Appendix 2-5: Rejected ecotox bibliography for Chlorpyrifos

Rat blood was treated by liquid-liquid extraction

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Rat blood was treated by liquid-liquid extraction and the analytes were separated by gradient elution on an Agilent Zorbax Extended-C(8) column (2.0 x 150 mm, 5 mu m). Chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos-oxon were detected in positive ion mode using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). TCP was detected in negative ion mode using parent-to-parent transition monitoring. This method was validated and the specificity, linearity, limit of quantitation (LOQ), precision, accuracy, stability, and recoveries were determined. The method was then applied to determine the level of chlorpyrifos and its metabolites from rats exposed to a subcutaneous injection of 10 and 18 mg/kg.
Keywords: organophosphate insecticides, HPLC, tandem mass spectrometry,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 115XW

1512. Wilson, A. L.; Watts, R. J., and Stevens, M. M. Effects of Different Management Regimes on Aquatic Macroinvertebrate Diversity in Australian Rice Fields. Institute for Land, Water and Society, School of Environmental Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Locked Bag 588, Wagga Wagga, NSW, 2678, Australia. Springer Science+Business Media//: 2008; 23, (3): 565-572.

Rec #: 2820
Keywords: MIXTURE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: BSFM,CPY,FPN,MCPANa,MLT,PPN,Urea

1513. Wilson, B. W.; Rusli, F. J.; Tam, M. K. Y.; DePeters, E., and Henderson, J. D. Carbamate Protection of AChE Against Inhibition by Agricultural Chemicals. 2012; 26, (12): 506-509.

Rec #: 72069
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The carbamate pyridostigmine bromide has been used as a pretreatment to protect individuals from the nerve agent soman. Previous research showed that pyridostigmine significantly protected human muscle acetylcholinesterase in vitro from soman and bovine red blood cell acetylcholinesterase from some organophosphorous pesticides. Research presented here demonstrates that pretreatment with other carbamates also protects acetylcholinesterase from inhibition by the pesticides chlorpyrifos-oxon and diazinon-oxon, but not from malaoxon. (C) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 26: 506-509, 2012; View this article online at DOI10.1002/jbt.21456
Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase, Carbamate, Organophosphate, Pesticides,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 073XS

1514. Wilson, Nancy K; Strauss, Warren J; Iroz-Elardo, Nicole; Chuang, Jane C, and Wilson, Nancy K. Exposures of Preschool Children to Chlorpyrifos, Diazinon, Pentachlorophenol, and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid Over 3 Years From 2003 to 2005: a Longitudinal Model. 2010 Sep; 20, (6): 546-558.

Rec #: 40389
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The impact of the US EPA-required phase-outs starting in 2000-2001 of residential uses of the organophosphate (OP) pesticides chlorpyrifos (CPF) and diazinon (DZN) on preschool children's pesticide exposures was investigated over 2003-2005, in the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill area of North Carolina. Data were collected from 50 homes, each with a child initially of age 3 years (OCh) and a younger child (YCh). Environmental samples (indoor and outdoor air, dust, soil) and child-specific samples (hand surface residue, urine, diet) were collected annually over 24-h periods at each home. Child time-activity diaries and household pesticide use information were also collected. Analytes included CPF and DZN; pentachlorophenol (PCP); 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D); the CPF metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP); and the DZN metabolite 2-isopropyl-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinol (IMP). Exposures (ng/day) through the inhalation, dietary ingestion, and indirect ingestion were calculated. Aggregate potential doses in ng/kg body weight per day (ng/kg/day) were obtained by summing the potential doses through the three routes of exposure. Geometric mean aggregate potential doses decreased from 2003 to 2005 for both OCh and YCh, with the exception of 2,4-D. Child-specific longitudinal modeling indicated significant declines across time of the potential doses of CPF, DZN, and PCP for both children; declines of IMP for both children, significant only for OCh; a decline of TCP for OCh but an increase of TCP for YCh; and no significant change of 2,4-D for either child. Age-adjusted modeling indicated significant effects of the child's age for all except CPF, and of time for all except PCP and 2,4-D. Within-home variability was small compared with that between homes; variability was smallest for 2,4-D, both within and between homes. The aggregate potential doses of CPF and DZN were well below published reference dose values. These findings show the success of the US EPA restrictions in reducing young children's pesticide exposures.
Keywords: Inhalation
Keywords: 2,4-D
Keywords: USA, North Carolina
Keywords: Age
Keywords: Inosine monophosphate
Keywords: Metabolites
Keywords: Herbicide residues
Keywords: Dust
Keywords: Models
Keywords: Soil
Keywords: Body weight
Keywords: 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid
Keywords: X 24330:Agrochemicals
Keywords: Pentachlorophenol
Keywords: Diets
Keywords: Data processing
Keywords: P 0000:AIR POLLUTION
Keywords: Hand
Keywords: Toxicology Abstracts; Pollution Abstracts
Keywords: organophosphates
Keywords: Ingestion
Keywords: Children
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Urine
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Diazinon
Date revised - 2010-10-01
Language of summary - English
Location - USA, North Carolina
Pages - 546-558
ProQuest ID - 877599374
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Inhalation; 2,4-D; Diets; Age; Data processing; Inosine monophosphate; Hand; Metabolites; organophosphates; Children; Dust; Models; Chlorpyrifos; Soil; Body weight; Urine; Pesticides; Diazinon; Pentachlorophenol; 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; Ingestion; Herbicide residues; USA, North Carolina
Last updated - 2012-03-29
British nursing index edition - Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology [J. Exposure Sci. Environ. Epidemiol.]. Vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 546-558. Sep 2010.
Corporate institution author - Wilson, Nancy K; Strauss, Warren J; Iroz-Elardo, Nicole; Chuang, Jane C
DOI - 8d40c3b2-94ca-4289-882cmfgefd107; 13709741; 1559-0631 English

1515. Winkel, L. H.; Pham, T. K.; Vi, M. L.; Stengel, C.; Amini, M.; Nguyen, T. H.; Pham, H. V., and Berg, M. Arsenic Pollution of Groundwater in Vietnam Exacerbated by Deep Aquifer Exploitation for More Than a Century.

Rec #: 50329
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: ABSTRACT: Arsenic contamination of shallow groundwater is among the biggest health threats in the developing world. Targeting uncontaminated deep aquifers is a popular mitigation option although its long-term impact remains unknown. Here we present the alarming results of a large-scale groundwater survey covering the entire Red River Delta and a unique probability model based on three-dimensional Quaternary geology. Our unprecedented dataset reveals that ∼7 million delta inhabitants use groundwater contaminated with toxic elements, including manganese, selenium, and barium. Depth-resolved probabilities and arsenic concentrations indicate drawdown of arsenic-enriched waters from Holocene aquifers to naturally uncontaminated Pleistocene aquifers as a result of > 100 years of groundwater abstraction. Vertical arsenic migration induced by large-scale pumping from deep aquifers has been discussed to occur elsewhere, but has never been shown to occur at the scale seen here. The present situation in the Red River Delta is a warning for other As-affected regions where groundwater is extensively pumped from uncontaminated aquifers underlying high arsenic aquifers or zones.
MESH HEADINGS: Arsenic/*analysis
MESH HEADINGS: Barium/analysis
MESH HEADINGS: Environmental Monitoring/methods
MESH HEADINGS: Logistic Models
MESH HEADINGS: Manganese/analysis
MESH HEADINGS: Risk Assessment
MESH HEADINGS: Rivers/*chemistry
MESH HEADINGS: Selenium/analysis
MESH HEADINGS: Water Movements
MESH HEADINGS: Water Pollutants, Chemical/*analysis
MESH HEADINGS: Water Supply/*analysis eng

1516. Wismer, T. and Means, C. Toxicology of Newer Insecticides in Small Animals. 2012; 42, (2): 335-347.

Rec #: 2340

1517. Wols, Ba; Hofman-Caris, Chm, and Wols, BA. Review of Photochemical Reaction Constants of Organic Micropollutants Required for Uv Advanced Oxidation Processes in Water. 2012 Jun 1; 46, (9): 2815-2827.

Rec #: 46689
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Emerging organic contaminants (pharmaceutical compounds, personal care products, pesticides, hormones, surfactants, fire retardants, fuel additives etc.) are increasingly found in water sources and therefore need to be controlled by water treatment technology. UV advanced oxidation technologies are often used as an effective barrier against organic contaminants. The combined operation of direct photolysis and reaction with hydroxyl radicals ensures good results for a wide range of contaminants. In this review, an overview is provided of the photochemical reaction parameters (quantum yield, molar absorption, OH radical reaction rate constant) of more than 100 organic micropollutants. These parameters allow for a prediction of organic contaminant removal by UV advanced oxidation systems. An example of contaminant degradation is elaborated for a simplified UV/H2O2 system.
Keywords: AQ 00001:Water Resources and Supplies
Keywords: Hydroxyl Radical
Keywords: Water Pollution
Keywords: Consumer products
Keywords: Degradation
Keywords: P 0000:AIR POLLUTION
Keywords: Hormones
Keywords: Environmental Studies
Keywords: Hydroxyl radicals
Keywords: ASFA 3: Aquatic Pollution & Environmental Quality; Environment Abstracts; Pollution Abstracts; Aqualine Abstracts; Water Resources Abstracts
Keywords: photochemical reactions
Keywords: Yield
Keywords: Pollutants
Keywords: Reviews
Keywords: Oxidation
Keywords: SW 3060:Water treatment and distribution
Keywords: Organic Compounds
Keywords: Additives
Keywords: Fuel
Keywords: Technology
Date revised - 2012-05-01
Language of summary - English
Pages - 2815-2827
ProQuest ID - 1015553713
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - photochemical reactions; Degradation; Consumer products; Reviews; Oxidation; Additives; Hormones; Hydroxyl radicals; Technology; Hydroxyl Radical; Water Pollution; Yield; Pollutants; Organic Compounds; Fuel
Last updated - 2012-05-31
Corporate institution author - Wols, BA; Hofman-Caris, CHM
DOI - OB-f3581a1b-ffcb-46c5-b12acsamfg201; 16725011; 0043-1354 English

1518. Wong-Ek, Krongkamol; Horprathum, Mati; Eiamchai, Pitak; Limnonthakul, Puenisara; Patthanasettakul, Viyapol; Chindaudom, Pongpan; Nuntawong, Noppadon, and Wong-Ek, Krongkamol. Portable Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy for Insecticide Detection Using Silver Nanorod Film Fabricated by Magnetron Sputtering. 2011; 7911.

Rec #: 43689
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: In order to increase agricultural productivity, several countries heavily rely on deadly insecticides, known to be toxic to most living organisms and thus significantly affect the food chain. The most obvious impact is to human beings who come into contact, or even consume, pesticide-exposed crops. This work hence focused on an alternative method for insecticide detection at trace concentration under field tests. We proposed a compact Raman spectroscopy system, which consisted of a portable Raman spectroscope, and a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate, developed for the purpose of such application, on a chip. For the selected portable Raman spectroscope, a laser diode of 785 nm for excitation and a thermoelectric-cooled CCD spectrometer for detection were used. The affordable SERS substrates, with a structure of distributed silver nanorods, were however fabricated by a low-energy magnetron sputtering system. Based on an oblique-angle deposition technique, several deposition parameters, which include a deposition angle, an operating pressure and a substrate rotation, were investigated for their immediate effects on the formation of the nanorods. Trace concentration of organophosphorous chemical agents, including methyl parathion, chlorpyrifos, and malathion, adsorbed on the fabricated SERS substrates were analyzed. The obtained results indicated a sensitive detection for the trace organic analyses of the toxic chemical agents from the purposed portable SERS system.
Keywords: ENA 06:Food & Drugs
Keywords: Chlorpyrifos
Keywords: Insecticides
Keywords: Food chains
Keywords: Agricultural production
Keywords: Lasers
Keywords: Environment Abstracts
Keywords: Spectroscopy
Keywords: Silver
Keywords: Crops
Keywords: Malathion
Date revised - 2012-01-01
Language of summary - English
ProQuest ID - 869830316
SubjectsTermNotLitGenreText - Chlorpyrifos; Food chains; Insecticides; Agricultural production; Lasers; Spectroscopy; Silver; Crops; Malathion
Last updated - 2012-03-29
British nursing index edition - Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering [Proc. SPIE Int. Soc. Opt. Eng.]. Vol. 7911, [np]. 2011.
Corporate institution author - Wong-Ek, Krongkamol; Horprathum, Mati; Eiamchai, Pitak; Limnonthakul, Puenisara; Patthanasettakul, Viyapol; Chindaudom, Pongpan; Nuntawong, Noppadon
DOI - 994643b9-18ea-42aa-a9becsaobj201; 14591022; 0277-786X English

1519. Wong, J. W.; Zhang, K.; Tech, K.; Hayward, D. G.; Krynitsky, A. J.; Cassias, I.; Schenck, F. J.; Banerjee, K.; Dasgupta, S., and Brown, D. Multiresidue Pesticide Analysis of Ginseng Powders Using Acetonitrile- or Acetone-Based Extraction, Solid-Phase Extraction Cleanup, and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/Selective Ion Monitoring (GC-MS/SIM) or -Tandem Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). 2010; 58, (10): 5884-5896.

Rec #: 72109
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A multiresidue method for the analysis of 168 pesticides in dried powdered ginseng has been developed using acetonitrile or acetone mixture (acetone/cyclohexane/ethyl acetate, 2:1:1 v/v/v) extraction, solid-phase extraction (SPE) cleanup with octyl-bonded silica (C(8)), graphitized carbon black/primary secondary amine (GCB/PSA) sorbents and toluene, and capillary gas chromatography mass spectrometry/selective ion monitoring (GC-MS/SIM) or -tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The geometric mean limits of quantitation (LOQs) were 53 and 6 mu g/kg for the acetonitrile extraction and 48 and 7 mu g/kg for the acetone-based extraction for GC-MS/SIM and GC-MS/MS, respectively. Mean percent recoveries and standard deviations from the ginseng fortified at 25, 100, and 500 mu g/kg using GC-MS/SIM were 87 +/- 10, 88 +/- 8, and 86 +/- 10% from acetonitrile extracts and 88 +/- 13, 88 +/- 12, and 88 +/- 14% from acetone mixture extracts, respectively. The Mean percent recoveries from the ginseng at the 25, 100, and 500 mu g/kg levels using GC-MS/MS were 83 +/- 19, 90 +/- 13, and 89 +/- 11% from acetonitrile extracts and 98 +/- 20, 91 +/- 13, and 88 +/- 14% from acetone extracts, respectively. Twelve dried ginseng products were found to contain one or more of the following pesticides and their metabolites: BHCs (benzene hexachlorides, alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-), chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, DDT (dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane), dacthal, diazinon, iprodione, quintozene, and procymidone ranging from <1 to >4000 mu g/kg. No significant differences were found between the two extraction solvents, and GC-MS/MS was found to be more specific and sensitive than GC-MS/SIM. The procedures described were shown to be effective in screening, identifying, confirming, and quantitating pesticides in commercial ginseng products.
Keywords: Multiresidue methods, organohalogen pesticides, GC-MS/SIM, GC-MS/MS,
ISI Document Delivery No.: 596YN

1520. Wu, Changlong and Linden, Karl G. Phototransformation of selected organophosphorus pesticides: Roles of hydroxyl and carbonate radicals. 2010 Jun; 44, (12): 3585-3594.

Rec #: 5140
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: The phototransformation of two organophosphorus pesticides, parathion and chlorpyrifos, by hydroxyl radicals and carbonate radicals in aqueous solution were studied. Addition of hydrogen peroxide increased the UV degradation rates of both pesticides and data were simulated through kinetic modeling. The second-order rate constants of parathion and chlorpyrifos with hydroxyl radical were determined to be 9.7-á-_-á0.5-á+ů-á109 and 4.9-á-_-á0.1-á+ů-á109-áMęĆ1-ásęĆ1, respectively. The presence of bi/carbonate ions reduced the pesticide degradation rates via scavenging of hydroxyl radical but the formation of carbonate radical also contributed to the degradation of the pesticides with second-order reaction rate constants of 2.8-á-_-á0.2-á+ů-á106 and 8.8-á-_-á0.4-á+ů-á106-áMęĆ1-ásęĆ1 for parathion and chlorpyrifos, respectively. The dual roles of bicarbonate ion in UV/H2O2 treatment systems, i.e., scavenging of hydroxyl radicals and formation of carbonate radicals, were examined and discussed using a simulative kinetic model. The transformation of pesticides by carbonate radicals at environmentally relevant bi/carbonate concentrations was shown to be a significant contributor to the environmental fate of the pesticides and it reshaped the general phototransformation kinetics of both pesticides in UV/H2O2 systems. Ultraviolet light/ Photochemistry/ Advanced oxidation/ Water treatment

1521. Wu, Changlong and Linden, Karl G. Hsu-Kim Heileen. Phototransformation of Organophosporus Pesticides: Approaches of Uv, Uv/Hydrogen Peroxide Advanced Oxidation and Sensitized Photolysis Processes. 2008: (UMI# 3371396 ).

Rec #: 51909
Keywords: FATE
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: Organophosphorus (OPs) pesticides are a large group of chemicals that have been widely used because of their high acute toxicity and relatively high degradation rates. They have been detected in surface and ground waters and pose potential health threats to the ecosystem. UV and UV/H 2 O 2 (AOPs) are considered to be effective techniques for the degradation of the pesticides. Direct photolysis by two types of Hg UV lamps, low pressure (LP) and medium pressure (MP), and the UV/H2 O2 AOP was utilized to evaluate the kinetics and mechanisms of the degradation of three OP pesticides including chlorpyrifos, parathion and diazinon in various waters. Results demonstrated that direct photolysis was slow and ineffective for the destruction of the pesticides. On the other hand, UV/H 2 O2 AOP treatment was proved more effective due to the reactions between the produced hydroxyl radicals and pesticides. The second-order reaction rate constants between hydroxyl radicals and OP pesticides were determined to be 4.9 ± 0.1 ×109 and 9.70 ± 0.45 ×10 9 M-1 s-1 for chlorpyrifos and parathion, respectively, indicating these pesticides are vulnerable to AOP treatment. Bicarbonate was an important factor in controlling the effectiveness of UV/H2 O2 AOP against the pesticides through the scavenging of hydroxyl radicals and generating carbonate radicals. Phototransformation of the pesticides by UV/H2 O2 AOP yielded several inorganic and organic byproducts identified by using GC/EI-MS (Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry) and IC (ion chromatograph). The mechanisms of degradation included several simultaneous pathways. The degradation of these pesticides through sensitized phototransformation by sunlight was also evaluated. Although major water constituents affect the degradation of the pesticides, the contribution of natural organic matter (NOM) was identified as a primary factor. Finally, removal of toxicity as a function of phototransformation was evaluated using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism. Results demonstrated that the UV/H2 O2 AOP can effectively reduce the overall toxicity of pesticides despite the formation of various byproducts.
Start Page: 215
ISSN/ISBN: 9781109335682
Keywords: 0543:Civil engineering
Keywords: Phototransformation
Keywords: Organophosphorus pesticides
Keywords: Applied sciences
Keywords: Pesticides
Keywords: Sensitized photolysis
Keywords: 0775:Environmental engineering
Applied sciences
Organophosphorus pesticides
Wu, Changlong
Copyright ProQuest, UMI Dissertations Publishing 2008
0775: Environmental engineering
0543: Civil engineering
Sensitized photolysis English

1522. Wu, G.; Bao, X. X.; Zhao, S. H.; Wu, J. J.; Han, A. L., and Ye, Q. F. Analysis of multi-pesticide residues in the foods of animal origin by GC-MS coupled with accelerated solvent extraction and gel permeation chromatography cleanup. 2011; 126, (2): 646-654.

Rec #: 72139
Keywords: FOOD
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: A new analytical method was developed to simultaneously determine residues of 109 pesticides (including isomers) in the foods of animal origin. Acetonitrile was selected for accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) for effectively extracting the pesticides from the fatty samples. The cleanup was performed with an automated gel permeation chromatography (GPC) cleanup system. The prepared samples were analysed with GC-MS in the selected ion monitoring mode (SIM) using one target and two qualitative ions for each analyte. Chlorpyrifos-d(10) was used as an internal standard. The lowest limit of detection was 0.3 mu g kg(-1) for some pesticides. The recoveries and relative standard deviations (RSDs) were checked by spiking untreated samples with pesticides at 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 mg kg(-1). The average recoveries of most pesticides were from 62.6% to 107.8%. The precision values expressed as RSD were all <= 20.5% (n = 6). Good linearity (r >= 0.99) was observed between 0.05 and 1.5 mu g mL(-1). (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Pesticides multi-residues, Food of animal origin, GC-MS, Accelerated
ISI Document Delivery No.: 715BK

1523. Wu, H.; Wang, D. F.; Shi, J.; Xue, S., and Gao, M. L. Effect of the Complex of Zinc(II) and Cerium(IV) with Chitosan on the Preservation Quality and Degradation of Organophosphorus Pesticides in Chinese Jujube (Zizyphus jujuba Mill. cv. Dongzao). 2010; 58, (9): 5757-5762.

Rec #: 72149
Keywords: FOOD
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The effects of a novel complex of zinc(II) and cerium(IV) with chitosan film-forming material on the preservation quality of Chinese jujube fruits (Zizyphus jujuba Mill. cv. Dongzao) and degradation of organophosphorus pesticides in the fruits during the room temperature storage were investigated. The results showed that after 18 days of storage, the weight loss, respiratory intensity, and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity of fruits treated with the complex were 11.72, 31.51, and 7.07% lower than the control. Furthermore, total soluble solids, ascorbic acid, and polyphenol contents were 15.45, 14.55, and 13.93% higher than the control. The degradation rates of chlorpyrifos and parathion were increased to 97.31 and 92.70% for the complex treatment, which were 30.18 and 17.02% higher than the control, respectively. Therefore, the complex can be applied for preserving Chinese jujube fruits to expand their shelf life and decrease residues of organophosphorus pesticides on the fruits.
Keywords: Chinese jujube, chitosan, preservation, oganophosphorus pesticides
ISI Document Delivery No.: 590OW

1524. Wu, J. G.; Lin, L.; Luan, T. G.; Gilbert, Y. S. C., and Lan, C. Effects of organophosphorus pesticides and their ozonation byproducts on gap junctional intercellular communication in rat liver cell line. 2007; 45, (10): 2057-2063.

Rec #: 72169
Keywords: IN VITRO
Notes: Chemical of Concern: CPY
Abstract: Abstract: The effects of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs), oxons and their ozonation byproducts on gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) on

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