6. The female genital organs consist of internal and external organs. The internal organs are situated within the pelvis, and consist of the ovaries, the uterine tubes, the uterus, and the vagina. The external organs comprise the mons pubis, the great lip of pudendum (labia majora), the lesser lip of pudendum (labia minora), the clitoris, the vaginal vestibule, the bulb of vestibule, the vestibular glands and the mammary glands.
The functions of the female reproductive system are (1) to produce ova; (2) to secrete sex hormones; (3) to receive the semen from the male during coitus; (4) to provide sites for fertilization, embryonic and fetal development; (5) to facilitate parturition, or delivery of the baby; and (6) to provide nourishment for the baby through the mammary glands in the breasts.
7. Each ovary lies in a shallow depression between internal and external iliac arteries, named the ovarian fossa, on the posterior wall of the pelvis.
Each ovary is secured by several membranous attachments. The principal supporting membrane of the female reproductive tract is the broad ligament. The mesovarium is a specialized posterior extension of the broad ligament that attaches to an ovary. Each ovary is additionally supported by a proper ligament of ovary (ovarian ligament), which is anchored to the uterus, and a suspensory ligament of ovary, which is attached to the pelvic wall.
8. The uterus is situated at the center of the pelvis between the urinary bladder and the rectum, and forms anteversion (about 90°angle) between the uterus and vagina; besides, the body of uterus and the cervix forms an angle about 170°called anteflexion. The anatomical regions of the uterus include 3 parts: (1) the uppermost dome-shaped portion superior to the entrance of the uterine tubes, called the fundus of uterus; (2) the enlarged main portion, called the body of uterus; and (3) the inferior constricted portion opening into the vagina, called the neck (cervix) of uterus. Approximately the upper third of the cervix has been termed the isthmus of uterus. The cavity of the uterus is small in comparison with the size of the organ, partly due to its thick wall. The cavity of uterus is the space within the fundus and body of the uterus. The narrow canal of cervix of uterus extends through the cervix and opens into the lumen of the vagina. The opening of the canal of cervix of uterus into the vagina is called the uterine orifice.
Four paired ligaments support the uterus in position within the pelvic cavity. (!) Broad ligaments, extend from the pelvic walls and floor to the lateral walls of the uterus. (2) Uterosacral ligaments, curve along the lateral pelvic wall on both sides of the rectum to connect the uterus to the sacrum. (3) Cardinal ligaments, locate at the base of the broad ligaments that extend laterally from the cervix and vagina across the pelvic floor to the wall of the pelvis. (4) round ligaments, extend from the lateral border of the uterus just below the point where the uterine tube attaches to the greater lips of pudendum.
9. ovum→peritoneal cavity → abdominal orifice of uterine tube → infundibulum of uterine tube → ampulla of uterine tube → fertilized ovum → isthmus of uterine tube →uterine part of uterine tube → uterine orifice of uterine tube → cavity of uterus → endometrium → fetus → orifice of uterus → vaginal orifice → outside of body.
10. Each mammary gland is composed of 15 to 20 lobes, each with its own drainagepathway to the outside. The lobes are separated by varying amounts of adipose tissue.The amount of adipose tissue determines the size and shape of the breast but has nothing to do with the ability ralveoli. The mammary alveoli are the structures that produce the milk of a lactating female. Suspensory ligaments between the lobules extend from the skin to the deep fascia overlying the pectoralis major muscle and support the breasts. The clustered mammary alveoli secrete milk into a series of mammary ducts that converge to form lactiferous ducts. The lumen of each lactiferous duct expands near the nipple to form a lactiferous sinus. Milk is stored in the lactiferous sinuses before draining at the tip of the nipple.
9. Which of the following muscles is not contained in the urogenital triangle?
A. superficial transverse muscle of perineum
C. sphincter of urethra
1. While performing a splenectomy (removal of the spleen) following an automobile accident, the surgeons were especially attentive to locate and preserve the tail of the pancreas, which is closely associated with the spleen. This they found in the.
A. gastrocolic ligament
B. gastrosplenic ligament
C. phrenicocolic ligament
D. splenorenal ligament
E. transverse mesocolon
2. During an emergency splenectomy, the surgeon accidentally tore the gastrosplenic ligament and its contents. The artery that is likely to be damaged in this event is(are) the.
4. It extends from the umbilicus to the notch for the ligamentum teres hepatic.
5. It contains the bile duct, the proper hepatic artery and hepatic portal vein.
6. Lower free border contains the ligamentum teres hepatic.
True or False Questions
1. The subphrenic peritoneum has greater absorptive capacity than other portions of the peritoneum. ( )
2. The stomach, jejunum, liver, vermiform appendix are all intraperitoneal organs.
3. Kidneys, suprarenal glands, ureters are all retroperitoneal organs. ( )
4. The effect of levator ani is supporting pelvic floor and organs in the pelvic cavity. They also have an important sphincter action on the anal canal and vagina. ( )
5. Hepatogastric ligament encloses the bile duct, the proper hepatic artery, hepatic portal vein. ( )
6. The greater omentum is usually thin, and presents a cribriform appearance, but always contains some adipose tissue, blood vessels and macrophages. ( )
7. By the omental foramen the omental bursa communicates with the (greater) peritoneal cavity. ( )
8. The sigmoid mesocolon is a triangular peritoneal fold that attaches the sigmoid colon to the abdominal wall. ( )
9. The anterior layer of coronary ligament is continuous with the falciform ligament. ( )
10. Duodenal folds include the anterior duodenal fold and posterior duodenal fold. ( )
11. The rectouterine pouch in female or the rectovesical pouch in male is the lowest part of the peritoneal cavity in anatomical position. ( )
12. The suprahepatic space is divided into right and left suprahepatic spaces by the coronary ligament. ( )
13. Mesenteric sinuses lie between the radix of the mesentery and the ascending and descending colons. ( )
14. The right paracolic sulcus lies along the lateral side of the ascending colon, inferiorly it continues with the right subhepatic space. ( )
15. Suprahepatic space lies between the superior surface of liver and the diaphragm. ( )
16. In anal triangle there are the levator ani, coccygeus, bulbocavernosus and sphincter ani externus. ( )
Explanation of Terms
1. peritoneal cavity
2. intraperitoneal organ
3. intraperitoneal organ(2、3重复)
4. retroperitoneal organ
5. lesser omentum
6. greater omentum
7. omental bursa
9. ischioanal fossae
10. pelvic diaphragm
11. urogenital diaphragm
Answer the Following Questions
1. Give at least 5 examples of intraperitoneal organ..
2. Give at least 5 examples of intraperitoneal organ.（1、2重复）
3. Give at least 5 examples of retroperitoneal organ.
4. Describe briefly the division of the levator ani.
5. Describe briefly the walls of omental bursa.
6. What is mesentery? And take some examples.
7. Describe briefly the divisions of suprahepatic space.
8. Describe briefly the divisions of subhepatic space.
9. Describe briefly the borders of the broad sense of the perineum.
Multiple Choice Questions
1. C 2. B 3. B 4. A 5. E 6. B 7. D 8. E 9. D
1. D 2. D
1. A 2. B 3. E 4. C 5. E 6. A
True or False Questions
1. T 2. T 3. T 4. T 5. F 6. T 7. T 8. F 9. T 10. F
11. T 12. F 13. T 14. F 15. T 16. F
Explanation of Terms
1. The potential space between the parietal and visceral peritonea is the peritoneal cavity.
2. If an organ is almost completely surrounded with peritoneum which in the abdominal and pelvic cavity, it is called the intraperitoneal organ.
3. The intraperitoneal organ is covered by peritoneum on their three aspects.
4. Only the anterior part of these organs covered by the peritoneum is called the retroperitoneal organ.
5. It is a double-layer of peritoneum that connects the inferior surface of the liver to the lesser curvature of the stomach and the upper part of the duodenum.
6. It is a biggest fold of the peritoneum extending downwards from the greater curvature of the stomach to lie anteriorly within the abdominal cavity.
7. There is a potential, narrow space between the lesser omentum, the posterior wall of the stomach and the posterior wall of the abdomen, which is called omental bursa.
8. The mesentery is a large, fan-shaped fold of peritoneum connecting the coils of jejunum and ileum to the posterior abdominal wall.
9. In anal triangle there are two 'large spaces on both sides of the anal canal, which are called the ischioanal fossae.
10. The levator ani and coccygeus together with the superior and inferior fascia of pelvic diaphragm form the pelvic diaphragm which encloses the anal triangle. The anus passes through the center of pelvic diaphragm.
11. The superior and inferior fasciae of urogenital diaphragm, the deep transverse muscle of perineum, and the urethral sphincter muscle form the urogenital diaphragm, which encloses the urogenital triangle.
Answer the Following Questions
l. Stomach, superior part of duodenum, jejunum, cecum, vermiform appendix, transverse colon, sigmoid colon, spleen, ovary, uterine tube.
2. Liver, gallbladder, urinary bladder, uterus, upper part of the rectum, ascending and descending colons.
3. Kidneys, suprarenal glands, ureters, major part of duodenum, pancreas (except for its tail), and lower part of the rectum.
4. Levator ani is divided into pubovaginalis (in female), puborectalis, pubococcygeus and iliococcygeus.
5. Its anterior wall is formed by the lesser omentum, the posterior wall of the stomach and the gastrocolic ligament. The posterior wall is formed by the peritoneum covering the pancreas, the left kidney and left suprarenal gland. The superior wall is the inferior surface of the caudate lobe of the liver and the peritoneum covering diaphragm. The inferior wall is the transverse mesocolon and the site that the anterior and posterior layers of the greater omentum fuse. On the left, it is bounded by he spleen, the gastrosplenic and splenorenal ligaments. On the right, the omental bursa communicates with the greater sac through the omental foramen.
6. Mesenteries are peritoneal folds that attach viscera to the posterior abdominal wall. They allow some movement and provide a conduit for vessels, nerves and lymphatics to reach the viscera and include the mesentery, mesoappendix, transverse mesocolon and sigmoid mesocolon.
7. This space is divided into suprahepatic space and subhepatic space by the liver. The suprahepatic space is divided into right and left suprahepatic spaces by the falciform ligament. The right and left suprahepatic spaces are subdivided into right anterior and posterior suprahepatic spaces, left anterior and posterior suprahepatic spaces by the coronary ligament.
8. This space is divided into right and left subhepatic spaces by the ligamentum teres hepatis, the right subhepatic space is usually called hepatorenal recess, the left subhepatic space is subdivided into the left anterior and left posterior subhepatic spaces by the lesser omentum and stomach.
9. Its anterior margin is formed by the inferior border of the pubic symphysis, the posterior margin is the apex of coccyx, the lateral margin is surrounded by the inferior rami of pubis, rami of ischium, ischial tuberosities, sacrotuberous ligaments.