Shier, Butler, and Lewis: Hole’s Human Anatomy and Physiology, 12^{th} ed. Chapter 8: Joints of the Skeletal System
## Chapter 8: Joints of the Skeletal System
## I. Introduction
(Outcome 8.1) A. Joints are also called
(Outcome 8.1) B. Joints bind _______________________, make possible ,
permit _____________________________ and enable
## II. Classification of Joints
A. Introduction
(Outcome 8.2) 1. Three general groups of joints are
(Outcome 8.2) 2. Joints can also be grouped according to
(Outcome 8.2) 3. Immovable joints are called
(Outcome 8.2) 4. Slightly movable joints are called
(Outcome 8.2) 5. Freely movable joints are called
B. Fibrous Joints
(Outcome 8.3) 1. Fibrous joints are so named because
(Outcome 8.3) 2. The three types of fibrous joints are
(Outcome 8.3) 3. In syndesmois, bones are bound by
(Outcome 8.3) 4. An example of a syndesmosis is
(Outcome 8.3) 5. Because a syndesmosis permits slight movement, it is called
(Outcome 8.3) 6. Sutures are only between
(Outcome 8.3) 7. A sutural ligament is
(Outcome 8.3) 8. Fontanels allow
(Outcome 8.3) 9. An example of a suture is
(Outcome 8.3) 10. Because sutures are immovable, they are called
(Outcome 8.3) 11. A gomphosis is
(Outcome 8.3) 12. A periodontal ligament is
(Outcome 8.3) 13. An example of a gomphosis is
C. Cartilaginous Joints
(Outcome 8.4) 1. Bones of cartilaginous joints are joined by
(Outcome 8.4) 2. Two types of cartilaginous joints are
(Outcome 8.4) 3. In a , bands of hyaline cartilage unite bones.
(Outcome 8.4) 4. Many synchondroses are and disappear during growth.
(Outcome 8.4) 5. Two examples of synchondroses are
(Outcome 8.4) 6. Synchondroses do not permit movement and are therefore
(Outcome 8.4) 7. In a symphysis, the articular surfaces of bones are covered with
___________________ and the cartilage is attached to
(Outcome 8.4) 8. Two examples of symphyses is
D. Synovial Joints
(Outcome 8.5) 1. Most joints are
(Outcome 8.5) 2. Synovial joints allow movement.
and are called
(Outcome 8.5) 3. Synovial joints consist of
## III. General Structure of a Synovial Joint
(Outcome 8.5) A. Articular cartilage is
(Outcome 8.5) B. The joint capsule is
(Outcome 8.5) C. The outer layer of the joint capsule consists of
(Outcome 8.5) D. The inner layer of the joint capsule consists of
(Outcome 8.5) E. Ligaments reinforce
(Outcome 8.5) F. The synovial membrane is
(Outcome 8.5) G. Synovial fluid comes from
(Outcome 8.5) H. Besides secreting synovial fluid, the synovial membrane may also
(Outcome 8.5) I. Synovial fluid has a consistency of and functions to
(Outcome 8.5) J. Menisci are
(Outcome 8.5) K. Menisci function to
(Outcome 8.5) L. Bursae are
(Outcome 8.5) M. Bursae are located
(Outcome 8.5) N. Bursae function to
(Outcome 8.5) O. The names of bursae reflect
(Outcome 8.6) A. The six major types of synovial joints are
(Outcome 8.6) B. A ball-and-socket joint consists of
(Outcome 8.6) C. A ball-and-socket joint allows than any other type of joint.
(Outcome 8.6) D. Examples of ball-and-socket joints are
(Outcome 8.6) E. The structure of a condyloid joint is
(Outcome 8.6) F. An example of a condyloid joint is
(Outcome 8.6) G. The articulating surfaces of are nearly flat or slightly curved.
(Outcome 8.6) H. Examples of gliding joints are
(Outcome 8.6) I. The structure of a hinge joint is
(Outcome 8.6) J. An example of a hinge joint is
(Outcome 8.6) K. The structure of a pivot joint is
(Outcome 8.6) L. Examples of pivot joints are
(Outcome 8.6) M. The structure of a saddle joint is
(Outcome 8.6) N. An example of a saddle joint is
## V. Types of Joint Movements
(Outcome 8.7) A. An insertion of a muscle is
(Outcome 8.7) B. The origin of a muscle is
(Outcome 8.7) C. Flexion is
(Outcome 8.7) D. Extension is
(Outcome 8.7) E. Hyperextension is
(Outcome 8.7) F. Dorsiflexion is
(Outcome 8.7) G. Plantar flexion is
(Outcome 8.7) H. Abduction is
(Outcome 8.7) I. Adduction is
(Outcome 8.7) J. Rotation is
(Outcome 8.7) K. Circumduction is
(Outcome 8.7) L. Supination is
(Outcome 8.7) M. Pronation is
(Outcome 8.7) N. Eversion is
(Outcome 8.7) O. Inversion is
(Outcome 8.7) P. Protraction is
(Outcome 8.7) Q. Retraction is
(Outcome 8.7) R. Elevation is
(Outcome 8.7) S. Depression is
## VI. Examples of Synovial Joints
A. Shoulder Joint
(Outcome 8.8) 1. The shoulder joint is ___________________ that consists of
(Outcome 8.8) 2. The shoulder joint capsule is very
(Outcome 8.8) 3. reinforce the shoulder joint capsule.
(Outcome 8.8) 4. The four ligaments that help prevent displacement of the shoulder joint are
(Outcome 8.8) 5. The coracohumeral ligament strengthens
(Outcome 8.8) 6. The glenohumeral ligament extends
(Outcome 8.8) 7. The transverse humeral ligament runs between
(Outcome 8.8) 8. The glenoid labrum functions to
(Outcome 8.8) 9. The four major bursae associated with each shoulder joint are
(Outcome 8.8) 10. The shoulder joint is capable of a wide range of movement due to
B. Elbow Joint
(Outcome 8.9) 1. The articulations of the elbow joint are
(Outcome 8.9) 2. The ulnar collateral ligament is located
(Outcome 8.9) 3. The ulnar collateral ligament attaches
(Outcome 8.9) 4. The radial collateral ligament is located
(Outcome 8.9) 5. The radial collateral ligament strengthens
(Outcome 8.9) 6. Fatty pads of the elbow joint protect
(Outcome 8.9) 7. The only movements that occur at the elbow joint are
C. Hip Joint
(Outcome 8.9) 1. The hip joint is a
(Outcome 8.9) 2. The hip joint consists of
(Outcome 8.9) 3. The acetabular labrum is
and functions to
(Outcome 8.9) 4. The major ligaments of the hip joint are
(Outcome 8.9) 5. The iliofemoral ligament attaches
(Outcome 8.9) 6. The pubofemoral ligament extends between
(Outcome 8.9) 7. The ischiofemoral ligament connects
(Outcome 8.9) 8. The hip joint has movement than the shoulder joint.
(Outcome 8.9) 9. surround the capsule of the hip joint.
D. Knee Joint
(Outcome 8.9) 1. The largest and most complex of the synovial joints is the
(Outcome 8.9) 2. The knee joint consists of
(Outcome 8.9) 3. The femur articulates with anteriorly.
(Outcome 8.9) 4. The knee functions as a
(Outcome 8.9) 5. The articulation between the femur and tibia is a
(Outcome 8.9) 6. The articulation between the femur and patella is a
(Outcome 8.9) 7. The knee joint is greatly strengthened by
(Outcome 8.9) 8. The 5 ligaments of the knee joint are
(Outcome 8.9) 9. The patellar joint extends from
(Outcome 8.9) 10. The oblique popliteal ligament connects
(Outcome 8.9) 11. The arcuate popliteal ligament connects
(Outcome 8.9) 12. The tibial collateral ligament connects
(Outcome 8.9) 13. The fibular collateral ligament connects
(Outcome 8.9) 14. Two ligaments within the knee joint are called
(Outcome 8.9) 15. The anterior cruciate ligament connects
(Outcome 8.9) 16. The posterior cruciate ligament connects
(Outcome 8.9) 17. Two separate the articulating surfaces
of the femur and tibia.
(Outcome 8.9) 18. Three bursae associated with the knee joint are
## VII. Life-Span Changes
(Outcome 8.10) A. Changes in collagen lie behind
(Outcome 8.10) B. The joints are the first to change.
(Outcome 8.10) C. Synchondroses that connect disappear
as the skeleton grows.
(Outcome 8.10) D. Ligaments lose ____________________ as collagen fibers become
(Outcome 8.10) E. In the intervertebral discs, less water diminishes
(Outcome 8.10) F. Loss of function of synovial joints begins in the decade of life.
(Outcome 8.10) G. Fewer serving the synovial membrane slows the circulation of
, and the membrane may become infiltrated with
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