Date: Fall 2014 Course: educ 224: Scientific Inquiry Brief Description



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Running Head: That’s the way the cookies crumbles 1









Brittany Lane

That’s the way the cookie crumbles

Scientific Inquiry



Name of Artifact: That’s the way the cookie crumbles
Date: Fall 2014
Course: EDUC 224: Scientific Inquiry

Brief Description: This is a scientific inquiry paper that I wrote over homemade chocolate chip cookies, after completing several rounds of inquiry for a project. This paper goes into detail of the questions I formulated, the claims that were made, observations, data, research of scientific concepts and conclusions.
Rationale: To document my understanding of Standard Four: Content Knowledge, I have chosen to include my scientific inquiry paper. This paper shows that I understands major concepts, assumptions, debates, processes of inquiry, and ways of knowing.


Definition of Best Cookie

Color:



Was the cookie:

Semi-sweet


The cookie was chewy:

Strongly agree



Appearance:

Good



Overall Impression:

Satisfied


Our Likert Scale:

Cookie A

Cookie B

Color:



Color:




Was the cookie:

Sweet Semi-sweet Not sweet

Was the cookie:

Sweet Semi-sweet Not sweet


The cookie was chewy:

Strongly agree Neither agree or disagree Strongly disagree



The cookie was chewy:

Strongly agree Neither agree or disagree Strongly disagree



Appearance:

Not good Alright Good



Appearance:

Not good Alright Good



Overall Impression:

Dissatisfied Neither satisfied or dissatisfied Satisfied


Overall Impression:

Dissatisfied Neither satisfied or dissatisfied Satisfied


Round one

Question: What preparation method makes the “best” chocolate chip cookie, homemade or pre-packaged?

Claim: was that the ideal preparation method for the best chocolate chip cookies is to make them from scratch

Materials

  • Measuring cup, teaspoon, ¾ cup, ¼ cup, small bowl, large mixing bowl with automatic mixer, spatula, mixing spoon, oven mitts, oven, baking sheet, and container.

Ingredients (pre-packaged)

  • 2 1/4 cups all-purpose flour, 1 teaspoon baking soda, 1 teaspoon salt, 1 cup (2 sticks) butter, 3/4 cup granulated sugar, 3/4 cup packed brown sugar, 1 teaspoon vanilla extract, 2 large eggs, 2 cups (12-oz. pkg.) NESTLÉ TOLL HOUSE Semi-Sweet

Ingredients (homemade)

  • 2 1/4 cups all-purpose flour, 1 teaspoon baking soda, 1 teaspoon salt, 1 cup (2 sticks) butter, 3/4 cup granulated sugar, 3/4 cup packed brown sugar, 1 teaspoon vanilla extract, 2 large eggs, 2 cups (12-oz. pkg.) NESTLÉ TOLL HOUSE Semi-Sweet Chocolate Morsels

Procedure: (repeat same procedures for both cookies; make sure to use correct measurements)

  • Preheat oven to 375° F.

  • Combine 2 ¼ cups flour, ¾ tsp. baking soda and 1 tsp. salt in small bowl.

  • Beat 2 sticks of butter, ¾ cup granulated sugar, ¾ cup brown sugar and 1 tsp. vanilla extract in large mixer bowl until creamy.

  • Add 2 large eggs, one at a time, beating well after each addition.

  • Gradually beat in flour mixture.

  • Stir in 1 bag semi-sweet morsels.

  • Drop by rounded tablespoon onto ungreased baking sheets. 

  • Bake for 9 to 11 minutes or until golden brown.

  • Cool on baking sheet for 2 minutes.

  • Remove and put in container.

  • Chocolate Morsels

  • Make homemade cookies

  • Make pre-packaged cookies

  • Create Likert scale.

  • Give ten people one homemade cookie

  • Give the same ten people one prepackaged cookie.

  • Have the same ten people fill out the Likert scale we created depending on color, sweetness, chewiness, appearance, and overall impression.

  • Collect data from the ten people.

  • Tally the scores.

Inquiry 1 data

Cookie A (Prepackaged)

Cookie B (Homemade)

Color:

2 people 4 people 4 people



Color:

8 people 1 person 1 person



Sweetness:

Sweet Semi-sweet Not sweet

5 people 5 people None



Sweetness:

Sweet Semi-sweet Not sweet

2 people 7 people 1 person



Chewiness:

Strongly agree Neither Strongly disagree

6 people 3 people 1 person



Chewiness:

Strongly agree Neither Strongly disagree

4 people 5 people 1 person



Appearance:

Not good Alright Good

None 6 people 4 people



Appearance:

Not good Alright Good

3 people 4 people 3 people


Our question for round one of inquiry was what preparation method makes the “best” chocolate chip cookie, homemade or pre-packaged? Our claim was that the ideal preparation method for the best chocolate chip cookies is to make them from scratch. Our claim was not supported. We found that people preferred the pre-packaged cookies over the homemade cookies.

For the first round of inquiry we made 20 chocolate chip cookies. Ten of the chocolate chip cookies were homemade and the other ten were pre-packaged chocolate chip cookies. We gave 10 participants one of each cookie and a likert scale, a commonly used survey tool that requests an assessment of some variable from among a range of potential responses (likert scale, 2014). The participants were to rate each cookie based on color, sweetness, chewiness, appearance, and overall impression. Although the participants favored the prepackaged cookies over the homemade, the pre-packed cookies are not good to eat. Homemade cookies are made from fresh ingredients as in flour, eggs, and butter. Pre-packed cookies have preservatives in them. Preservatives help to keep food fresh and prevent the growth of bacteria and discoloration. Some preservatives that cookies contain as in

BHT/BHA, are ok for human consumption and cause no health threats. But Sodium Benzoate, which is also found in pre-packaged cookies, does have some possible danger. Sodium benzoate is a sodium salt that is commonly used as a chemical preservative, but can also occur naturally in some foods (Sodium Benzoate, 2014). It is found mostly in pre-packaged food and is used to help extend the shelf life of products.

Sodium benzoate may cause symptoms or spells of ADHD (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder). It is recommended that children with ADHD eat food that is unprocessed and fresh. This is because additives and preservatives have dyes and chemicals in them that cause children with ADHD to display hyperactive symptoms. Sodium benzoate may also lead to asthma attacks in people with asthma. A high amount of it causes difficulty in breathing and narrowing and swelling of airways (Stein, 2013). Sodium benzoate may also cause hypertension, and high blood pressure. As a result this may lead to kidney disease heart disease, and even a stroke. Even though the pre –packaged cookies were super delicious it is very important to watch the amount of sodium benzoate being digested, because too much could equal potential health issues.

A great way to lower your intake of sodium benzoate is to watch the amount of pre packed eaten on a daily basis. Try choosing that are low in sodium. Lastly reading the nutrition labels on food will help to tell you how much and if any sodium benzoate is present.



Round two

Question: If we hand out two homemade chocolate chip cookies, but say one is pre-made Kroger brand, which one will be rated better on the likert scale?

Claim: The homemade cookies will be rated better than the pre-made Kroger cookies.

Materials

  • Measuring cup, teaspoon, ½ cup, small bowl, large mixing bowl with automatic mixer, spatula, mixing spoon, oven mitts, oven, baking sheet, and container.

Ingredients (Doubled)

  • 4 ½ cups all-purpose flour, 2 teaspoons baking soda, 2 teaspoons salt, 2 cup (4 sticks) butter, 1 ½ cup granulated sugar, 1 ½ cup packed brown sugar, 2 teaspoons vanilla extract, 4 large eggs, 4 cups (2 pkgs.) NESTLÉ TOLL HOUSE Semi-Sweet Chocolate Morsels

Procedure

  • Make two batches of homemade cookies

  • “Buy Kroger Brand cookies.” (In reality we just made a double batch of the homemade recipe)

  • Give ten people one homemade cookie.

  • Give the same ten people one “Kroger brand cookie” (In reality we gave them each one homemade cookie).

  • Tell the ten people that the homemade cookie is an award winning recipe.

  • Tell the same ten people that the other cookie is a “Kroger brand cookie” and isn’t as good as the first.

  • Have the same ten people fill out the Likert scale we created depending on color, sweetness, chewiness, appearance, and overall impression.

  • Collect the data from the ten people.

  • Tally the scores.

Inquiry 2 data

Cookie A (Grandmas Award Winning Homemade)

Cookie B (“Kroger Brand”)

(Same as Cookie A)

Color:

7 people 2 people 1 person



Color:

7 people 2 people 1 person



Sweetness:

Sweet Semi-sweet Not sweet

3 people 7 people None



Sweetness:

Sweet Semi-sweet Not sweet

3 people 5 people 2 people



Chewiness:

Strongly agree Neither Strongly disagree

6 people 4 people None



Chewiness:

Strongly agree Neither Strongly disagree

6 people 4 people None



Appearance:

Not good Alright Good

None 2 people 8 people



Appearance:

Not good Alright Good

None 4 people 6 people



Overall Impression:

Dissatisfied Neither Satisfied

None None 10 people



Overall Impression:

Dissatisfied Neither Satisfied

None 3 people 7 people



For our second round of inquiry we wanted to know if we hand out two homemade chocolate chip cookies, but say one is pre-made Kroger brand, which one will be rated better on the likert scale? Our claim was that the homemade cookies will be rated better than the pre-made Kroger cookies. After collecting data from the participants, we found that our claim was supported.

We made 20 homemade chocolate chip cookies for ten participants to taste. Each participant received two cookies each. We told the participants that one cookie was a nasty Kroger brand chocolate chip cookie and that the other cookie was grandma’s award winning homemade chocolate chip cookie. We then gave each person a likert scale.  The likert scale required each participant to rate color, sweetness, chewiness, appearance, and overall impression. Although the cookies were exactly the same, the results of the likert scale showed different. Overall people were more satisfied with “grandma’s award winning homemade chocolate chip cookies” over the “the nasty Kroger brand chocolate chip cookies”.



Why did the participants favor one cookie over the other although they were the same? The answer to that is the power of suggestion. The power of suggestion describes how people use their imaginations to make realities out of the ideas that are presented to them, which can help people change their behavior (Davis, 2003). We persuaded the participants by telling them that one cookie was award winning homemade, while the other was nasty Kroger brand. Automatically when we told the participants “grandma’s award winning homemade” they already had it made up in their mind based on the description of the cookie, that it was the best overall. The power of suggestion has the power to cause people to imagine the results of something before even tasting it, doing it, or looking at it. According to Power of Suggestion: Examples, Experiments, & Definition, human beings have incredible imaginations, but they also have the potential to turn those imaginations into reality (Davis, 2003). So just by giving a brief description of the cookies, the participants could imagine the cookie in their mouth and exactly what it taste like. If I say “this cookie is nasty and it taste like charcoal”, before even tasting the cookie a person will automatically assume and anticipate that it’s nasty and will already have the taste in their mouth.. When someone presents a suggestion of what could possibly happen, our imagination takes control and turns it into a reality. Humans can easily trick themselves into believing things.

Round three

Question: If the ingredients are changed in the preparation method, what effect will it have on the rating of the cookies?

Claim: The original recipe for the homemade cookie would be rated better.

Materials

  • Measuring cup, teaspoon, ¾ cup, ¼ cup, small bowl, large mixing bowl with automatic mixer, spatula, mixing spoon, oven mitts, oven, baking sheet, ingredients above, Nestle Toll House prepackaged cookie dough, and container.

Ingredients for homemade chocolate chip cookies

  • 2 1/4 cups all-purpose flour

  • 1 teaspoon baking soda

  • 1 teaspoon salt

  • 1 cup (2 sticks) butter

  • 3/4 cup granulated sugar

  • 3/4 cup packed brown sugar

  • 1 teaspoon vanilla extract

  • 2 large eggs

  • 2 cups (12-oz. pkg.) NESTLÉ TOLL HOUSE Semi-Sweet Chocolate Morsels

Procedure:

  1. Make homemade cookies.

  • Preheat oven to 375° F.

  • Combine 2 ¼ cups flour, ¾ tsp. baking soda and 1 tsp. salt in small bowl.

  • Beat 2 sticks of butter, ¾ cup granulated sugar, ¾ cup brown sugar and 1 tsp. vanilla extract in large mixer bowl until creamy.

  • Add 2 large eggs, one at a time, beating well after each addition.

  • Gradually beat in flour mixture.

  • Stir in 1 bag semi-sweet morsels.

  • Drop by rounded tablespoon onto ungreased baking sheets. 

  • Bake for 9 to 11 minutes or until golden brown.

  • Cool on baking sheet for 2 minutes.

  • Remove and put in container.

Materials for Gluten Free:

  • Measuring cups, teaspoon, ¼ cup, ¾ cup, medium mixing bowl, automatic mixer, spatula, mixing spoon, oven mitts, oven, baking sheet, and container.

Ingredients for homemade gluten free chocolate chip cookies

  • 1/4 cup butter, softened

  • 1 1/4 cups packed brown sugar

  • 1/4 cup white sugar

  • 1 teaspoon gluten-free vanilla extract

  • 1/4 cup egg substitute

  • 2 1/4 cups gluten-free baking mix

  • 1 teaspoon baking soda

  • 1 teaspoon baking powder

  • 1 teaspoon salt

  • 12 ounces semisweet chocolate chips

Procedure

  1. Make gluten free cookies

  • Preheat oven to 375 degrees F (190 degrees C).

  • Prepare a greased baking sheet.

  • In a medium bowl, cream butter and sugar

  • Gradually add replacer eggs and vanilla while mixing

  • Sift together gluten- free flour mix, baking soda, baking powder, and salt

  • Stir into the butter mixture until blended

  • Finally, stir in the chocolate chips

  • Using a teaspoon, drop cookies 2 inches apart on prepared baking sheet

  • Bake in preheated oven for 6 to 8 minutes or until light brown

  • Let cookies cool on baking sheet for 2 minutes before removing to wire racks

  • Remove and put into container

  1. Give ten people one homemade cookie.

  2. Give the same ten people one gluten free cookie.

  3. Have the same ten people fill out the Likert scale we created depending on color, sweetness, chewiness, appearance, and overall impression.

  4. Collect the data from the ten people.

  5. Tally the data.

Inquiry 3 data

Cookie A (Homemade)

Cookie B (Gluten Free)

Color:

7 people 3 people None



Color:

None 4 people 6 people




Sweetness:

Sweet Semi-sweet Not sweet

5 people 5 people None



Sweetness:

Sweet Semi-sweet Not sweet

None 2 people 8 people



Chewiness:

Strongly agree Neither Strongly disagree

7 people 3 people None

Chewiness:

Strongly agree Neither Strongly disagree

None None 10 people



Appearance:

Not good Alright Good

None 3 people 7 people



Appearance:

Not good Alright Good

10 people None None



Overall Impression:

Dissatisfied Neither Satisfied

None None 10 people



Overall Impression:

Dissatisfied Neither Satisfied

10 people None None



The question we wanted to find out for the third round of inquiry was, if the ingredients are changed in the preparation method, what effect will it have on the rating of the cookies? Our claim was that the original recipe for the homemade cookie would be rated better. After gathering the results from the likert scale, our claim was supported.

For this round of inquiry we made 10 homemade chocolate chip cookies and 10 gluten free homemade chocolate chip cookies. We gathered 10 people and had them taste one of each. Again, like the previous two rounds, the participants had to fill out the likert scale based on color, sweetness, chewiness, appearance, and overall impression. The results from the likert scale were overwhelming. The participants favored the homemade chocolate chip cookies over the homemade gluten free chocolate chip cookies in every area. Not one person liked the gluten free cookies.

So what is it that makes the homemade chocolate chip cookies so golden brown, sweet, and chewy? Where does it get its fluffiness from? How are these scrumptious cookies held together? What role do the ingredients play in the creation of these mouthwatering cookies that makes them more favorable then the gluten free cookies? The science of the perfect homemade chocolate chip cookie tells it all and how altering certain ingredients can change the overall outcome. From the way the cookie feels, looks, all the way down to the taste.

The flour used in the homemade chocolate chip cookies was all purpose flour and contained the protein gluten. Gluten is the strong, sticky, stretchy protein that forms when flour and water mix. It gives structure and elasticity to baked goods and helps flour morph into many different foods (Masibay). Gluten free flour is used in the gluten free cookies. When gluten is taken out of the flour, the flour loses its elasticity. The homemade chocolate cookies had a good overall cohesive appearance and did not crumble when removed from the baking sheet, as opposed to the gluten free cookies. The gluten free cookies did not have a good structure and crumbled easy when they were taken off the baking sheet. This is because the cookies didn’t have the elasticity that the gluten provided which made the cookies tender, hence the crumbled cookie.

The homemade chocolate chip cookies consist of leavening agents. Leavening agent is a substance used in doughs and batters that causes them to rise. In the presence of moisture, heat, acidity, or other triggers the leavening agent reacts to produce gas (leavening agents). The gas produced is carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is a colorless, odorless, incombustible gas, CO2, formed during respiration, combustion, and organic decomposition and used in food refrigeration, carbonated beverage, and many other things (Carbon Dioxide).The carbon dioxide becomes trapped as bubbles within the dough (leavening agents). When the dough is baked the holes that are left by the gas bubbles remain. The holes are what give the homemade chocolate chip cookies its chewiness.

The leaving agents in the homemade cookies are the Baking baking soda, butter, and the eggs. Baking soda reacts with acids, such as the semi- sweet chocolate and as a result releases carbon dioxide. The butter in the homemade cookies is turned into fat when it is creamed or whipped. The effects and the amount of the butter (2 sticks) put in the homemade cookies is the reason why the homemade cookies have its fluffy appearance and feeling. Then the eggs help to hold things together and give the cookies structure just like the flour. They are a leavening agent because they integrate air into the batter and release moisture from its proteins (joy of baking). The moisture released causes the batter to expand and rise when put into heat (oven). The eggs also add richness, color, and extra flavor. The eggs are part of the reason why the cookies have its golden brown color and are moist.

The gluten free cookies were very hard, dry, and chalky and broke easily. They tasted bitter and were not satisfying. The gluten free cookies only contain ¾ cups of butter whereas the homemade cookies contain 1 cup (2 sticks) of butter. Gluten free cookies aren’t able to handle high amounts of butter because the fat in butter corresponds with the proteins found in flour. Gluten free flour does not have a lot of protein in it because it has no gluten. Gluten free flour is higher in starch then it is in protein (Perfect Chocolate Chip Cookies (that happen to be gluten free), 2014). If I were to put as much butter in the gluten cookies as I put in the homemade cookies then the cookies would turn out greasy. Putting just ¾ cups of butter in the gluten free cookies will not make the cookies greasy, but as a result they will be hard. The homemade gluten free cookies that I made were very hard. As mentioned before the butter aids in fluffiness and without the proper amount the cookie will be hard, hence the gluten free chocolate chip cookie. The gluten free cookie calls for egg substitute. Egg substitutes force moisture out of the dough when the cookies are being made in the oven (Stewart, 2009). When moisture is forced out of the dough it leaves the cookies dry and chalky. Homemade chocolate chip cookies are the best overall. Their fresh ingredients and amazing taste wins over crowds time after time.

Resources

Carbon Dioxide. (n.d.). Retrieved December 4, 2014, from The Free Dictionary: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/carbon+dioxide

Chocolate Chip Gluten free. (2007, December 11). Retrieved December 5, 2014, from http://allrecipes.com/Recipe/Chocolate-Chip-Cookies-Gluten-Free/

Eggs. (n.d.). Retrieved December 6, 2014, from Joy of Baking: http://www.joyofbaking.com/eggs.html

Davis, O. (2003, April 9). Power of Suggestion: Example, Experiments & Definition. Retrieved December 4, 2014, from http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/power-of-suggestion-examples-experiment-definition.html#lesson



Leavening Agents. (n.d.). Retrieved December 5, 2014, from http://www.yrm.org/leaveningagents.htm

Likert Scale. (2014). Retrieved December 5, 2014, from http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/Likert-scale

Masibay, K. Y. (n.d.). Taking Control of Gluten. Retrieved December 3, 2014, from Fine Cooking: http://www.finecooking.com/articles/what-is-gluten-food-science.aspx



Perfect Chocolate Chip Cookies (that happen to be gluten free). (2014, March 3). Retrieved December 3, 2014, from Eatocracy: http://eatocracy.cnn.com/2014/03/03/perfect-chocolate-chip-cookies-that-happen-to-be-gluten-free/

Sodium Benzoate. (2014, December 1). Retrieved December 5, 2014, from Med Health: http://www.med-health.net/Sodium-Benzoate.html

Stein, N. (2013, August 16). The Dangers of Sodium Benzoate. Retrieved December 5, 2014, from Live Strong: http://www.livestrong.com/article/488257-the-dangers-of-sodium-benzoate/



Stewart, B. K. (2009, April 27). The Science of baking. Retrieved December 4, 2014, from Culinate: http://www.culinate.com/articles/features/baking_chemistry


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