management systems for bodies providing audit and certification of food safety management systems.

ISO TS 22004 - Food safety management systems - Guidance on the application of ISO 22000:2005.

ISO 22005 - Traceability in the feed and food chain - General principles and basic requirements for system design and implementation.

ISO 22006 - Quality management systems - Guidance on the application of ISO 9002:2000 for crop production.

ISO 22000 is also used in the Food Safety Systems Certification (FSSC) Scheme FS22000. FS22000 is a Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI) approved scheme.

ISO 9001 vs ISO 22000

In comparison with ISO 9001, the standard is a more procedural orientated guidance than a principle based one. Apart from that, ISO 22000 is an industrial-specific risk management system for any type of food processing and marketing, which can be closely incorporated with the quality management system of ISO 9001. The detailed similarities and differences of the two standards can be found elsewhere 

Potential justification

In 2004, European Office of Crafts, Trades and Small and Medium-sized Enterprises for Standardisation addressed that the standard is only suitable for large sized companies and small food businesses will not be able to seek such a high standard due to the lack of resources to pursue the certification. The agency suggests to create an alternative for small food business to achieve the same objective [9]EFSA is now making their efforts on the food legislations that are adaptable for the SMEs in food supply chains [10]. A few critics also proposed that organizations which seek the standard certification should also do the same to the ISO 14001 along with the ISO 9001, as they consider that large amounts of risks are mainly from the primary production in the supply chains rather than the later stages of food processing [11], [12]

4.Explain the World Trade Organization in detail.

World Trade Organization

The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an organization that intends to supervise andliberalize international trade. The organization officially commenced on January 1, 1995 under the Marrakech Agreement, replacing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which commenced in 1948. The organization deals with regulation of trade between participating countries; it provides a framework for negotiating and formalizing trade agreements, and a dispute resolution process aimed at enforcing participants' adherence to WTO agreements which are signed by representatives of member governments and ratified by their parliaments.[4][5] Most of the issues that the WTO focuses on derive from previous trade negotiations, especially from the Uruguay Round (1986-1994).

The organization is currently endeavoring to persist with a trade negotiation called the Doha Development Agenda (or Doha Round), which was launched in 2001 to enhance equitable participation of poorer countries which represent a majority of the world's population. However, the negotiation has been dogged by "disagreement between exporters of agricultural bulk commodities and countries with large numbers of subsistence farmers on the precise terms of a 'special safeguard measure' to protect farmers from surges in imports. At this time, the future of the Doha Round is uncertain."[6]

The WTO has 153 members,[7] representing more than 97% of total world trade[8] and 30 observers, most seeking membership. The WTO is governed by a ministerial conference, meeting every two years; a general council, which implements the conference's policy decisions and is responsible for day-to-day administration; and a director-general, who is appointed by the ministerial conference. The WTO's headquarters is at the Centre Willi

5. Explain the consumer protection act in detail.

The consumer protection act, 1986

            Though consumer is the purpose and most powerful motivating force of production, yet at the same time consumer is equally vulnerable segment of the whole marketing system. Attempts have been made to guard the interest of the consumer in a sporadic way till 1986, when Government of India enacted a comprehensive legislation-Consumer Protection Act, to safe guard the interest of the consumer then ever before. The Consumer Protection Act, 1986, applies to all goods and services, excluding goods for resale or for commercial purpose and services rendered free of charge and under a contract for personal service. The provisions of the Act are compensatory in nature. It covers public, private, joint and cooperative sectors.

          The Act enshrines the rights of the consumer such as right to safety, right to be informed, right to be heard, and right to choose, right to seek redressal and right to consumer education.

  Consumer: A consumer is any person who buys any goods for a consideration and user of such goods where the use is with the approval of buyer, any person who hires/avails of any service for a consideration and any beneficiary of such services, where such services are availed of with the approval of the person hiring the service.  The consumer need not have made full payment.

Goods:  Goods mean any movable property and also include shares, but do not include any auctionable claims.

Service:  Service of any description such as banking, insurance, transport, processing, housing construction, supply of electrical energy, entertainment, board or lodging.

Nature of complaint:

a)      Any unfair trade practice or restrictive trade practice adopted ;by the trader

      b) Defective goods

b)      Deficiency in service

c)      Excess price charged ;by the trader

     d)  Unlawful goods sale, which is hazardous to life and safety when used

Consumer Courts:  A three-tier-system

a)      National Consumer Dispute Redressal Commission: claims above Rs. 20 lakh

(a)   Consumer Dispute Redressal Commission or State Commission: Claims from Rs 5 to 20 lakh.

(a)    Consumer Dispute Redressal Forum or District Forum: Claims upto Rs 5 Lakh

Complaint: A complaint, hand written or typed, can be filed by a consumer, a registered consumer organisation, central or state Government and one or more consumers, where there are numerous consumers having the same interest.No stamp or court fee is needed. The nature of complaint must be clearly mentioned as well as the relief sought by the consumer. It must be in quadruplicate in district forum or state commission. Else, additional copies are required to be filed.

Grant of relief:

(a)    Repair of defective goods

(b)   Replacement of defective goods

(c)    Refund of the price paid  for the defective goods or service

(d)   Removal of deficiency in service

(e)    Refund of extra money charged

(f)     Withdrawal of  goods hazardous to life and safety

(g)    Compensation for the loss or injury suffered by the consumer due to negligence of the opposite party

(h)    Adequate cost of filing and pursuing the complaint

   Normally, complaints should be decided within 90 days from the date of notice issued to the opposite party. Where a sample of any goods is required to be tested, a complaint is required to be disposed of within 150 days; it may take more time due to practical problems.

Consumer Protection Councils: Councils have been setup in all states and at the center to promote and protect the rights and interest of consumers. These councils are advisory in nature and can play important role in recommending consumer oriented policies to the state and central Government.

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