Anth 1 Introduction to Physical Anthropology Study Guide #3



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ANTH 1 Introduction to Physical Anthropology 
Study Guide #3

Last Updated: December 11, 2006


Plate Tectonics:

  • Structure of Earth: Core, Mantle, Crust (divided into plates)

Dating methods:



  • Assumptions:

    • Principle of Superposition

    • Principle of Uniformitarianism

Relative methods

  • Biostratigraphy

  • Paleomagnetism

  • Flourine dating

Chronometric (aka Absolute) methods

  • Non-radiometric

    • Dendrochronology (tree ring dating)

    • Varves

  • Radiometric methods

    • Potassium/Argon (40K/40Ar); half-life = 1.3 by

    • Carbon 14 (14C); half-life = 5,730 years

Climate Reconstruction:



        • Oxygen Isotope Analysis

Know the Major Events in Primate Evolution during the Cenozoic:



            • Paleocene (65-55 mya)

            • Eocene (55-35 mya)

            • Oligocene (35-25 mya)

            • Miocene (25-5 mya)

            • Pliocene (5-2 mya)

            • Pleistocene (2 mya - 10,000 ya)

              • Holocene (10,000 – Present)

Hominins:

Mio-Pliocene Hominins


  • Morphology:

  • Age:7- 4.5 mya

  • Distribution: East & Central Africa

Australopiths

  • Primitive Group (A. afarensis)

      • Morphology:

    • Evidence of honing triad

    • Cranial capacity on avg 450 cc

    • Trail of footprints showing they were bipedal

  • Age: ~4 - 3 mya

  • Distribution: E. Africa

      • Gracile group (Australopithecus  africanus)

      • Morphology:

    • Dentally similar to us

    • Cranial capacity on average 450 cc

      • Age: 4 – 2 mya

  • Distribution: South, Central & East Africa

  • Robust group (Paranthropus)

  • Morphology:

    • Dental condition

      • incisors and canines relatively tiny compared to cheek teeth

      • premolars relatively wide compared to molars: continuous condition; megadontia of cheek teeth serves to increase surface area for chewing seeds etc.

    • Large chewing muscles; so large cheek bones (for masseter muscles) and a sagittal crest (for temporalis muscles)

    • Cranial capacity on average ~500 cc

  • Age: 3 - 1 mya

  • Distribution: South & East Africa

Genus Homo



  • Morphology characterized by

    • larger brain size, expanded cranial vault

    • smaller, straighter face

    • less massive mandible

    • rounded dental arcade

    • narrow cheek teeth and reduced third molar

  • Homo habilis

    • Morphology

    • Hand capable of precision grip and making tools.

    • Cranial capacity: on average 600 cc

    • Maximum breadth of skull: low

    • Postcranium like ours

    • Culture

    • Oldowan Industry

    • Chopper-Chopping tools

    • Core tools, with a few flakes taken off

    • Scavengers

    • Age: 2-1.5 mya

    • Distribution: South & East Africa

  • Homo ergaster/erectus

    • Morphology

      • Thick bones

      • Cranial capacity approx 1000 cc

      • Low, long skull with occipital and sagittal keels

      • Maximum breadth of skull: low

      • Strong solid brow ridges

    • Culture

      • Controlled fire

      • Tools: Acheulian Industry

        • Hand-axes typical tool

        • Bifacial core tools

      • Big-game hunting

      • Clothes likely

    • Skin color? probably becoming lighter (UV etc) as moved out of Africa

    • Age: 1.8 mya – 400,000 ya

    • Distribution: S., E. & N. Africa; Asia: (China: Zhoukoudian Cave; Java)

  • Homo heidelbergensis

    • Morphology

      • Cranial capacity approx 1250 cc

      • Maximum breadth of skull: low

      • Intermediate in all senses between Homo erectus, H. neanderthalensis and H. sapiens

    • Tools: Acheulean

    • Time Range: 800,000 – 25,000 ya

    • Distribution: E., S. & N. Africa, Europe & Asia

  • Homo neanderthalensis

    • Morphology

      • Long, low skull

      • Cranial capacity: approx 1575 cc

      • Maximum breadth of skull: intermediate, resulting in barrel shape

      • Occipital bun

      • Hollow (sinus-filled) brow ridges; round orbits

      • Mid-facial prognathism

        • very wide, large nasal aperture

        • sloping cheekbones

        • Retromolar gap

        • incisors worn labially and shovel-shaped

        • Taurodontism in cheek-teeth

      • Stocky, powerful body build (related to cold)

    • Culture

      • Buried dead (graves with pollen)

      • Tools

        • Mousterian Industry

        • flake tools, not cores

        • LeVallois Technique - mass production of tool types

    • Time Range: 135,00 – 35,000 ya

    • Geographical Range: Peri-Mediterranean

  • Homo sapiens

    • Time Range: 200,000 ya - present

    • Geographical Range: World wide

    • Morphology

      • Cranial capacity: approx 1500 cc

      • Vertical forehead

      • Maximum breadth of skull: high

      • Chin

    • Culture

      • Art

      • Tools: blades, complex compound tools (bow & arrow etc.)


  • Models for Origin of Homo sapiens:

    • Multiregional Model

    • Out of Africa Model (Population Replacement Model)

    • Out of Africa Again and Again Model

  • Anatomy of Human Speech.

    • Chimps:

      • have long, thin tongue & short pharynx (supralaryngeal space);

      • can drink and breathe at same time

    • Humans:

      • as adults have short, thick tongue & long pharynx

      • as babies have short, thick tongue, but a short pharynx



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