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  1. The five secondary brain vesicles are the telencephalon, diencephalon, mesencephalon, metencephalon, and myelencephalon. In the adult brain, the telencephalon forms the cerebrum; the diencephalon forms the thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus; the mesencephalon forms the rostral end of the brainstem; the metencephalon forms the pons and cerebellum; and the myelencephalon forms the medulla oblongata.

  2. a. CSF is produced by the choroid plexus within the ventricles.
    b. CSF flows from the lateral ventricles and third ventricle into the cerebral aqueduct and then into the fourth ventricle. A relatively small amount of CSF from the central canal of the spinal cord travels to the fourth ventricle as well. Most of the CSF in the fourth ventricle flows into the subarachnoid space by passing through openings in its membranous roof, either the paired lateral apertures or the single median aperture. CSF flows through the subarachnoid space surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
    c. As additional CSF is incorporated into the subarachnoid space, the hydrostatic pressure on the CSF within the arachnoid villi forces the CSF into the dural venous sinuses, allowing excess CSF to be released into the venous bloodstream without allowing any venous blood to enter the subarachnoid space.

  3. If the sense of touch is impaired, the primary somatosensory cortex of the parietal lobe may be damaged.

  4. The visual association area processes visual information and uses this information to identify things we see.

  5. The cerebral nuclei are paired, irregular gray matter masses in the central white matter basal region of the cerebral hemispheres inferior to the lateral ventricle floor.

  6. The hypothalamus controls the autonomic nervous system; oversees the functions of the endocrine system; regulates body temperature; controls emotional behavior, food intake, and water intake; and regulates the sleep-wake cycle.

  7. Lack of control over the emotions indicates that the hypothalamus may be damaged.

  8. The cerebellar peduncles provide the means for extensive communication among the cerebellum and the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata.

  9. The limbic system is composed of the cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, amygdaloid body, olfactory bulbs, olfactory tracts, and olfactory cortex, fornix, habenular nuclei, septal nuclei, mammillary bodies, and some anterior thalamic nuclei.

  10. The surgeon must cut through the skin, the external periosteum, the occipital bone of the cranium, the dura mater (first the periosteal layer and then the meningeal layer), the arachnoid, the pia mater, and finally a glial cell covering before reaching the cerebral cortex.

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