Background Prime movers Power: p = T

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Shigley: Chapter 13


  1. Background

    1. Prime movers

      • Power: P = T = CTn

Where P = Power; T = Torque: = angular velocity

n– rpm; C – Conversion Constant

For Horsepower

where T - ft-lb; n – rpm; – horsepower

For kilowatts

Where Ts - N-m; P – kilowatts;  - rad/sec

    1. Drive Train

      • Typical prime mover speeds

        1. I C engine - 6000rpm
        2. Electric motor - 1800 to 3600 rpm

        3. Gas Turbine - 12,000 to 15,000 rpm

      • Typically prime mover output speed is much higher than application requirements

      • Usually the application torque requirement is higher than the prime mover output

      • A drive train or transmission is required to make the prime mover torque/speed output match the application’s need

      • Prime movers are typically high speed low torque

  1. GEARS

    1. Types of gears

      • Spur gears – Gear teeth are parallel to the axis of rotation. For power transfer between parallel shafts.

      • Helical gears – Gear teeth are inclined to the axis of rotation. Allows more continuous tooth engagement with less noise (vs. spur gears). Helical gears will have thrust loads. Allows power transfer between parallel and non-parallel shafts. See fig. 13-2

      • Bevel gears -- Gear teeth are formed on a conical surface and are used mainly to transmit power with intersecting shafts. See figure 13-3.

      • Worm gears -- A worm gear set consists of a worm (resembling a screw thread) and the gear (a specialized helical gear) usually on shafts intersecting at 90 degrees. A worm gear gives very high gear reduction ratios. See figure 13-4.

    2. Nomenclature -- See figure 13- 5

      • Pitch circle – a theoretical circle on which all calculations are based. See figure 13-5.

      • Pitch diameter, d - diameter of pitch circle (in.) [for SI mm]

      • Pinion – smaller of two mating gears; the larger is called the gear

      • Circular pitch, p = sum of tooth thickness and width of space

      • Diametral pitch, P - ratio of the number of teeth to the pitch diameter

      • Addendum, a – radial distance between the pitch circle and the top of the gear tooth.

      • Dedendum, b -- radial distance between the bottom land and the pitch circle.

      • Backlash -- the amount by which the width of a tooth space exceeds the thickness of the engaging tooth measured on the pitch circle.

      • Basic Gear Geometry Equations:

        1. P = N/d Eqn. 13-1

        2. modulus for S I units Eqn. 13-2

        3. p = d/N = m Eqn. 13-3

        4. pP =  Eqn. 13-4

        5. Where N is the number of teeth; m is module (mm);

        6. d – pitch diameter (in) or for SI (mm); p – circular pitch (in)

        7. P – diametral pitch, (teeth/in)

    1. Conjugate Gear Action

      • On mating gears, when the tooth profiles are designed so as to produce a constant angular velocity ratio, these gears are said to have conjugate action

      • The standard tooth profile that provides conjugate gear action is the involute profile (There are others, but not used often)

    2. Involute Properties

      • Generating a involute tooth profile see figures 13-7, 13- 8

      • Base circle - circle on which the involute is generated

    3. Fundamentals [Spur Gears]

      • Pitch line velocity


Where r’s are the gear pitch circle radii

d’s are the gear pitch circle diameters

’s are the gear angular velocities

      • See figure 13-9and figure 13-10

      • Gear pitch circles are tangent at the pitch point

      • Pressure line (line of action) – the direction in which the resultant force acts between the gear

      • Base circles are tangent to the pressure line

      • Addendum height is 1/P (P is the diametral pitch)

      • Dedendum height is 1.25/P to 1.35/P (P is the diametral pitch)

      • E Base pitch is related to circular pitch

Where  is the pressure angle the angle between the pressure line and a line joining the centers of the two gears

      • See example 13 - 1

    1. Contact Ratio

  • Tooth contact begins and ends at the two addendum circles

  • Generally want more than one tooth in contact at the same time

  • Contact ratio

Eqn. 13- 8&9

Where mc is the contact ratio; qt is the sum of the arc of approach and arc of recess; Lab is the length of the line of action (see fig. 13-15 for visual of these terms)

    1. Interference

      • See figure 13-16 for interference action in gear teeth

      • Sometimes undercutting is used to eliminate interference; this can weaken the tooth

      • Equation for the minimum number of teeth on a pinion and gear without interference, Np

Eqn. (13-11)

k = 1 for full depth threads; 0.8 for stub teeth

= pressure angle

m = NG /Np the ratio of gear teeth to pinion teeth

    1. The Forming of Gear Teeth

      • See figures 13-17; 13-18; and 13-19

        1. Milling

        2. Shaping

        3. Hobbing

      • Finishing can be important to gears operating at high speed

    2. Straight Bevel Gears

      • See figure 13-20 for geometry

      • Pitch angle  - see figure 13-20

Or Eqn. 13-14

  • Tredgold’s approximation

  • Figure 13-20 shows that he shape of the teeth, when projected on the back cone, is the same as a spur gear having a radius equal to the back-cone distance rb


where N’ is the virtual number of teeth of this imaginary gear and p is the circular pitch at the large end of the teeth

    1. Parallel Helical Gears

      • Helical gears used to transmit power between parallel shafts

      • The helix angle  is the same on both gears

      • One gear must have a right-hand helix and the other left-handed

      • Helical gears subject the shaft to radial and thrust loads

      • Because of the nature of the contact between helical gear the contact ratio is of minor importance [it is the contact area (~ face width) that becomes significant]

      • Herringbone gear – a gear with a double helix to avoid thrust loads. Like two helical gears of opposite hand mounted side by side on the same shaft.

      • Equations:

Eqn. 13-16

Where is the normal circular pitch

is the transverse circular pitch

Eqn. 13-17

where is the axial pitch

Eqn. 13-18

Where is the normal diametral pitch

Eqn. 13-19

where is the pressure angle in the normal direction

and is the pressure angle in the transverse direction

  • See example 13-2

    1. Worm Gears

      • A worm gear set consists of a worm and a gear

      • The worm looks like a thread on a bolt

      • The nomenclature is shown on figure 13-24

        1. Axial pitch on the worm

        2. Transverse circular pitch (circular pitch) of the gear

      • The pitch diameter of the gear

Eqn. 13-25

  • Since the worm pitch diameter does not depend on the number of teeth, it can have any value

  • The pitch diameter of the worm should be

` ` Eqn. 13-26

Where C is the center distance between worm and gear

Eqn. 13-27

Eqn. 13-28

Where L is the lead; dW is the worm pitch diameter; NW is the number of “starts” on the worm thread [I think].

    1. Tooth Systems

    2. Gear Trains

      • The speed of a driven: gear #3

Eqn. 13-29

where n = revolutions or rpm; N = number of teeth

and d = the pitch diameter

  • A gear train of 6 gears (shown in figure 13-27) where gear 2 in the input (drive gear) and gear 6 is the output (driven gear).

    1. Force Analysis – Spur Gearing

      • Forces on two mating spur gears (figures 13-32 & 13-33)

Eqn. (a) & (b)

= tangential force from gear 3 acting on gear 2

Eqn. 13-35

where V is in ft/min; is the transmitted load in lbf; H is in horsepower

or in SI units Eqn. 13-36

where = transmitted load, kN

H = power, kW

D = gear diameter, mm

n = speed, rpm

      • Example 13-6

      • Force Analysis -- Bevel Gearing

        1. Equations:

Eqn. 13-37

T = the torque

Rav = the pitch radius at the midpoint of the tooth for the gear under consideration

Eqn. 13-38

Eqn. 13-38

See figure 13-35 for terms

  • Example 13-7

  • Force Analysis – Helical Gearing

    • Equations:

      • ]

      • Eqn. 13-40

      • Reference figure for terms

      • Example 13-8

  • Force Analysis -- Worm Gearing

    • Equations (with friction):

Eqn. 13-43

Where worm and gear forces are opposite

Eqn. 13-42

  • Frictional force Wf

Eqn. 13-44

  • Worm and Gear tangential forces

Eqn. 13-45

  • Efficiency

Eqn. 13-46

Eqn. 13-47

where is the pitch line velocity

  • Coefficient of friction is dependent on the relative or sliding velocity

  • See table 13-6 for typical worm gear efficiencies

  • See figure 13-42 for representative values of

  • Example problem 13-10

Rev 3/30/07

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