 No Brain Too Small  biology 

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 No Brain Too Small  BIOLOGY 

The name for the hole in the base of the skull, through which the spinal cord passes

The gap in the between the upper canine and premolar found in great apes

The first human to use fire and spread out from Africa

The earliest known stone tools

Foramen magnum


Homo erectus


The angle between the shaft of femur and the vertical when femur is in normal standing orientation

The bipedal apes and their ancestors

The tool consisting of a core with a flattened stone with two faces made by Homo erectus

The first Hominin to use tools, also known as Handyman

Valgus angle



Homo habilis

The word to describe the great apes, humans and their ancestors

The brain centre responsible for interpreting speech

The type of evolution where things are taught/ learned and not passed on in the DNA

The group of hominin that were initially called archaic Homo sapiens and was the first with firm evidence for systematic hunting


Wernicke’s area

Cultural evolution

Homo heidelbergensis

The part of the brain that articulates with the first vertebra

The type of evolution that is passed on through our DNA

The name for the fine stone tools which include flakes, scrapers and spears with attached handles

The group of Hominin that first buried the dead and cared for the old

Occipital condyle

Biological evolution


Homo neanderthalensis

The area of the brain that is most enlarged in apes, most of all in humans

The first animal to be domesticated

The shape of the pelvis in bipedal organisms

The crest along the top of the skull



Bowl shaped


The scientific name for “Lucy” the first to probable walk upright

The name for the culture that included the Oldowan and Acheulian together. Also called ‘Old Stone Age’

The name for the Neanderthal tool culture

The later phase of the Old Stone Age

Australopithecus afarensis

Lower Palaeolithic


Upper Palaeolithic

A tool made of more than one kind of material

The view that modern humans evolved independently in Africa, Europe and Asia

The first species to make and use needles

The theory that modern humans evolved in Africa and then migrated to Europe and Asia, displacing other earlier species



Homo sapiens

Out of Africa’

Heavy bone over the eye which reduces the stresses in the skull and lower jaw involved with chewing

This means ‘having a snout/muzzle’

Gap through which large jaw muscles pass

Another name for the Out of Africa hypothesis

Brow Ridge


Zygomatic arch

Replacement hypothesis or Eve hypothesis

What do ice ages do to the seas water levels?

What is mtDNA?

Why can Y chromosomes be used to show patterns of evolution?

How can mtDNA and Y chromosome DNA be altered?

Lowers water level creating land bridges between islands

Mitochondrial DNA, which is only passed on to daughters

Because it is passed on only to sons and isn’t affected by recombination

Through mutations

How did Australopithecus obtain food?

What does cooking food do to it?

What where the advantages of fire?

How did tools help Hominin survive?

Scavenging what they found

Softens it, kill microbes

Cooks food, hardens tools, lengthens day, kept warm, keeps predators away

Allowed more diverse animals to be killed and processed

How did the position of the foramen magnum change when Hominin became bipedal?

What is the name for the differences observed between male and female skeletons?

Over time how did the brain size of the Hominin change?

Over time how did the prognathic muzzle change?

Moved from the lower back of skull towards the centre

Sexual dimorphism

Brain size increased

It reduced

Over time how did the brow ridge change?

How did the feet change when we became bipedal?

Why is the Out of Africa hypothesis also called replacement hypothesis?

What is the difference in the shape of the spine in modern apes and human?

It became reduced

Forward facing big toe, arched, big toe attached

When they moved out of Africa, they out competed any Hominin they came into contact with, making them extinct

c-shaped apes

s-shaped humans

What are the advantages of being bipedal?

How has cultural evolution changed over time?

What do Lower Palaeolithic – Oldowan tools look like?

What do Lower Palaeolithic – Acheulian tools look like?

Taller so can see predators / food, hands free to carry food/ young / tools, more efficient cooling

Tools better, use of shelter, abstract thought, imagination, domestication of animals / plants

Pebbles with flakes knocked off one edge

Tear drop shaped pebbles

What are the Middle Palaeolithic tools?

What are the Upper Palaeolithic tools?

How did the tools change over time?

What does the evidence of Cave drawings, burial of dead, planned hunting groups indicate?

Mousterian and scrapers axe heads

Needles, fish hocks made from bone and wood

They became more refined and more worked

The ability for abstract thought

Living in trees is called….

What shape/ dental arcade is the jaw in apes?

What shape/ dental arcade is the jaw in humans?

All primates can grip objects with a ______ grip. Only humans also have a ______ grip.


U” or rectangle


Power grip

Precision grip

What are the advantages of a shorter pelvis?

What is the name of the process where one change reinforces another?

Using the Replacement Hypothesis when do they think our ancestors left Africa?

Using the Multiregional Hypothesis when did our ancestors leave Africa?

It is stronger & able to tilt and rotate during walking

Positive feedback

About 200,000 years ago

About 1 million years ago

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