Continental forces, 28 june 1778

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George Washington, Commander-in-Chief
Prepared by Dr. Garry W. Stone, Historian, Monmouth Battlefield State Park, and used with permission


George Washington, Commander-in-Chief

Major-General Arthur St. Clair, Acting Adjutant

Major-General William Alexander, Lord Stirling

Major James Monroe, Adjutant

Forward Screen

SCOTT’S DETACHMENT, Part Brigadier-General Charles Scott 720 +/-

Battalion of Picked Men Colonel Joseph Cilley (1st NH) (350)

Battalion of Picked Men Colonel Richard Parker (1st VA)2

1ST PENNSYLVANIA BRIGADE Brigadier-General Anthony Wayne3 and 429*4

Colonel William Irvine (in Wayne’s absence)5

1st Pennsylvania Colonel James Chambers

2nd Pennsylvania 6

7th Pennsylvania Colonel William Irvine

10th Pennsylvania


1nd New York Colonel Goose Van Schaick

4th Pennsylvania Lt.-Col. William Butler [detached, picked men]

5th Pennsylvania Colonel Francis Johnson8

11th Pennsylvania Colonel Richard Humpton?9

3RD PENNSYLVANIA BRIGADE10 Colonel Oliver Spencer? 438*

3rd Pennsylvania Colonel Thomas Craig

6th Pennsylvania Lt.-Col. Josiah Harmar

9th Pennsylvania Colonel Richard Butler [detached, picked men]

12th Pennsylvania Captain ?11

Malcolm’s Additional Regiment Lt.-Col. Aaron Burr

Spencer’s Additional Regiment Colonel Oliver Spencer

Main Line

LEARNED’S BRIGADE Colonel John Bailey? 373*

2nd Massachusetts Colonel John Bailey

8th Massachusetts Colonel Michael Jackson

9th Massachusetts Colonel James Wesson [detached, picked men]

GLOVER’S BRIGADE Colonel?12 636*

1st Massachusetts Colonel Joseph Vose13

4th Massachusetts Colonel William Shepard

13th Massachusetts Colonel Edward Wigglesworth

15th Massachusetts Colonel Timothy Bigelow

HUNTINGTON’S BRIGADE Brigadier-General Jedediah Huntington 632*

1st & 7th Connecticut Colonel Heman Swift

2nd & 5th Connecticut Colonel Philip Burr Bradley

POOR’S BRIGADE Brigadier-General Enoch Poor 754*

1st New Hampshire Colonel Joseph Cilley [detached, picked men]

2nd New Hampshire Colonel Nathaniel Hale

3rd New Hampshire Lt.-Col. Henry Dearborn [detached, picked men]

2nd New York Colonel Philip VanCortlandt14

4th New York Colonel Henry B. Livingston [det’d, picked men]

ARTILLERY Brigadier-General Henry Knox ?

10 to 12 guns including Captain Francis Proctor’s Company, 4th Continental Artillery


(Shadowed British flanking column, then rested in Perrine Woods)

Major-General Marquis de Lafayette

NORTH CAROLINA BRIGADE Colonel Thomas Clark 425*

1st North Carolina Colonel Thomas Clark

2nd North Carolina Colonel John Patten

1ST MARYLAND BRIGADE Brigadier-General William Smallwood 790*

1st Maryland Colonel John Hawkins Stone

3rd Maryland Colonel Mordecai Gist

5th Maryland Colonel William Richardson

7th Maryland Colonel John Gunby

Delaware Colonel David Hall

WEEDEN’S BRIGADE 15 Brigadier-General George Weeden 587*

2nd Virginia Colonel Christian Febiger

6th Virginia Colonel John Gibson

10th Virginia Colonel John Green

14th Virginia Colonel William Davies

13th Pennsylvania Colonel Walter Stewart [det’d, picked men]


2nd New Jersey Colonel Israel Shreve

1st New Jersey (on extreme left)16 Colonel Mathias Ogden


(Dispatched to Solomon’s Tavern; then ordered to Comb’s Hill)

Major-General Nathanael Greene

Lt.-Col. David Rhea (2nd NJ), guide

WOODFORD’S BRIGADE Brigadier-General William Woodford 475* +Art.

3rd/7th Virginia Lt.-Col. Holt Richardson (7 VA)

11th/15th Virginia Lt.-Col. John Cropper (11 VA)

4 guns Lt.-Col. Chevalier du Plessis-Mauduit
& Militia videttes

(Harassing British Column north of Spotswood North Brook)17

Unidentified Continental or Militia units

?Unidentified Unit Maj. James Monroe (AdC Lord Stirling), Lt.-Col. B. Bassett (14th MA) 70+/-18


(Richmond Mills)

Colonel Daniel Morgan (11th VA)

Rifle Battalion Colonel Daniel Morgan }

2 North Carolina Light Infantry Companies }

Officer and 25 marksmen from each brigade except NC Brigade }

Washington’s Life Guards, part20 Captain Caleb Gibbs (82) } 600+/-
& Militia: 1st Monmouth, 2nd Monmouth, 2nd Burlington 217


(Middletown Road at rear of British 2nd Division)

Colonel Stephen Moylan (4th Light Dragoons)

Detachment drawn from 1st, 2nd22, 3rd, and 4th Light Dragoons ?


Major-General Freidrich Wilhelm von Steuben


PATERSON’S BRIGADE Brigadier-General John Paterson 485*

10th Massachusetts Colonel Thomas Marshall

11th Massachusetts Colonel Benjamin Tupper

12th Massachusetts Colonel Samuel Brewer

14th Massachusetts Colonel Gamaliel Bradford


2nd Maryland Lt.-Col. Thomas Woolford

4th Maryland Colonel Josias Carvil Hall

6th Maryland Colonel Otho Holland Williams

MUHLENBERG’S BRIGADE Brigadier-General Peter Muhlenberg 711*

1st, 5th, and 9th Virginia Colonel Richard Parker [detached, picked men]

1st Virginia State Colonel George Gibson

2nd Virginia State Colonel Gregory Smith

German Battalion Lt.-Col. Ludowick Weltner


Unknown companies

Advance Force Units


SCOTT’S BRIGADE 23 Colonel William Grayson 300- +Art.

Grayson’s Additional Regiment Colonel William Grayson

Patton’s Additional Regiment Lt.-Col. John Parke

4th/8th/12th Virginia Colonel James Wood (12th VA)

10th Company, 3rd Continental Artillery Captain Thomas Wells

VARNUM’S BRIGADE Lt.-Col. Jeremeiah Olney (2nd RI)24 300-350 +Art.

1st/2nd Rhode Island

4th/8th Connecticut Lt.-Col. Giles Russell (4th CT)

11th Company, 3rd Continental Artillery Capt.-Lieut. John Cumpston25

SCOTT’S DETACHMENT, Part 720+/- +Art.

Battalion of Picked Men Colonel Richard Butler (9th PA)26

Battalion of Picked Men Colonel Nathaniel Gist (Gist’s Additional)27

2 companies artillery


Battalion of Picked Men Colonel Henry B. Livingston (4th NY) (380)

Battalion of Picked Men Colonel Walter Stewart (13th PA)

Battalion of Picked Men Wounded Colonel, captured Lt.-Colonel28

6th Company, 3rd Continental Artillery Captain Thomas Seward
MAXWELL’S BRIGADE, Part Brigadier-General William Maxwell 400+/- +Art.

3rd New Jersey Colonel Elias Dayton

4th New Jersey Lt.-Col. David Brearly

Company, 2nd Continental Artillery Captain Thomas Randall29

JACKSON’S DETACHMENT30 Colonel Henry Jackson 200

Jackson’s Additional Continental Regiment

Henley’s Additional Continental Regiment

William Lee’s Additional Continental Regiment

Garry Wheeler Stone

Revised to 1 December 2010

1 Brigade structure is based on Charles H. Lesser, The Sinews of Independence: Monthly Strength Reports of the Continental Army. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976.

2 Samuel Smith to Adam Hoops, 17 February 1822, Timothy Pickering Papers, David Library of the American Revolution, film 44.

3 Brigade commanders are taken from John U. Rees, “’What is this you have been about to day?’ The New Jersey Brigade at the Battle of Monmouth,” on-line at

4Entries marked * are from a brigade-by-brigade field return taken at Manalapan Brigade, 28 June 1778. Reproduced in William S. Stryker, The Battle of Monmouth (Princeton: Princeton Un. Press, 1927), p. 120.

5 William Irvine to John Davis, 30 June 1778, in Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 2 (1878), pp. 147-148.

6 At the Manalapan Bridge muster, only 3 colonels were in the brigade. It is not clear whether Henry Bicker (2PA) or George Nagel (10PA) was absent.

7 “We were in the front Line though not engag’d.” Lt.-Col. Persifor Frazer to his wife, Polly, 30 June 1778, in General Persifor Frazer: A Memoir Compiled Principally from his own papers (Philadelphia, 1907), p. 182.

8 Apparently present at Monmouth, though subsequently unwell. General Persifor Frazer: A Memoir, p. 185.

9 Probably absent, as the brigade had only two colonels present at Manalapan Brigade.

10 The Manalapan field return lists no colonels and only three lieutenant-colonels present, but a compilation or transcription error is present as Craig and Spencer are known to have taken part in the battle.

11 Trussell, Pennsylvania Line, p. 137.

12 Brigadier-General John Glover was commanding West Point. George Athan Billias, General John Glover and His Marblehead Mariners (NY: Henry Holt, 1960), p. 161.

13 Ebenezer Wild, 1 MA, Diary: formed on an eminence our artillery in our front; retired into woods during cannonade.

14 Deposition supporting pension application of John Van Demark, 2NY: in reserve in edge of woods; ordered to prime & load as enemy advancing (W16557).

15 “Extracts from the Diary of Captain John Nice [13th PA],” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 16 (1892):406.

16 David Cooper pension application: positioned on the extreme left behind the 1st line (John U. Rees, “I Expect to be Stationed in Jersey . . ..” (MS, 1994), Appendix P, p. 3.

17 Steven Jarvis (Sergeant, Queen’s American Rangers), Autobiography. New York Historical Society, Miscellaneous Microfilms, roll 17. Copy courtesy Michael S. Adelberg.

18 James Monroe, The Writings of James Monroe (NY: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1898-1903), vol. 1, p. 1.

19 George Washington, General Orders, 22 June 1778.

20 Elijah Fisher’s Diary, pp. 275-292 in Carlos E. Godfrey, The Commander-in-Chief’s Guard (Washington: Stevenson-Smith, 1904).

21 John T. Hayes, The Saddlebag Almanac, vol. 4, no. 1 (January 1996), pp. 1-29.

22 Research by Charles W. Griswold . His ancestor, Epaphras Thompson claimed he was at Monmouth, and several officers remained in Pennsylvania after most of the regiment was sent to New York.. Files, MBSP

23 Apparently operating as two battalions: Lt.-Col. Patton commanding the combined regiments of Grayson and Patton, while Grayson commanded 4th/8th/12th VA. Why didn’t Wood command his battalion? He was senior to Grayson and he is not listed as absent in the muster. Was he on temporary assignment or sick?

24 The commander at the beginning of the day, Col. John Durkee (4th CT), was wounded at Monmouth Courthouse.

25 Lee Papers, III: 140-143, testimony John Cumpston. His commander, Captain David Cook, was shot through the lungs at the hedgerow (he survived).

26 Samuel Smith to Adam Hoops, 17 February 1822, Timothy Pickering Papers, film 44; printed in Friends of Monmouth Battlefield, The Battlecry, vol. 11, no. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 2000).

27 Lee Papers, III:63 (Lt.-Col. Meade);

28 The initial commander, Col. James Wesson (9th MA), was wounded at Monmouth Courthouse. His second, Lt.-Col. Nathaniel Ramsay (3rd MD) was captured at the Point-of-Woods.

29 Joseph Lummis, pension application, National Archives, S41784

30 Jackson’s, Henley’s, and Lee’s regiments were formally reconstituted as one regiment 22 April 1779.

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