Chapter 7 Answer Key Apply What You Know

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Chapter 7 Answer Key

Apply What You Know

page 167—The lower we go on the vertebral column, the more weight the spine supports. Therefore, the lower vertebrae and intervertebral discs are heavier and larger than the higher ones.

page 170—A spinous process on vertebrae C1 and C2 would make it difficult to tilt the head back. The distinctive dens on C2 and its relationship to the ring-shaped C1 at the atlantoaxial joint allows rotation of the head.

page 176—If the teeth had been lost after death, the mandible and maxillae should still exhibit deep dental alveoli and interalveolar processes. If the teeth had been lost years before the person died, the alveolar processes would be resorbed, the alveolus might be partially or fully filled in with bone, and the jaw might be smooth at that point.

page 178—Depression fractures result from a blow to the skull with a blunt object. They may result from accidental or intentional blows from objects such as a baseball bat, or motor vehicle or bicycle accidents. Le Fort facial fractures are often the result of motor vehicle accidents, assault, or sports injuries that involve the face.

Testing Your Comprehension

  1. The impact drove the condyloid process of her mandible into the mandibular fossa and fractured her temporal bone, creating an opening from which one would be able to see from the auditory canal into the throat.

  2. Some people lack parietal foramina, a frontal sinus, and condylar canals; some have a persistent metopic suture; and people vary in the number of lumbar vertebrae.

  3. In T12, the superior articular processes face posteriorly to meet the anterior-facing processes of T11, and the inferior articular processes face laterally like those of the lumbar vertebrae. In L1, however, the superior articular processes face medially and the inferior articular processes face laterally.

  4. The muscles of eye movement would be paralyzed because the controlling nerves would be unable to reach them.

  5. The parietal bone articulates with the occipital, temporal, sphenoid, and frontal bones (see fig. 7.4a). The zygomatic bone articulates with the temporal and frontal bones and the maxilla (see the same figure). The temporal bone articulates with the occipital, parietal, sphenoid, and zygomatic bones and the mandible. The ethmoid bone articulates with the frontal bone, nasal bones, sphenoid bone, and vomer. (See figures 7.4 and 7.5.)

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