Chp. 19- neoclassicism: The Late 18th Century & Early 19th Century

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[CHP. 19- Neoclassicism: The Late 18th Century & Early 19th Century]


Neoclassicism 1780-1820
From my web:

  • Reaction against frivolity of Rococo

  • Reason, moral responsibility, democratic equality, freedom

  • Rivival of Graeco-Roman art and ideals

  • Calm, rational, inpsiring

  • Paintings were linear, had smooth surface showing no brushstrokes

  • De-emphasized backgrounds


  • artistic style associated with the French Revolution

  • renewed interest in Classical ideas and ideals

  • reflected honor, order, stability

  • used by Napoleon to associate himself with Roman Emperors

  • More serious in its nature, a reaction against Rococo and the morals of Louis XV

  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Denis Diderot both spoke of a need for art that contains a "moralizing" message. Rousseau was also famous for his "noble savage" treatise.

The Neoclassical style is, as its name imples, a frank emulation of Greco­Roman culture. As an artistic style, it expresses a certain reserved austerity that is ironically based largely upon mistaken interpretation of what classical art looked like. (As pointed out earlier, most Greek sculpture was painted, not left in the pristine whiteness of natural stone, an accident caused by weathering of the marble over the centuries, which later sculptors emulated.)

Not all neoclassical works met with the same degree of success. The premier French neoclassical painter Jacques Louis David won acclaim for his paintings of salient episodes of patriotism drawn from ancient Roman history, but Horatio Greenough's monumental marble sculpture (1832­1841) of George Washington wearing a toga and swearing an oath upon a Roman sword (Smithsonian Museum, Washington, D.C.) now looks simply incongruous.

The Neoclassical style in America finds its best expression in architecture in Thomas Jefferson's designs for his country estate Monticello (1770­1806, Charlottesville, VA) and the Rotunda at the University of Virginia (1819­1826, Charlottesville). Both emulate the Roman PANTHEON but with a distinctly colonial accent. Similarly, French architect Pierre­Alexandre Vignon's Greek templelike LA MADELEINE, a church dedicated by Napoleon to his troops, is unmistakably a reincarnation of the Athenian PARTHENON with three domes added, visible only from the interior.

Other significant neoclassical masters include:


  • Reaction against frivolity of Rococo

  • Reason, moral responsibility, democratic equality, freedom

  • Rivival of Graeco-Roman art and ideals

  • Calm, rational, inpsiring

  • Paintings were linear, had smooth surface showing no brushstrokes

  • De-emphasized backgrounds

  • And it was, to a great degree, a reaction against the frivolity and superficiality of the 18th century Rococo style

  • Neoclassicism championed “reason and moral responsibility” in art, in literature, and in philosophy

  • The late 1700s were a time of revolution

  • Industrial Revolution (1760, Britain)

  • American Revolution (1775)

  • French Revolution (1789)

  • And revolutions proposed new principles of reason and democratically equality

  • Prototype of these new virtues and freedoms were found in the heroic models of ancient Greek and Roman ideals- which were extremely popular during this era due to a kind of archaeological mania that was sweeping Europe

  • As a revival of Greco-Roman art, Neoclassicism valued order and solemnity

  • It was art that was calm and rational, appealing to the intellect by stressing drawing with lines while downplaying color.

  • Neoclassical artists left no trace of brushstrokes in their work, smoothing the surface o f their paintings until they appeared polished, quite different from the feathery brushwork of the Rococo artists.

  • Neoclassical compositions were simple, and often used Greek and Roman history and mythology as their subject matter

  • Neoclassical artist insisted that their art be inspirational and morally uplifting


Neoclassical Art and Architecture, art produced in Europe and North America from about 1750 through the early 1800s, marked by the emulation of Greco-Roman forms. More than just an antique revival, neoclassicism was linked to contemporary political events. Neoclassical artists at first sought to replace the sensuality and what they viewed as the triviality of the rococo style with a style that was logical, solemn in tone, and moralizing in character. When revolutionary movements established republics in France and America, the new governments adopted neoclassicism as the style for their official art, by virtue of its association with the democracy of ancient Greece and republican Rome. Later, as Napoleon rose to power in France, the style was modified to serve his propagandistic needs. With the rise of the romantic movement (see Romanticism), a preference for personal expression replaced an art based upon fixed, ideal values.

Genesis of Neoclassical Art

The neoclassical style developed following the excavation of the ruins of the Italian cities of Herculaneum in 1738 and Pompeii in 1748, the publication of such books as Antiquities of Athens (1762) by the English archaeologists James Stuart and Nicholas Revett, and the 1806 arrival in London of the Elgin Marbles. Extolling the “noble simplicity and calm grandeur” of Greco-Roman art, the German art historian Johann Winckelmann urged artists to study and “imitate” its timeless, ideal forms. His ideas found enthusiastic reception within the international circle of artists gathered about him in the 1760s in Rome.


Before the discoveries at Herculaneum, Pompeii, and Athens, only Roman classical architecture had been generally known, largely through the architectural etchings of classical Roman buildings of the Italian artist Giovanni Battista Piranesi. The new archaeological finds extended architecture's formal vocabulary, and architects began advocating buildings based on Greco-Roman models.

The work of the Scottish architect and designer Robert Adam, who in the 1750s and 1760s redesigned a number of stately English houses (among others, Syon House, 1762-1769, and Osterley Park, 1761-1780), introduced the neoclassical style to Great Britain. The Adam style, as it became known, remained somewhat rococo in its emphasis on surface ornamentation and refinement of scale, even as it adopted the motifs of antiquity.

In France, Claude Nicholas Ledoux designed a pavilion (1771) for the Comtesse du Barry at Louveciennes and a series of city gates (1785-1789) for Paris—structures that are exemplars of the earlier phase of neoclassical architecture; his later works, however, consisted of projects (never executed) for an ideal city in which the designs for buildings are frequently reduced to unadorned geometric shapes. After Napoleon became emperor in 1804, his official architects Charles Percier and Pierre François Léonard Fontaine worked to realize his wish to remake Paris into the foremost capital of Europe by adopting the intimidating opulence of Roman imperial architecture. The Empire style in architecture is epitomized by such mammoth public works as the triumphal arches at the Carrousel du Louvre, designed by Percier and Fontaine and begun in 1806, and the Champs-Élysées, designed by Jean-François Chalgrin and begun the same year. These works were far different in spirit from the visionary work of Ledoux.

Greek-inspired architecture in England is exemplified by such constructions as the Bank of England rotunda (1796) by Sir John Soane and the British Museum portico (1823-1847) by Sir Robert Smirke. The Greek Revival was modified by the Regency style, notable architectural examples of which are the facades designed by John Nash for Regent Street (begun 1812) in London and his Royal Pavilion at Brighton (1815-1823). The neoclassical architecture of Edinburgh, Scotland, remained pristine, however, and earned that city the name the Athens of the North. Elsewhere, neoclassical architecture is exemplified in the work of the German Karl Friedrich Schinkel, such as the Royal Theater (1819-1821) in Berlin.

In the United States, one aspect of neoclassicism, the Federal style, flourished between 1780 and 1820. Based on the work of Robert Adam, it is exemplified in the work of Charles Bulfinch (Massachusetts State House, Boston, completed 1798). Thomas Jefferson studied the Maison-Carée, a 1st-century Roman temple in Nîmes, France, and used it as a model for the State Capitol Building in Richmond, Virginia (1785-1789). Through his readings and travels, Jefferson developed a profound understanding of Roman architecture and applied his knowledge to the designs for his own home, Monticello; the University of Virginia campus; and preliminary contributions to the plans for the new national capital of Washington, D.C. Jefferson's work exemplifies neoclassical style in the United States.

The Greek revival style, based on 5th-century BC Greek temples and inspired by the Elgin Marbles, flourished during the first half of the 19th century in the United States. The Second Bank of the United States (Philadelphia, 1824), designed by William Strickland, was influenced by a Doric temple. Both the Federal and Greek revival styles helped a young United States define its own architectural ethos.


Neoclassical painting was centered in Rome, where many expatriate painters gathered around German art historian Johann Winckelmann. Winckelmann's circle included the expatriate German Anton Raphael Mengs, the Scot Gavin Hamilton, and the American Benjamin West. Mengs's Parnassus (1761), a ceiling fresco for the Villa Albani in Rome, was designed expressly with Winckelmann's advice. Unlike the composition of typical baroque or rococo painted ceilings, its composition is simple: only a few figures, in calm, static poses mainly derived from antique statues. Hamilton, who was also an archaeologist and art dealer, completed five pictures from 1760 to 1765 inspired by Homer's Iliad and incorporating figures derived from ancient sculpture. West worked in Rome from 1760 to 1763. Paintings such as Agrippina Landing at Brundisium with the Ashes of Germanicus (1768, Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, Connecticut) were inspired by his Roman experience. Solemn and austere in theme and treatment, they are also archaeologically correct in detailing.

The same tendencies are evidenced in the earlier work of the French painter Jacques-Louis David, who is recognized as the great genius of neoclassical painting. His Oath of the Horatii (1784-1785, Louvre, Paris) celebrates the theme of stoic patriotism. The picture's boxlike architectural space and friezelike arrangement of figures reflect neoclassical concern for compositional logic and clarity. The firm contours and harsh light lend these figures a statuesque quality. Later works of David, commissioned by Napoleon—such as Coronation of Napoleon and Josephine (1805-1807, Louvre)—are very different, however, in their celebration of worldly splendor and power. The emperor's approval of such ostentatious displays was even extended to an American painter, John Vanderlyn, to whom he awarded a medal in 1808 for his Marius Among the Ruins of Carthage (1807, M. H. de Young Museum, San Francisco).

By the early 1790s painters began to emulate the flat, silhouetted figures of Greek vase painting. The foremost exponent of this style was the English painter John Flaxman, whose simple line engravings for editions (1793) of Homer's Iliad and Odyssey completely replaced traditional perspective, lighting, and modeling with flat linear design. The style was immensely successful and widely imitated. One of David's most successful pupils, and the inheritor of his role as leading interpreter of the classical tradition, Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres adopted this two-dimensional approach, as seen in his popular early work The Envoys of Agamemnon (1801, École des Beaux-Arts, Paris).


Sculpture had been profoundly influenced by ancient art since the Renaissance. Thus, neoclassical principles had a less revolutionary impact on it than on the other arts. In general, neoclassical sculptors tended to avoid the dramatic twisting poses and the colored marble surfaces characteristic of late baroque or rococo sculpture, preferring crisp contours, a noble stillness, and idealized white marble forms.

The earliest neoclassical sculpture was produced by artists in direct contact with Winckelmann's circle in Rome—18th-century sculptors such as John Tobias Sergel, who on his return to his native Sweden carried the new style to northern Europe, and the Englishmen Thomas Banks and Joseph Nollekens, who introduced the style to their homeland. The dominant figure in the history of neoclassical sculpture, however, was the Italian Antonio Canova, who became a member of the Rome circle in 1780. Rejecting his earlier baroque manner, he sought to capture the severity and ideal purity of ancient art. Theseus and the Dead Minotaur (1781-1782) portrays the calm of victory rather than active conflict; the work was Canova's first attempt at the new style, and it brought him immediate fame.

After Canova's death, the Danish artist Bertel Thorvaldsen inherited his position as Europe's leading sculptor. His many international commissions sustained strict neoclassicism as the dominant mode in sculpture until the mid-19th century. The style was carried to the United States by one of his friends, Horatio Greenough, and was continued by Hiram Powers, an American long resident in Italy, sculptor of the celebrated Greek Slave (1843), of which many replicas were made.

Decorative Arts

The neoclassical style pervaded every type of decorative art. By the early 1760s Robert Adam's furniture designs revealed Greco-Roman motifs. Introduced into France, his simple, classical style became known as style étrusque (Etruscan style), favored by the court of Louis XV. With further adaptations of classical design, based on later archaeological finds, it evolved into the elegant style known as Louis XVI, favored by the royal family during the 1780s. Greek vases found in excavations became models for new types of ceramics: Wedgwood jasperware (for which Flaxman did many designs) in England and Sèvres porcelain in France.

Under Napoleon, former royal residences were redecorated for official use according to plans devised by Percier and Fontaine that included furniture, porcelain, and tapestries, all incorporating Greco-Roman design and motifs. Taken as a whole, such design complexes defined the Empire style in the decorative arts, and the style was soon emulated throughout Europe.

Church (building), a building designed for worship for groups of Christians. It may be small and simple, just large enough to hold a neighborhood congregation; or it may be huge and complicated, containing different spaces for various religious activities and observances, as in a grand cathedral. All churches are built for sacred purposes, but because many branches of Christianity exist, no single type of church building

Poussin, Nicolas (1594-1665), French painter, who was the founder and greatest practitioner of 17th-century French classical painting. His work symbolizes the virtues of logic, order, and clarity, and it has influenced the course of French art up to the present day.

Poussin was of peasant extraction, born near Les Andelys, Normandy, in June 1594. He studied painting in Paris and perhaps also Rouen. In 1624 he went to Rome, where, except for an 18-month sojourn in Paris from 1640 to 1642, he lived for the rest of his life. His early work in Rome reflects the crowded compositions and animated surfaces of mid-16th century Mannerism. About 1630 his style began to change as he drew away from the emerging exuberant baroque style and devoted himself entirely to his passion for the antique, concentrating on biblical and mythological subjects. At first his paintings, such as the Plague at Ashdod (1630-1631, Louvre, Paris), had the rich, glowing color of the Venetian artist Titian, but after 1633 Poussin moved steadily toward more sober, cool tonalities. His compositions became more serene and his figures more sculptural, echoing the mature paintings of Raphael, while he attempted to depict emotion through easily readable gestures, poses, and facial expressions, as in Adoration of the Golden Calf (1634?, National Gallery, London).

Poussin journeyed to Paris in 1640 with some reluctance, although the trip earned him the enduring patronage of wealthy bourgeois collectors and also cemented his relations with the French Académie Royale, which later elevated his style to the status of formal doctrine. His paintings of the next decade, from 1643 to 1653, such as Holy Family on the Steps (1648, National Gallery, Washington, D.C.), following his return to Rome, are the purest embodiment of French classicism. They are characterized by calm, structured composition, cool colors, hard, clear lighting, and a feeling of solemnity. During his last years, from 1653 to 1665, Poussin's style developed and changed. He minimized the actions and facial expressions of his subjects but maintained the emotional intensity of his paintings. Allegory, symbolism, and mysticism played an even greater role than before; his scenes were still, yet vital and intensely personal. Paintings like the Arcadian Shepherd (1656?, Louvre), in which he attained a monumental simplification and almost supernatural calm, went beyond the illustration of historical events to become symbols of eternal verities.

Poussin's belief that art should appeal to the mind rather than to the eye—that it should present the most noble and serious human situations in an orderly manner devoid of trivial detail or sensuous allure—became the basis of the French academic style of the 17th century. Until the 20th century he remained the dominant inspiration of such classically oriented artists as Jacques-Louis David, Jean-August-Dominique Ingres, and Paul Cézanne. He died in Rome on November 19, 1665

Neoclassical Painting

A revolution in painting took place in the latter half of the 18th century, as chaste neoclassicism superseded the exuberant rococo style. This classical revival in the arts was brought about by several occurrences. First, much archaeological excavation began to be done in the mid-18th century in Italy and Greece; books were published containing drawings of ancient buildings, which were eagerly copied by English and French architects. Second, in 1755 the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann published his influential essay Gedanken über die Nachamung der Griechischen Werke in der Malerei und Bildhauerkunst (Thoughts on the Imitation of Greek Works in Painting and Sculpture), praising Greek sculpture. This work impressed, among others, four foreign artists living in Rome. They were the Scotsman Gavin Hamilton, the German Anton Raphael Mengs, the Swiss Angelica Kauffmann, and the American Benjamin West; all were inspired to create paintings with themes based on classical literature.

It was, however, a French painter—Jacques-Louis David—who became the leading proponent of neoclassicism. He, too, was imbued with classical influences from his stay in Rome, as well as from an earlier source, the paintings of Poussin, the 17th-century French classicist. David's sober style was in harmony with the ideals of the French Revolution. Such a painting as the Oath of the Horatii (1784-1785, Louvre) inspired patriotism; others, such as the Death of Socrates (1787, Metropolitan Museum), preached stoicism and self-sacrifice. Not only did David's subject matter have its sources in ancient history and classical myth, but the form of his figures was based on ancient sculpture. David's great successor was Jean-August-Dominique Ingres, whose cool serenity of line and tone and painstaking attention to details—as in his striking portrait La comtesse d'Haussonville (1845, Frick Collection, New York City)—became identified with the academic tradition in France. Nevertheless, elements of the romantic trend soon to succeed neoclassicism can be found in Ingres's interest in non-European subjects, as demonstrated by several paintings of odalisques (concubines or women in a harem).

Among the many other French painters influenced by David were several women who figured prominently among his followers. Some of the most outstanding were Adélaïde Labille-Guiard, Marie Guillemine Benoist, and Constance Marie Charpentier. Some of the works of these painters have in the past been mistakenly attributed to David; recent scholarship has been attempting to identify their individual contributions. See Neoclassical Art and Architecture.

David, Jacques-Louis (1748-1825), French painter, who introduced the neoclassical style (see Neoclassical Art and Architecture) in France and was its leading exemplar from the time of the revolution to the fall of Napoleon.

David was born into a prosperous middle-class family in Paris on August 30, 1748, and studied at the Académie Royale under the rococo painter J. M. Vien (see Rococo Style). He won the Prix de Rome in 1774, and on the ensuing trip to Italy he was strongly influenced by classical art and by the classically inspired work of the 17th-century painter Nicolas Poussin. David quickly evolved his own individual neoclassical style, drawing subject matter from ancient sources and basing form and gesture on Roman sculpture. His famous Oath of the Horatii (1784-1785, Louvre, Paris) was consciously intended as a proclamation of the new neoclassical style in which dramatic lighting, ideal forms, and gestural clarity are emphasized. Presenting a lofty moralistic (and by implication patriotic) theme, the work became the principal model for noble and heroic historical painting of the next two decades.

After 1789, David adopted a realistic rather than neoclassical style in order to record contemporary scenes of the French Revolution (1789-1799), as in the dramatic Death of Marat (1793, Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts, Brussels). From 1799 to 1815 he was Napoleon's official painter, chronicling the reign of Napoleon I in huge works such as Coronation of Napoleon and Josephine (1805-1807, Louvre). Following Napoleon's downfall, David was exiled to Brussels, where he stayed until his death. In these later years, he returned to mythological subjects drawn from the Greek and Roman past, painted in a more theatrical manner.

David, throughout his career, was also a prolific portraitist. Smaller in scale and more intimately human than his larger works, his portraits, such as the famous Madame Récamier (1800, Louvre), show great technical mastery and understanding of character. Many modern critics consider them his best work, especially because they are free from the moralizing messages and sometimes stilted technique of his neoclassical works.

David's career represents the transition from the rococo of the 18th century to the realism of the 19th. His cool studied neoclassicism strongly influenced his pupils Antoine Jean Gros and Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, and his patriotic and heroic themes paved the way for the romantics. He died in Brussels, December 29, 1825

Part --: Unit Exam Essay Questions
(from previous Art 261 tests)

  • Compare the Romantic movement with Neoclassicism. How are they similar? What are the differences?

  • (Rubenistes or Poussinistes?) Using your text, study these two paintings and the artists who created them:
    1. The Rape of the Daughters of Leucippus
    Peter Paul Rubens

    2. The Burial of Phocion

    Nicolas Poussin

    Choose the painting you like most. Analyze it in terms of subject, technique, and space. Be prepared to discuss how you made your choice. Must be written in essay form—not just an outline. Should be approximately 250–300 words.

(from AAT4)

  • Using examples from the text, compare Rococo and Neoclassical style. Consider context, iconography, and formal elements.

  • Explain the political context of Neoclassicism. How did it develop, and how is it reflected in the art of the period?

  • Using examples in the text, compare and contrast the paintings of Ingres and David.

  • Describe Jefferson's contribution to American architecture.

  • Discuss the sources that inspired Jeffersonian architecture.

Learning Goals (AAT4)

After reading Chapter 19, you should be able to do the following:

  • Identify the works and define the terms featured in this chapter

  • Trace the chronology of the French Revolution

  • Explain the political subtext of the Neoclassical style in France and America

  • Compare Neoclassical and Rococo styles

  • Compare the Neoclassical with Renaissance style

  • Label a map of the Napoleonic empire in 1812

  • Tie changes in David's style and subjects to political changes in France

  • Discuss Ingres as a Neoclassical artist

  • Trace the chronology of the American campaign for independence

  • Label a map of the United States as it was in 1803

  • Discuss Thomas Jefferson's architecture

Chapter Outline (AAT4)


Revolutionary fervor in France

Napoleon becomes emperor of France (1804)

Imperial patronage: Arc de Triomphe; Vendôme column

Battle of Waterloo (1815)

Painters in France: David; Benoist; Ingres

Sculptors in France: Canova; Houdon

United States Constitution (1787)

American artists: Trumbull; Greenough

  • Thomas Jefferson (architect and statesman): Third U.S. president

  • Federal style: Richmond, Virginia, Capitol building; Monticello; University of Virginia

Summary and Study Guide

Define or identify the following terms:

AAT4 Key Terms


the square area, often decorated with relief sculpture, between the triglyphs of a Doric frieze.


(a) a colonnade; (b) a porch with a roof supported by columns, usually at the entrance to a building.


an ancient woodland deity with the legs, tail, and horns of a goat (or horse), and the head and torso of a man.


(a) an earthenware material, with or without a glaze; (b) an object made of this material.


in a Doric frieze, the rectangular area between the metopes, decorated with three vertical grooves (glyphs).


Art Works

know these works by sight, title, date, medium, scale, and location (original location also if moved) and be able to explain and analyze these in relation to any concept, term, element, or principle

Summary and Study Guide

Late 1700’s to Mid 1800s

The Rococo, Enlightenment, Neoclassicism and Romanticism (AP Art History)


be able to identify these by sight, explain these in relation to art, and know an example of each in relation to a work of art



Thoughts on the Imitation of Greek Art in Painting and salon

Sculpture by Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1755)

Encyclopédie by Denis Diderot (1713‐1784)

History of Ancient Art by Johann Joachim Winckelmann

the Grand Tour (1764)

Industrial Revolution

Napoleon Bonaparte (1769‐1821)

fête galante



age of revolutions (American, French, and Greek)



Madame de Pompadour

the great rivals: Ingres vs. Delacroix

Prix de Rome

the Salon


Delacroix’s trip to North Africa and journals

excavations at Herculaneum (begun in 1738) and Pompeii

Hudson River School

(begun in 1748)

Art Works

know these works by sight, title, date, medium, scale, and location (original location also if moved) and be able to explain and analyze these in relation to any concept, term, element, or principle

The Rococo in France  Antoine Watteau, Return from Cythera, 1717‐1719, oil on canvas  François Boucher, Cupid a Captive, 1754. Oil on canvas, 5’ 6” x 2’ 10”.  Jean‐Honoré Fragonard, The Swing, c.1768, oil on canvas  Clodion, Nymph and Satyr, c.1775, terracotta

The growing appreciation for a more natural style in France  Jean‐Baptiste‐Siméon Chardin, Saying Grace, 1740. Oil on canvas  Élisabeth Louise Vigée‐Lebrun, Self‐Portrait, 1790, oil on canvas

Real images for the people from England  William Hogarth, Breakfast Scene, from Marriage à la Mode, c.1745, oil on canvas

English Portraits in the Grand Manner  Thomas Gainsborough, Mrs. Richard Brinsley Sheridan, 1787. Oil on canvas, 7’ 2 5/8” x 5’ 5/8”.

Enlightenment images of science  Joseph Wright of Derby, A Philosopher Giving a Lecture at the Orrery (in which a lamp is put in place of the sun), c.1763¬1765, oil on canvas

American Colonials and their sense for a more natural style  Benjamin West, The Death of General Wolfe, 1771, oil on canvas  John Singleton Copley, Portrait of Paul Revere, c.1768‐1770, oil on canvas

Neoclassicism in the United States: The models of Greek democracy and the Roman Republic  Thomas Jefferson, Monticello, Charlottesville, Virginia, 1770‐1806  Horatio Greenough, George Washington, 1832‐1841, marble

Neoclassicism in France: The ideals of liberty and empire  Jean‐Antoine Houdon, George Washington, 1788‐1792, marble  Jacques‐Louis David, Oath of the Horatii, 1784, oil on canvas  Jacques‐Louis David, The Death of Marat, 1793, oil on canvas  Jacques‐Louis David, The Coronation of Napoleon, 1805‐1808, oil on canvas  Antonio Canova, Pauline Borghese as Venus, 1808, marble

Neoclassicism in other nations  Richard Boyle and William Kent, Chiswick House, near London, England, b.1725

Romanticism in England  John Nash, Royal Pavilion, Brighton, England, 1815‐1818  Henry Fuseli, The Nightmare, 1781, oil on canvas  William Blake, Ancient of Days, frontispiece of Europe: A Prophecy, 1794, hand colored etching

Francisco Goya: The Spanish master  Francisco Goya, The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters, from Los Caprichos, c.1798, etching and aquatint  Francisco Goya, The Family of Charles IV, 1800, oil on canvas  Francisco Goya, The Third of May, 1808, 1814, oil on canvas  Francisco Goya, Saturn Devouring His Children, 1819‐1823, detail of a detached fresco on canva

Romanticism and Neoclassicism in France during the first half of the 19th century  Théodore Géricault, Raft of the Medusa, 1818‐1819, oil on canvas  Théodore Géricault, Insane Woman (Envy), 1822‐1823, oil on canvas  Jean‐Auguste‐Dominique Ingres, Grand Odalisque, 1814, oil on canvas  Jean‐Auguste‐Dominique Ingres, Apotheosis of Homer, 1827, oil on canvas  Eugene Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People, 1830, oil on canvas

A grand sculpture for the Arc de Triomphe  François Rude, Departure of the Volunteers of 1792–La Marseillaise, Arc de Triomphe, Paris, 1833‐1836, limestone

English Romantic painters  John Constable, The Haywain, 1821, oil on canvas  Joseph Mallord William Turner, The Slave Ship (Slavers Throwing Overboard the Dead and Dying, Typhoon Coming On),

1840, oil on canvas

The American Landscape  Thomas Cole, Niagara Falls, 1830, oil on panel  George Caleb Bingham, Fur Traders Descending the Missouri, c.1845, oil on canvas

This New Thing Called Photography  Louis‐Jacques‐Mandé Daguerre, Still Life in Studio, 1837. Daguerreotype.  Nadar, Eugène Delacroix, ca. 1855. Modern print*  Timothy O’Sullivan, A Harvest of Death, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 1863. Modern print*

(*Nadar and O’Sullivan took their pictures and produced the negatives in the year listed, the print from this negative however was made more recently by some other dude.)

Discussion topics for this chapter.

Using examples from the text, compare Rococo and Neoclassical style. Consider context, iconography, and formal elements.

Using examples in the text, compare and contrast the paintings of Ingres and David.

Other topics to consider:

Explain the political context of Neoclassicism. How did it develop, and how is it reflected in the art of the period?

Describe Jefferson's contribution to American architecture.

Discuss the sources of Jeffersonian architecture.

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