A. Basic Sciences

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A. Basic Sciences

1. Physics, Monitoring, and Anesthesia Delivery Devices

a. Monitoring Methods

1) Vascular Pressures: Arterial (Invasive/Noninvasive Differences), Central Venous (CVP), Pulmonary Arterial (PAP), Pulmonary Artery Occlusion (PAOP), Left Atrial (LAP), Left Ventricular End-Diastolic (LVEDP)

2) Heart Function: Heart Tones, Electrocardiogram (ECG), Echocardiography, Doppler, Cardiac Output

3) Brain and Spinal Cord Function: Electroencephalogram (EEG) (Raw and Processed), Depth of Anesthesia Monitors (Bispectral, Other), Evoked Potentials, Wake-Up Test, Intracranial Pressure (ICP), Jugular Venous Oxygen Saturation, Near Infrared Spectroscopy (Cerebral Oximetry), Transcranial Doppler

4) Mixed Venous Oxygen Saturation (SvO2)

b. Instrumentation

1) Cardiac Output: Fick, Dye Dilution, Thermodilution, Doppler, Impedance, Pulse Wave Analysis, Stoke Volume Assessment

2) Echocardiography: Technical Aspects, Complications

3) Coagulation Monitors

4) Ultrasound-Guided Placement of Invasive Catheters (Arterial, Central Venous) and Nerve Blocks

c. Ventilators

1) Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) and Positive End-Expiratory Pressure (PEEP); Nasal CPAP

2) Nebulizers, Humidifiers, Drug Delivery Systems (Nitric Oxide, Others)

d. Pacemakers

1) Temporary Transvenous; Permanent (Epicardial, Endocardial), Transcutaneous

2) Types: Fixed Rate, Biventricular Synchronized, Ventricular, Atrial, Atrio-Ventricular (A-V) Sequential

3) Standard Nomenclature

4) Reasons for Failure or Malfunction

e. Electrical; Fire and Explosion Hazards

1) Basic Electronics

2) Lasers, Laser Safety, Laser-Safe Endotracheal Tubes

f. Drug Delivery Devices: Patient-Controlled Intravenous and Epidural Analgesia, Epidural and Subarachnoid Continuous Drug Delivery Devices

2. Pharmacology

a. General Concepts

1) Pharmacogenetics

a) Malignant Hyperthermia (Including Diagnosis and Therapy)

b) Butyrylcholinesterase (Pseudocholinesterase) Deficiency

c) Prolonged Qt Syndrome

d) Genetic Factors in Drug Dose-Response Relationships

2) Addiction

a) Physiology and Pharmacology

b) Patient Addiction: Anesthetic Implications

B. Clinical Sciences: Anesthesia Procedures, Methods, and Techniques

1. Regional Anesthesia

a. Peripheral and Autonomic Nerve Blocks: Indications, Contraindications, Techniques, Clinical Assessment, Complications, Use of Nerve Stimulators, Use of Ultrasound

1) Head and Neck

2) Upper Extremity/Brachial Plexus

3) Trunk and Perineum

4) Lower Extremity

b. IV Regional: Mechanism, Agents, Indications, Contraindications, Techniques, Complications

2. Special Techniques

a. Controlled Hypotension; Choice of Drugs, Use of Posture, Ventilation

b. Controlled Hypothermia; Techniques, Systemic Effects, Shivering, Rewarming, Complications

c. Hyperbaric Oxygen and Anesthesia Care

d. High Altitude Anesthesia

C. Organ-Based Advanced Clinical Sciences

1. Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems

a. Physiology

1) Metabolism: Substrates, Aerobic and Anaerobic

2) Intracranial Pressure

a) Brain Volume, Elastance and Compliance

b) Increased ICP, Herniation

3) Electroencephalography (EEG)

a) Wave Patterns, Frequency and Amplitude, Raw and Processed, Spectral Edge

b) Sleep, Convulsions; O2 and CO2; Hypothermia; Brain Death

c) Depth of Anesthesia; Burst Suppression, Electrical Silence, Specific Anesthetic and Drug Effects

4) Evoked Responses

a) Morphology, Effects of Ischemia and Anesthetics

b) Sensory: Somatosensory, Visual, Brainstem Auditory

c) Motor

b. Anatomy

1) Regional Anesthesia; Main Nerve Blocks (Includes Techniques and Comparisons of Techniques)

a) Autonomic: Stellate, Celiac, Lumbar Sympathetic

b) Head and Neck: Retrobulbar/Peribulbar, Facial, Trigeminal Nerve and Branches, Cervical Plexus, Glossopharyngeal, Superior Laryngeal, Transtracheal, Occipital

c) Extremities: Brachial Plexus (Interscalene, Supraclavicular, Infraclavicular, Axillary), Ulnar, Radial, Median, Musculocutaneous, Sciatic, Femoral, Lateral Femoral Cutaneous, Obturator, Lumbar Plexus (PSOAS Block), Popliteal Fossa, Ankle Block

d) Trunk: Intercostal, Paravertebral Somatic, Ilio-Inguinal, Genito-Femoral

e) Spine: Epidural (Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Caudal, Transforaminal), Spinal (Subarachnoid), Combined Spinal-Epidural, Facet

c. Pharmacology

1) CNS Drugs for Non-Anesthetic Use (Major Actions, Comparison of Drugs; Effect on Respiration; Circulation, Adverse Effects)

a) Pre- and Postanesthetic Medications

(1) Opioids

(2) Opioid Antagonists, Agonist-Antagonists

b) Alpha-2 Agonists: Clonidine, Dexmedetomidine

c) Tranquilizers: Butyrophenones; Benzodiazepines

d) Anticonvulsants: Phenytoin, Carbamazepine, Gabapentin, Barbiturates, Others

e) Antidepressants, Anti-Parkinson Drugs

f) Arousal Agents: Physostigmine, Benzodiazepine Antagonists

g) Antiemetics and Aspiration Prophylaxis: Phenothiazines; Butyrophenones; Metoclopramide; Anticholinergics; Serotonin Antagonists, Antihistamines (H1 Blockers, H2 Blockers, Mixed Blockers), Antacids, Proton Pump Inhibitors

h) Substance Abuse and Addiction; Dependence

(1) Chronic Opioid Dependence and Therapy

(2) Pharmacologically-Assisted Opioid withdrawal

2) Autonomic Drugs

a) Sympathetic

(1) Transmitters and Types of Receptors

(2) Target Organ Effects; Metabolic Effects

(3) Agonists: Peripheral and Central Actions, Direct and Indirect Actions, Alpha vs. Beta vs. Mixed Agonists, Alpha and Beta-Receptor Subtype-Selective Agonists

(4) Antagonists: Alpha and Beta Blockers, Selective Blockers, Ganglionic Blockers

(5) Tocolytic Applications

b) Parasympathetic

(1) Transmitters

(2) Muscarinic Effects

(3) Nicotinic Effects

(4) Agonists: Cholinergic and Anticholinesterases

(5) Antagonists

d. Clinical Science

1) Central Nervous System

a) Seizures

b) Coma: Traumatic, Infectious, Toxic-Metabolic, Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA), Cerebral Hypoxia

(1) Glasgow Coma Scale, Management of Traumatic Brain Injury

(2) Therapeutic Barbiturate Coma

c) Drug Intoxication (CNS Drugs, Carbon Monoxide, Insecticides, Nerve Gases)

d) Paraplegia, Quadriplegia, Spinal Shock, Autonomic Hyperreflexia

e) Tetanus

f) Special Problems of Anesthesia for Neurosurgery

(1) Increased Intracranial Pressure: Tumors, Hematomas, Hydrocephalus

(2) Positioning: Prone, Sitting, Other, Head Stabilization in Tongs

(3) Air Embolism

(4) Cerebral Protection from Hypoxia, Ischemia, Glucose Effects

(5) Aneurysms and A-V Malformations, Cerebral Vasospasm

(6) Interventional Neuroradiology; Coils and Embolization

(7) Pituitary Adenomas, Trans-Sphenoidal Hypophysectomy

(8) Anesthetic and Ventilatory Effects on Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism

(9) Fluid Management: Hypertonic Vs Isotonic Saline vs. Balanced Salt Solutions

(10) Spinal Fluid Drainage

(11) Stereotactic and Gamma-Knife Techniques, Deep Brain Stimulator Placement, Intra-Operative Wake-Up Techniques

(12) Ventriculostomy

2. Respiratory System

a. Physiology: Lung Functions and Cellular Processes

1) Ventilation - Perfusion

a) Measurement of Ventilation/Perfusion (V/Q) Ratio, Implications of Alveolar-Arterial O2 Gradient (A-aDO2), Arterial-Alveolar CO2 Gradient (A-aDCO2), Dead Space to Tidal Volume Ratio (Vd/Vt), Shunt Fraction (Qs/Qt), Lung Scan

b. Anatomy

1) Lungs

a) Divisions and Bronchoscopic Anatomy

b) Bronchial and Pulmonary Circulations

c) Microscopic Anatomy

c. Biochemistry

1) Normal Acid-Base Regulation: Buffer Systems; Compensatory Mechanisms;

2) Effects of Imbalance on Electrolytes and Organ Perfusion;

3) Strong Ionic Difference (SID);

4) ABG Interpretation;

a) Anion Gap;

b) Temperature Effect on Blood Gases: Alpha-Stat vs. pH-Stat

d. Clinical Science

1) Respiratory System

a) Obstructive Disease

(1) Upper Airway: Congenital, Infectious, Neoplastic, Traumatic, Foreign Body, Obstructive Sleep Apnea

(2) Tracheobronchial: Congenital, Infectious, Neoplastic, Traumatic, Foreign Body

(3) Parenchymal: Asthma, Bronchitis, Emphysema, COPD, Lung Abscess, Bronchiectasis, Cystic Fibrosis, Mediastinal Masses

b) Restrictive Disease

(1) Neurologic: CNS Depression, Spinal Cord Dysfunction, Peripheral Nervous System

(2) Musculoskeletal: Muscular, Skeletal, Obesity, Chest Trauma

(3) Parenchymal: Atelectasis, Pneumonia, Interstitial Pneumonitis, Pulmonary Fibrosis, Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

(4) Pleural and Mediastinal: Pneumo-, Hemo-, and Chylothorax, Pleural Effusion, Empyema, Bronchopleural Fistula

(5) Other: Pain, Abdominal Distention

c) Management of the Patient with Respiratory Disease

(1) Evaluation: History and Physical Examination, Chest X-Ray, Arterial Blood Gases (ABGs), Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs); Assessment of Perioperative Risk

(2) Anesthetic Management

(a) Preoperative Preparation: Respiratory Therapy, Drug Therapy (Antibiotics, Bronchodilators, Mucolytics, Steroids), Tobacco Smoking Cessation (Techniques to Assist Patients, Benefits)

(b) Intraoperative Management

(1) Monitoring

(2) Choice of Anesthesia

(3) Anesthetic Techniques: Nonpulmonary Surgery, Thoracic and Pulmonary Surgery, One-Lung Ventilation, Thoracoscopic Techniques, Lung Transplantation

(c) Postoperative Care: Pain Management, Respiratory Therapy, Ventilator Support, Extubation Criteria

(3) Management of Respiratory Failure

(a) Nonventilatory Respiratory Management: O2 Therapy and Toxicity, Tracheobronchial Toilet, Positive Airway Pressure, Respiratory Drugs

(b) Ventilatory Management

(1) Criteria for Ventilatory Commitment and Weaning

(2) Mode of Ventilation: Conventional Mechanical Ventilation, Peep, CPAP, IMV, SIMV, Pressure Support, Pressure Control, High Frequency Ventilation (Positive Pressure, Jet, Oscillation), Prone Ventilation, BIPAP, Airway Pressure-Release Ventilation

(3) Complications and Side Effects of Mechanical Ventilation: Volutrauma, Barotrauma, Biotrauma

(4) Management of Bronchospasm: Bronchodilator Drugs, Anti-Inflammatory Drugs, Acute and Chronic Management, Perioperative Management

(c) Other Management Adjuncts: Nitric Oxide, Steroids

(d) Lung Transplantation: Anesthetic Implications

3. Cardiovascular System

a. Normal Anatomy of Heart and Major Vessels

1) Echocardiographic Heart Anatomy: Chambers, Valves, Great Vessels, Pericardium, Basic Transesophageal Echocardiography (TEE) Views

2) Radiographic: Roentgenograms, CT, MRI

3) Other

b. Clinical Sciences

1) Ischemic Heart Disease

a) Risk Factors; Predictors of Perioperative Risk, Modification of Perioperative Risk (e.g., Prophylactic Beta-Blockers)

b) Manifestations

c) Diagnosis of Myocardial Infarction and Acute Coronary Syndrome; Clinical, ECG, Enzymes, Echocardiography, Nuclear Techniques,

d) Classification of types of MI (STEMI vs. demand)

e) Pharmacological Treatment of Angina, Thoracic Epidural for Angina, Interventional Cardiologic Techniques

f) Determinants of Myocardial Oxygen Requirements and Delivery, Silent Ischemia, Postoperative Ischemia

g) Perioperative Diagnosis and Treatment of Ischemia; ECG, TEE

h) Coronary Artery Bypass Procedures; Cardiopulmonary Bypass; of F-Pump Techniques

2) Valvular Heart Disease

a) Classification

b) Diagnosis (Including Echocardiography), Natural History, Surgical Management

c) Anesthetic Considerations

d) Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis Prophylaxis

3) Rhythm Disorders and Conduction Defects

a) Chronic Abnormalities: Etiology, Diagnosis, Therapy

(1) Automated Implantable Cardioverter/Defibrillator (AICD) Implantation

(2) Pacemakers: Permanent, Temporary, Transvenous, Transcutaneous; Ventricular Synchronization

(3) Ablations, Cryotherapy, Maze Procedure

b) Perioperative Dysrhythmia: Etiology, Diagnosis, Therapy

c) Perioperative Implications of Pacemaker and AICD

4) Heart Failure and Cardiomyopathy (Ischemic, Viral, Hypertrophic)

a) Definition and Functional Classification, Perioperative Diagnosis and Treatment

b) Compensatory Responses

c) Right or Left Ventricular Dysfunction

(1) Etiology

(2) Signs and Symptoms

(3) Diagnostic Tests

(4) Systolic vs. Diastolic Dysfunction

d) Treatment

(1) Pulmonary Edema

(2) Pulmonary Hypertension

(3) Cardiogenic Shock

e) Cardiac Transplantation

5) Cardiac Tamponade and Constrictive Pericarditis

a) Etiology

b) Diagnosis; TEE, PA Catheter

c) Anesthetic Management

6) Circulatory Assist

a) Cardiopulmonary Bypass

(1) Components (Pump, Oxygenator, Heat Exchanger, Filters)

(2) Cardiopulmonary Bypass Techniques

(3) Mechanisms of Gas Exchange

(4) Priming Solutions, Hemodilution

(5) Anticoagulation and Antagonism; Activated Clotting Time (ACT) and Other Clotting Times, Heparin Assays, Antithrombin III, Protamine Reactions, Heparin and Protamine Alternatives

(6) Prophylaxis with Aminocaproic Acid, Tranexamic Acid

(7) Anesthetic Considerations During Bypass

(8) Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO)

(9) Cooling and Warming, Deep Hypothermic Circulatory Arrest

(10) Monitoring, Blood Pressure Management

(11) Minimally Invasive Bypass Techniques

(12) Myocardial Preservation: Physiology, Techniques, Complications

(13) Preconditioning

b) Minimal Invasive Cardiac Surgery

(1) Off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB)

(2) Minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass (MIDCAB)

(3) Percutaneous valve repair/replacement

c) Intraaortic Balloon: Rationale, Indications, Limitations

d) Ventricular Assist Devices and Artificial Heart: Internal and External

7) Pulmonary Embolism

a) Etiology: Blood, Air, Fat, Amniotic Fluid

b) Diagnosis, TEE Findings

c) Treatment; Acute, Preventive

8) Hypertension

a) Etiology, Pathophysiology, Course of Disease

b) Drug Treatment, Interactions with Anesthetics, Risk of Anesthesia

c) Intra or Postoperative Hypertension; Differential Diagnosis and Treatment

9) Shock States: Anesthetic Management of Patient in Shock

10) Vascular Diseases

a) Cerebral Circulation; Luxury Perfusion, Steals, Infarcts, Intracranial Hemorrhage

b) Carotid Endarterectomy: Anesthetic Management, Monitoring of Cerebral Perfusion, Complications

c) Abdominal Aneurysm Resection: Anesthetic Management

d) Peripheral Arteriosclerotic Disease

e) Aneurysms of Ascending, Descending and Arch of Aorta, Thoracoabdominal Aneurysms, Including Endovascular Repair Techniques

11) Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

a) Recognition

b) Management - Drugs, Defibrillators, Monitors, Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) Algorithms

c) Complications and Outcomes of Therapy

d) Pediatric/Adult Differences

4. Gastrointestinal / Hepatic Systems

a. Biochemistry: Nutrition

1) Parenteral: Peripheral Or Central Vein, Hyperalimentation, Solutions Used and Complications, Anesthetic Implications

2) Enteral: GI Elemental Diets, Routes of Delivery, Complications, Anesthetic Implications

b. Clinical Science

1) Morbid Obesity/Anesthesia for Bariatric Surgery

a) Pre-Anesthetic Evaluation and Management

b) Pharmacologic Considerations

c) Anesthetic Management (Airway, Ventilation, Monitoring, Venous Access)

d) Postoperative Management (Ventilation, Analgesia)

2) Hepatic Disease

a) Preoperative Laboratory Assessment

b) Anesthesia Choice (Hepatocellular Disease, Ascites, Portal Hypertension)

c) Postoperative Hepatic Dysfunction, Hepatic Failure, Hepatorenal Syndrome

d) Hepatic Transplantation

3) Intestinal Obstruction

a) Causes; Paralytic Ileus; Mechanical; Vascular

b) Physiological Changes; Fluid and Electrolyte; Respiratory

c) Anesthesia Management: Full Stomach; Fluid Therapy; Nitrous Oxide

5. Renal and Urinary Systems/ Electrolyte Balance: Clinical Science

a. Renal Disease

1) Pathophysiology of Renal Disease; Risk Factors for Acute Renal Failure

2) Anesthetic Choice in Reduced Renal Function

3) Anesthetic Management in Renal Failure, Arteriovenous (A-V) Shunts

4) Anesthetic Management in Renal Transplantation

5) Perioperative Oliguria and Anuria

6) Dialysis and Hemofiltration: Hemodialysis, Peritoneal Dialysis, Continuous Hemofiltration (Arteriovenous, Venovenous)

7) Pharmacologic Prevention and Treatment of Renal Failure

b. Urologic Surgery - Lithotripsy, Transurethral Resection of Prostate (TURP)/Irrigating Fluids/Hyponatremia

c. Perioperative Electrolyte Abnormalities

6. Hematologic System

a. Clinical Science

1) Hematologic Disorders

a) Diseases of Blood

(1) Anemias; Compensatory Mechanisms

(2) Polycythemias; Primary vs. Secondary

(3) Clotting Disorders

(a) Thrombocytopenia and Thrombocytopathy

(b) Congenital and Acquired Factor Deficiencies

(c) Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

(d) Fibrinolysis

(e) Pharmacologic: Anticoagulants and Antagonists

(4) Hemoglobinopathies, Porphyrias

7. Endocrine and Metabolic Systems: Clinical Science

a. Pituitary Disease

1) Hypopituitarism, Pituitary Removal - Substitution Therapy

a) Panhypopituitarism

b) Diabetes Insipidus

2) Hyperpituitarism

a) Acromegaly, Including Airway Management

b) Inappropriate ADH Secretion

b. Thyroid Disease

1) Hyperthyroidism

a) Metabolic and Circulatory Effects

b) Anesthetic Management

c) Thyroid Storm

2) Hypothyroidism

a) Metabolic and Circulatory Effects, Myxedema Coma

b) Substitution Therapy

c) Anesthetic Implications

3) Complications of Surgery: Hypocalcemia, Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Injury, Diagnosis and Treatment

c. Parathyroid Disease

1) Hyperparathyroidism; Physiological Effects

2) Hypoparathyroidism; Postoperative Manifestations and Treatment

d. Adrenal Disease

1) Cushing's Syndrome

2) Primary Aldosteronism

3) Addison's Disease

4) Pheochromocytoma

a) Circulatory and Metabolic Manifestations

b) Diagnosis

c) Anesthetic Management

e. Carcinoid Syndrome

f. Diabetes Mellitus

1) Pathophysiology

2) Control of Blood Glucose - Hypoglycemia; Hyperglycemia and Ketoacidosis

3) Elective Anesthesia - Perioperative Management

4) Emergency Anesthesia

5) Hyperosmolar Coma

6) Pancreas Transplantation

8. Neuromuscular Diseases and Disorders: Clinical Science

a. Demyelinating Diseases

1) Multiple Sclerosis

2) Motor Neuron Diseases: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Spinobulbar Muscular Atrophy, Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia

3) Guillain-Barre Syndrome

4) Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease

b. Primary Muscle Diseases

1) Muscular Dystrophies: Duchenne’s, Becker’s, Limb-Girdle, Congenital, Myotonic

2) Mitochondrial Myopathies

c. Channelopathies

d. Myasthenic Syndromes

1) Myasthenia Gravis

2) Lambert-Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome

3) Congenital Myasthenic Syndromes

e. Ion Channel Myotonias

1) Acquired Neuromyotonia

2) Myotonia Congenita

3) Hyperkalemic Periodic Paralysis, Paramyotonia Congenita, Postassium-Aggravated Myotonia

4) Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis

D. Clinical Subspecialties

1. Painful Disease States

a. Pathophysiology

1) Acute Pain

2) Cancer-Related Pain

3) Chronic Pain States

a) Acute and Chronic Neck and Low Back Pain

b) Neuropathic Pain States

(1) Complex Regional Pain Syndrome, Types I and II

(2) Postherpetic Neuralgia

(3) Phantom Limb, Post-Stroke

(4) Peripheral Neuropathies (e.g., Diabetic Neuropathy)

c) Somatic Pain Conditions: Myofascial Pain, Facet Arthropathy, etc.

b. Treatment

1) Acute Postoperative and Posttraumatic Pain

a) Postoperative Epidural Analgesia

b) Neuraxial Opioids

c) Peripheral Nerve Blockade and Catheters

d) Patient-Controlled Analgesia

e) Other Modalities, Multimodal Analgesia (Nonsteroidal Analgesics, Electrical Stimulation, Acupuncture, Ketamine, etc.)

2) Cancer-Related Pain

a) Systemic Medications, Tolerance and Addiction

b) Continuous Spinal and Epidural Analgesia

c) Neurolytic and Non-Neurolytic Blocks

d) World Health Organization Analgesic Ladder

3) Chronic Pain (Non-Cancer-Related)

a) Systemic Medications: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs), Opioid Analgesics, Anticonvulsants, Antidepressants

b) Spinal and Epidural Analgesia

c) Peripheral Nerve Blocks

d) Sympathetic Nerve Blocks

e) Other Techniques: TENS, Spinal Cord Stimulation, Neuroablation (Surgical and Chemical Neurolysis)

2. Pediatric Anesthesia

a. Apparatus: Breathing Circuits (Advantages/Disadvantages, Dead Space, Etc.), Humidity, Thermal Control

1) Endotracheal Tube Selection (Cuffed vs. Uncuffed) and Sizing

2) Warming Devices: Types, Efficacy, Complications

b. Premedication: Drugs; Dosage; Routes; Vehicles, Including Topical Anesthetics; Parental Presence

c. Agents and Techniques

1) Induction Techniques

2) Anesthetics: Actions Different From Adults

a) Drug Toxicities Preferentially Occurring in Children: e.g., Propofol

b) Opioid Dosing and Sensitivity

c) Neuromuscular Blockers (Sensitivity, Congenital Diseases, Complications of Succinylcholine, Age-Related and Drug-Related Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetics)

d) Regional Anesthesia

d. Fluid Therapy and Blood Replacement, Physiologic Anemia, Glucose Requirements

e. Problems in Intubation and Extubation (Full Stomach, Diaphragmatic Hernia, Tracheo Esophageal (T-E) Fistula, Pierre-Robin, Treacher-Collins, Crouzon’s, Goldenhar’s, Hurler’s, Awake/Fiberoptic Intubation, Dentition, Laryngospasm, Stridor)

f. Neonatal Physiology

1) Respiratory

a) Development, Anatomy, Surfactant

b) Pulmonary Oxygen Toxicity

c) Pulmonary Function

d) Lung Volumes vs. Adult

e) Airway Differences, Infant vs. Adult

2) Cardiovascular

a) Transition, Fetal to Adult

b) Persistent Fetal Circulation

3) Retinopathy of Prematurity: Anesthetic Implications

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