Cell Division & Classical Genetics Review Guide

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Cell Division & Classical Genetics Review Guide (Chapters 8 & 9 in text)
I. Cell Division

Diploid Haploid

Chromosome Gamete

Homologous Chromosomes

A. Cell Cycle: what happens in each phase

1. G1
2. S

3. G2

4. M
5. Draw the chromosomes in a diploid cell with 2 chromosomes (2n = 4) in G1 and G2

a. G1 b. G2

B. Mitosis

1. what types of cells undergo mitosis?

2. what is the result of mitosis?

3. What happens in each phase

a. interphase

b. prophase

c. metaphase

d. anaphase

e. telophase

C. Meiosis

1. what types of cells undergo meiosis?

2. what is the result of meiosis – especially the chromosome number? What are the 2n and n numbers for human cells?
3. phases of meiosis

a. meiosis I (PMAT)

b. meiosis II (PMAT)
4. What is crossing over?
5. when does it happen?
6. what is nondisjunction, and what can it result in?
7. what are the (2) major differences between spermatogenesis and oogenesis?
8. what is fertilization? Describe in terms of n chromosomes.
9. Draw the chromosmes if 2n = 4

  1. Before meiosis I

  1. After meiosis I, before meiosis II

  1. After meiosis II (in spermatogenesis)

II. Classical Genetics

Genotype Phenotype

Homozygous Heterozygous

Allele Gene

P, F1, F2 generations self-fertilization, cross fertilization

  1. Punnett Squares

    1. Complete dominance

    2. Incomplete & codominance – what’s the difference?

    3. Sex-linkage

    4. Multiple alleles ( HUMAN BLOOD TYPES & what they mean)

    5. Dihybrid crosses

    6. Genotype & phenotype ratios

  2. Mendel’s Laws (Principles)

    1. Law of Segregation

    1. Law of Independent Assortment

  1. Pedigrees

    1. Draw a pedigree from given information

    2. Determine genotypes from known information

    3. Determine how a trait is inherited by pattern (autosomal dominant, recessive, or X-linked)

Practice Problems

  1. In unicorns, there are two alleles for horns. Having a horn is dominant to not having a horn. A horned unicorn is mated with a non-horned unicorn (a nullicorn), and they produce four foals. One of the foals is hornless. What is the genotype of the horned parent? Draw a Punnett square to support your answer.

  1. In trolls, skin color may be green, dark green, or black. Two trolls mate and produce 3 green troll babies, 5 dark green troll babies, and 2 black troll babies. What are the phenotypes of the parents? What type of inheritance is this? Draw a Punnett square to support your answer.

  1. In a species of dragon, scales may be silver, green, or silver with green swirls. A male dragon with silver scales mates with a female dragon with the green-swirled pattern. After their eggs hatch, they are the proud parents of 10 beautiful little dragon whelps. About how many of those whelps do you expect to have silver scales like their proud father?

  1. In red dragons, sex is determined the same way as it is in humans. Firebreathing is a sex-linked recessive trait. A dragon trader wants to figure out if a female red dragon who cannot breathe fire is a carrier for the trait, so he mates her with a firebreathing male. Describe the expected outcomes if she is AND if she is not a carrier of the trait.

  1. A tribe of wood elves is known for its strange eye colors. Eye colors may be red, blue, purple, or colorless. A heterozygous blue-eyed elf mates with a purple-eyed elf. What is the chance they produce a red-eyed elfling?

  1. The evil wizard Saruman is trying to create an unstoppable army of Orcs to conquer Middle Earth once again. This time, however, he doesn’t want them to smell as bad. In Orcs, superhuman strength is dominant to puniness, and stinkiness is dominant to no smell. In one of his breeding experiments to develop this dominant, yet unoffending evil army, he crosses a male that is heterozygous for both traits with a female that is homozygous for superhuman strength but doesen’t smell. What % of the offspring will be pure breeding for superhuman strength and no smell?

  1. In Hobbits, having furry feet is a very attractive quality. Draw a pedigree of the Proudfoot family using the following information:

Lobelia Proudfoot and Tomas Proudfoot both have hairy feet. They have 6 children, 4 daugters and 2 sons, all of which have hairy feet.

The children: Bos Proudfoot (boy) marries Tella Baggins who has hairy feet, and they have 3 children, 2 boys and one girl. To their dismay, one of the boys has bald feet. Dundo Proudfoot (boy) has no children. Essa Proudfoot (girl) marries Niko Gamgee (who has hairy feet), and they have 2 children, one hairy footed boy, and a bald-footed girl (yuck). The other three girls run away from home and join a travelling circus with the unicorns, drogons, trolls and elves of the previous problems – nothing is known about their offspring.

What are the genotypes of Lobelia and Tomas Proudfoot?
Write in the genotypes of all the hobbits that you can figure out.

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