Zoonoses of ferrets



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ZOONOSES OF FERRETS
Use of animals from approved vendors and proper use of personal protective equipment makes the risk of transmission of these diseases unlikely.


PATHOGEN

TRANSMISSION

ANIMAL DISEASE

HUMAN DISEASE


Dermatophytosis

Ringworm”



  • papular dermatitis, circular alopecia

  • keratinization, crusting, inflammation

Sarcoptes scabiei

  • direct contact, fomites

  • usually infests face, ears, forelimbs, torso

  • vesicle or papule formation, keratinization

  • alopecia with intense pruritus

Campylobacter spp.

  • mild diarrhea

  • asymptomatic carriers

  • diarrhea, acute gastroenteritis, nausea, vomiting, cramps, fever

Leptospirosis

  • typically asymptomatic, see icterus or hepatitis if signs appear

  • headache, myalgia, conjunctivitis, hepatomegaly, renal insufficiency, jaundice (L. icterohemorrhagiae)

  • gastrointestinal dyscrasias, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting

Salmonellosis

  • fecal-oral

  • severe gastroenteritis

Giardiasis

  • fecal-oral

  • contaminated water

  • Usually asymptomatic, diarrhea

  • Diarrhea, usually mild, immunocompromised individuals at increased risk

Cryptosporidium spp.

  • direct contact, fecal-oral

  • subclinical infection

Mycobacterium spp.

  • direct contact, fecal-oral

  • chronic weight loss, diarrhea, vomiting

  • granulomatous inflammation

  • progressive paralysis

  • circumscribed cutaneous granulomatous disease at infection site

  • immunocompromised individuals may develop disseminated respiratory disease, lymphadenitis, arthritis, osteomyelitis

Influenza (Orthomyxovirus)

  • inhalation, direct contact

  • human-to-ferret transmission

Rabies

  • saliva, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), aerosols created from brain, spinal cord or CSF

  • rare in domestic ferrets, signs of incoordination, altered mentation, neurologic disease, hypersalivation, paralysis


References

Acha, PN and B Szyfres. 1989. Zoonoses and Communicable Diseases Common to Man and Animals. Pan American Health Organization, Washington, D.C.


Hillyer, EV and KE Quesenberry. 2011. Ferrets, Rabbits, and Rodents: Clinical Medicine and Surgery. WB Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA.
Fox, JG. 1988. Biology and Diseases of the Ferret. Lea & Febiger Publishing, Philadelphia, PA.
Global Health Disease Fact Sheets, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd. Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, http://www.cdc.gov/

01/06/14


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