Bones study guide



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BONES STUDY GUIDE
CLAVICLE

1. sternal extremity (end) –flat end

2. acromial extremity (end) –rounded end

SCAPULA

1. Superior border (superior margin)

2. Medial border (vertebral margin)

3. Lateral border (axillary margin)

4. Glenoid cavity (glenoid fossa)

5. superior angle

6. inferior angle,

7. Scapular spine

8. Acromion process

9. Coracoid process

10. Scapular notch

11-13. supraspinous fossa, infraspinous fossa, subscapular fossa


HUMERUS.

1. Head


2. Greater tubercle

3. Lesser tubercle

4. Intertubercular groove (bicipital groove)

5. Anatomical neck

6. Surgical neck

7. Deltoid tuberosity

8. Medial epicondyle

9. Olecranon fossa

10. Capitulum

11. Trochlea


ULNA.

1. Olecranon process

2. Coronoid process (“crow’s beak”)

3. Semilunar notch (trochlear notch)

4. Radial notch

5. Styloid process


RADIUS

1. Head


2. Neck

3. Radial tuberosity

4. Styloid process


Mnemonic for carpals:

“Physical Therapy Lots of Studying, Time To Come Home”.

Physical: pisiform

Therapy: triangular

Lots: lunate

Studying: scaphoid

Time: trapezium

To: trapezoid

Come: capitates

Home: hamate


CARPALS

1. TRAPEZIUM (by the thumb)

2. TRAPEZOID (right beside thumb)

3. CAPITATE (base of 3rd met)

4. HAMATE (base of 4-5th mets)

5. TRIANGULAR (lateral-most)

6. PISIFORM (on palmar side, under triangular)

7. LUNATE (the one next to scaphoid)

8. SCAPHOID (the largest; near the thumb)


METACARPALS; They are numbered metacarpal 1-5.

PHALANGES: Proximal, intermediate, distal, (“distal phalanx of digit 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5”)
SKULL
Frontal bone

1. Coronal suture

2. Supraorbital foramen (or notch)
Parietal bones

1. Sagittal suture

2. Squamous suture
Occipital bone

1. Lambdoidal suture

2. Foramen magnum

3. Occipital condyles


Temporal bones

1. External auditory meatus (eternal acoustic meatus)

2. Mandibular fossa

3. Styloid process

4. Mastoid process

5. Jugular foramen


Sphenoid bone

1. Sella turcica (where the pituitary gland sits)

2. Optic foramen (for optic nerve)

3. Foramen ovale (for trigeminal nerve)

4. Carotid canal (for carotid artery)
Ethmoid bone

1. Crista galli

2. Olfactory foramina

3. Ethmoid sinuses

4. Perpendicular plate
Mandible

1. Ramus


2. angle

3. Body


4. Condyle

5. Mandibular notch

6. Coronoid process

7. Alveolar process

8. Mental foramen


BONES OF THE ORBIT


Maxilla

1. Alveolar processes

2. Incisive foramen


Frontal bone
3. Infraorbital foramen


Ethmoid bone
Other skull bones: dscn3802

1. Zygomatic bones

2. Nasal bones

3. Lacrimal bones

4. Palatine bones


Sphenoid bone
5. Vomer bone
FETAL SKULL


  1. Anterior fontanel

  2. Posterior fontanel

  3. Sphenoid fontanel


Zygomatic bone
Mastoid fontanel
EAR BONES

  1. Malleus (mallet shaped)

  2. Incus (anvil shaped)

  3. Stapes (stirrup shaped)




NOTE: Do not use the terms hammer, anvil, and stirrup on the exam!

Maxilla bone
dscn2818





BONES OF THE ORBIT

Superior orbit: Frontal bone

Inferior orbit: Maxilla

Lateral orbit: Zygomatic bone

Medial orbit: Ethmoid

Posterior orbit: Sphenoid




CERVICAL VERTEBRAE

1. Spinous process

2. Vertebral foramen

3. Lamina

4. Transverse foramina

5. Body
ATLAS (Don’t just call it C-1)



AXIS (Don’t just call it C-2)

1. Dens
THORACIC VERTEBRAE

1. Spinous process

2. Transverse processes with articular facet

3. Lamina

4. Pedicle

5. Body

6. Vertebral foramen



7. Inferior articular processes

8. Superior articular processes


LUMBAR VERTEBRAE

1. Spinous process

2. Transverse processes

3. Lamina

4. Pedicle

5. Body


6. Vertebral foramen

7. Inferior articular processes

8. Superior articular processes
KNOW THE FOLLOWING ON A FULL SKELETON VERTEBRAL COLUMN:

1. Intervertebral foramina

2. Intervertebral disc
SACRUM

1. Sacral canal

2. sacral foramina

3. median sacral crest


COCCYX

STERNUM

MANUBRIUM

Jugular notch

BODY


XIPHOID PROCESS

RIBS: (Twelve ribs altogether)


How to tell true from false rib:

A true rib inserts directly into the sternum (by way of its costal cartilage).

A false rib’s costal cartilage inserts into the costal cartilage of the rib above it.

Two of the false ribs are floating ribs that have no costal cartilages and do not insert into the sternum at all.





Know the following on a full skeleton only

7 TRUE RIBS

5 FALSE RIBS (2 of these ribs are the floating ribs)

2 FLOATING RIBS

COSTAL CARTILAGES
Know the following on a single rib

1. Head


2. Neck

3. Articular tubercle

4. Costal angle
HYOID BONE

1. Cornu



LOWER EXTREMITY
OS COXA: The fusion of 3 bones during childhood (ileum, ischium, and pubis):

1. Acetabulum

2. Obturator foramen
ILIUM

1. Iliac crest

2. Iliac fossa

3. Anterior superior iliac spine

4. Anterior inferior iliac spine

5. Posterior superior iliac spine

6. Posterior inferior iliac spine

7. Greater sciatic notch


ISCHIUM

1. Ischial spine

2. Ischial tuberosity

3. Lesser sciatic notch


PUBIS

1. Pubic symphysis

2. Pubic arch
FEMUR

1. Head


2. Neck

3. Greater trochanter

4. Lesser trochanter

5. Gluteal tuberosity

6. Medial condyle

7. Medial epicondyle

8. Lateral condyle

9. Fovea capitis

10. Linea aspera
TIBIA

1. Lateral condyle

2. Medial condyle

3. Tibial tuberosity

4. Medial malleolus

5. Anterior crest

6. Intercondylar eminence

7. Fibular notch



How to tell head from malleolus on fibula:

The head is flatter on top and the malleolus is pointy at the tip, and the malleolus has its smooth facet more on the side of the bone, instead of on the top.


FIBULA

1. Head


2. Lateral malleolus
FOOT:

TARSALS:


1. TALUS

2. CALCANEUS

3. NAVICULAR

4. CUBOID

5. CUNEIFORMS (MEDIAL, INTERMEDIATE, LATERAL)

METATARSALS (1-5)

PHALANGES (proximal, intermediate, distal)
PATELLA


  1. Apex

  2. Base

  3. Articular facet


THE KNEE

  1. patellar ligament (or patellar tendon)

  2. quadriceps tendon

  3. lateral collateral ligament (fibular collateral ligament)

  4. medial collateral ligament (tibial collateral ligament)

  5. lateral meniscus

  6. medial meniscus

  7. anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)

  8. posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)


HISTOLOGY = “tissues”
I. epithelia

A. simple epithelia

1. simple squamous epithelium (kidney glomerulus)

2. simple cuboidal epithelium (kidney convoluted tubules)

3. simple columnar epithelium (small intestine)

4. pseudostratified epithelium (trachea)


B. stratified epithelia

1. stratified squamous epithelia

a. keratinized stratified squamous epithelium (skin)

b. non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium (esophogus)

2. stratified cuboidal epithelium (skin sweat gland)

3. stratified columnar epithelium (male urethra)

4. transitional epithelium (bladder)
II. fibrous (proper) connective tissues

A. loose fibrous/areolar connective tissue (under epithelia)

B. adipose tissue (under dermis)

C. reticular connective tissue (lymph nodes)

D. dense regular fibrous connective tissue (tendons, ligaments)

E. dense irregular fibrous connective tissue (dermis)


III. special connective tissues

A. cartilages

1. hyaline cartilage (joints, nose, trachea)

2. elastic cartilage (ear)

3. fibrocartilage (intervertebral discs, knee meniscus)

B. bone tissues

1. compact bone (bone shafts: diaphysis)

2. spongy bone (bone ends: epiphysis)



C. blood (in blood vessels)
IV. muscle tissues

A. skeletal (striated) muscle (muscle attached to bones)

B. cardiac muscle (heart)

C. smooth muscle (digestive organs)
V. nervous tissue (brain, spinal cord, nerves)

The structures in bold are NOT covered in Unit 1





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