Craniosynostosis introduction



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CRANIOSYNOSTOSIS

INTRODUCTION

  • Designates premature fusion of one or more sutures in either the cranial vault or cranial base.

  • Most isolated craniosynostosis are sporadic in occurrence. Reported cases of AD or AR inheritance

  • Incidence 1 per 2000 births. At least 57 different conditions.


CLASSIFICATION

1. Non Syndromic Craniosynostoses

  1. Scaphocephaly (Boat skull)  Sagittal sutural synostosis

  2. Plagiocephaly (oblique skull)  Unilateral coronal synostosis

  3. Brachycephaly (short skull)  Bilateral coronal synostosis

  4. Trigonocephaly (triangle skull)  Metopic synostosis

  5. Acrocephaly/Turricephaly (topmost/tower skull)  Multiple sutures involved.

  6. Oxycephaly (sharp skull)  Multiple sutures involved.

  1. Craniofacial Synostosis Syndromes

  1. Kleeblattschadel (cloverleaf skull)  Multiple sutures involved

  2. Crouzon, Apert, Saethre-Chotzen, Carpenter  Single/Multiple sutures involved

  3. Other: (Goldenhar’s, Orbitofacial cleft, etc)


BASICS

  • Metopic suture separates frontal bones

  • Coronal suture separates the frontal, and parietal

  • Squamosal suture separates parietal, greater wing of sphenoid, squamous temporal bone and occipital

  • Lambdoid suture separates the parietal and occipital bones


SUTURE GROWTH

  • cranium is made up of

  1. neurocranium - which includes the chondrocranium of the skull base and the membranous bone of the calvarium

  2. viscerocranium that forms the membranous bones of the face.
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