OBJECTIVES 1. Define the terms anatomy and physiology, and explain their relationship using an example of a human structure with its corresponding function.
2. List, in order from least to most complex, the levels of structural organization, discuss the relationship between the levels, and name an example at each level.
Write an introductory sentence that lists the levels from least to most complex.
Starting with the least complex level, complete the following:
name the level
define the term
provide an example
discuss how the next level is achieved.
3. List the 11 organ systems of the human organism, name the major organs within each, and give a general function for each system.
4. Name and define the ten life processes that distinguish living from non-living things.
5. Specify the five environmental needs required for life.
6. Define the term homeostasis, and name the manner in which homeostatic mechanisms are regulated. Then provide an example of a homeostatic mechanism in humans, and explain it fully, by providing a diagram followed by a complete essay explanation.
7. Demonstrate what is meant by "anatomical position".
8. Define various directional terms (i.e. superior, inferior, etc.), and compare different body parts using these terms (i.e. the elbow is proximal to the wrist).
9. List both anterior and posterior anatomical landmarks (i.e. orbital, inguinal, etc.).
10. Name the three major body sections (planes, cuts), and describe how each would be accomplished.
11. Designate the five major human body cavities and name the organs within each on a human diagram.
12. Describe the anatomical importance of the diaphragm muscle.
13. Describe the nine regions of the abdominal area and the four quadrants of the abdominal area and list the major organs found within each.
14. Distinguish between visceral and parietal serous membranes, and differentiate between pericardial, pleural, and peritoneal varieties.
Study of anatomy and physiology is an ever-developing science.
Greek and Latin form the basis for the language of anatomy and physiology.
II. DEFINITIONS: See Fig. 1.2, page 4.
ANATOMY = the study of the structure (morphology, form) of body parts.
PHYSIOLOGY = the study of the function of body parts.
III. STRUCTURAL LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION:
See Fig 1.3, page 5 and Table 1.1, page 5.
A. The atom [i.e. Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H), or Oxygen(O)] is the least complex level. An atom is defined as the smallest particle of an element. Atoms combine with (react with) other atoms to form...
B. molecules [i.e. carbon dioxide (CO2), water (H20)]. A molecule is defined as a particle composed of 2 or more joined atoms. Molecules combine with other molecules to form...
C. macromolecules (i.e. carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids). A macromolecule is defined as a large molecule. Macromolecules combine with other macromolecules to form...
D. organelles (i.e. cell membrane, nucleus, ribosomes). An organelle is defined as a small organ of a cell, which performs a particular function. Organelles collectively compose ...
E. cells. The cell is defined as the basic unit of structure and function of living organisms!
Each cell has a set of organelles and performs a particular function (i.e. a red blood cell has a biconcave shape and is a nucleate. This structure increases its surface area, allowing for the transport of more oxygen0.
Some cells have all of the machinery that they need to live. See the amoeba a single-celled organism in Fig 1.4, page 9.
Similar cells are arranged into...
F. tissues (i.e. epithelia, connective, muscle, nervous). A tissue is defined as a group of similar cells that performs a specialized function. Two or more tissues combine to form...
G. organs (i.e. skin, heart, brain). An organ is defined as a structure consisting of a group of tissues that performs a specialized function. Two or more organs combine to form...
H. organ systems (i.e. integumentary, cardiovascular). An organ system is defined as a group of organs that act together to carry on a specialized function. The eleven organ systems collectively form the...
I. human organism. An organism is the most complex level of organization and is defined as an individual living thing.
J. The levels of hierarchy could be further extended to include; populations, communities, ecosystems, and the biosphere.
IV. CHARACTERISTICS OF LIFE A. Ten processes: See Table 1.3, page 8.
V. MAINTANENCE OF LIFE
A. Requirements of Organisms See Table 1.4, page 9.
1. nutrients for energy
5. pressure for breathing and filtering blood through kidneys
B. Homeostasis See Fig 1.7 and Fig 1.8, page 11.
1. Definition = the tendency of an organism to maintain a stable internal environment.
2. All life processes and metabolic reactions work to maintain homeostasis.
Most homeostatic mechanisms are regulated by negative feedback (see example below).
All homeostatic mechanisms have three components in common.
Receptor – senses change in environment
Control Center – Regulates set-point of variables
Effector – organ that acts in response to changes
5. Example = maintenance of body temperature at 98.6oF/37oC.
VI. ORGANIZATION OF THE HUMAN BODY
A. Body Cavities See Fig 1.9, page 13.
AXIAL PORTIONAPPENDICULAR PORTION head arms
DORSAL CAVITYVENTRAL CAVITY
CRANIAL CAVITYTHORACIC CAVITY
VERTEBRAL CANAL thymus
spinal cord heart
* Note that the diaphragm muscle separates the thoracic from abdominopelvic cavities.
* Note that the kidneys, adrenal glands, pancreas, and ureters are behind the abdominopelvic cavity. This is referred to as RETROPERITONEAL.
VI. ORGANIZATION OF THE HUMAN BODY B. Thoracic and Abdominopelvic Membranes 1. Membrane = a soft, thin, pliable layer of tissue that either:
a. covers a vital (visceral organ) = VISCERAL MEMBRANE.
b. lines a body cavity = PARIETAL MEMBRANE.
2. There is a space between a visceral and parietal membrane into which SEROUS fluid is secreted for lubrication.
3. There are specific names for the membranes around the heart, lungs, and abdominal organs:
a. Serous Membranes of the LUNGS: See Fig 1.11, page 15. The membrane on the surface of the lung is called visceral pleura.
The membrane that lines the cavity in which the lungs are located is called parietal pleura.
6. Proximal = closer to trunk; Distal = farther from trunk;
7. Superficial = surface; Deep = internal.
D. Body Sections (cuts, planes)
See Fig 1.20, page 22 and Figures 1.21, page 22 and 1.22, page 23
1. Sagittal cut: divides the body into right and left portions.
a. midsagittal (median) = equal right and left portions.
2. Transverse Cut (or horizontal): divides the body into superior and inferior portions
3. Coronal Cut (or frontal): divides the body into anterior and posterior portions.
Cross-section: cut at 90 degrees to long axis of the object
5. Oblique section: cut at an angle across an object
Longitudinal section: cut with the long axis of an object
VIII. ANATOMICAL TERMINOLOGY (Keyed at the end of this outline)
E. Body Regions See Fig 1.23a, page 23.
1. Abdominal regions