Acquired immune deficiency syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS or Aids) is a collection of symptoms and infections resulting from the specific damage to the immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in humans, and similar viruses in other species (SIV, FIV, etc.). The late stage of the condition leaves individuals susceptible to opportunistic infections and tumors.
Anemia or anæmia/anaemia from the Greek meaning "without blood"- a deficiency of red blood cells and/or hemoglobin. This results in a reduced ability of blood to transfer oxygen to the tissues, causing tissue hypoxia.
Angina pectoris- chest pain due to ischemia (a lack of blood and hence oxygen supply) of the heart muscle.
Аorta- the largest artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and bringing oxygenated blood to all parts of the body in the systemic circulation.
Arterial blood- blood rich in oxygen
Arterial pressure- the pressure made of the blood over the walls of the arteries.
Arteries- muscular blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart. All arteries, with the exception of the pulmonary and umbilical arteries, carry oxygenated blood.
Artificially acquired immunity- immunity made by a vaccine.
Blood plasma- the liquid part of the blood.
Capillaries- the smallest blood vessels.
Cardiovascular system- filled with blood. Contains the heart and the blood vessels.
Endocarditis is an inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, the endocardium. The most common structures involved are the heart valves.
Hemoglobin, also spelled haemoglobin and abbreviated Hb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of the blood in vertebrates and other animals. In mammals the protein makes up about 97% of the red cell’s dry content, and around 35% of the total content (including water).
Hypertonia is a condition marked by an abnormal increase in the tightness of muscle tone and a reduced ability of a muscle to stretch (i.e. an increased stiffness). It is generally accompanied by (increased) spasticity of the particular muscles.
Infections- diseases caused by microorganismes(like plague, cholera etc.)
Lymphatic system is a complex network of lymphoid organs, lymph nodes, lymph ducts, lymphatic tissues, lymph capillaries and lymph vessels that produce and transport lymph fluid from tissues to the circulatory system. The lymphatic system is a major part of the immune system.
The lymphatic system has three interrelated functions: (1) removal of excess fluids from body tissues, (2) absorption of fatty acids and subsequent transport of fat, as chyle, to the circulatory system and, (3) production of immune cells such as lymphocytes (e.g. antibody producing plasma cells) and monocytes.
Мyocarditis is inflammation of the myocardium, the muscular part of the heart. It is generally due to infection (viral or bacterial). It may present with chest pain, rapid signs of heart failure, or sudden death.
Pulse-the throbbing of their arteries as an effect of the heart beat.
Red blood cells are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate body's principal means of delivering oxygen from the lungs or gills to body tissues via the blood.
Spleen- an organ located in the abdomen of the human body, where it functions in the destruction of old red blood cells and holding a small reservoir of blood. It is regarded as one of the centers of activity of the reticuloendothelial system (part of the immune system). Until recently, the purpose of the spleen was not known. It is increasingly recognized that its absence leads to a predisposition to certain infections.
Тhrombus, or blood clot, is the final product of the blood coagulation step in hemostasis. It is achieved via the aggregation of platelets that form a platelet plug, and the activation of the humoral coagulation system (i.e. clotting factors). A thrombus is physiologic in cases of injury, but pathologic in case of thrombosis.
Тonsils- areas of lymphoid tissue on either side of the throat. An infection of the tonsils is called tonsillitis. Most commonly, the term "tonsils" refers to the palatine tonsils that can be seen in the back of the throat.
Vaccine - an immunity booster to a certain disease. Vaccines can be prophylactic (e.g. to prevent or ameliorate the effects of a future infection by any natural or "wild" pathogen), or therapeutic (e.g. vaccines against cancer are also being investigated).
Vein - blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart. The majority of veins in the body carry low-oxygen blood from the tissues back to the heart; the exceptions being the pulmonary and umbilical veins which both carry oxygenated blood