Writing and Language Test



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Writing and Language Test


44 Questions
Turn to Section 2 of your answer sheet to answer the questions in this section.
Directions

Each passage in this section is accompanied by a number of questions. For some questions, you will consider how the passage might be revised to improve the expression of ideas. For other questions, you will consider how the passage might be edited to correct errors in sentence structure, usage, or punctuation. A passage or a question may be accompanied by one or more graphics (such as a table or graph) that you will consider as you make revising and editing decisions.


Some questions will direct you to an underlined portion of a passage. Other questions will direct you to a location in a passage or ask you to think about the passage as a whole.
A pair of brackets containing an uppercase Q and a number — for example, [Q1] — indicates that a question refers to that location in the passage or the following underlined portion of the passage. The number in brackets is the number of the question that is related to the indicated part of the passage. The bracketed element is hyperlinked to the associated question, and the question heading is hyperlinked to the related location or portion of the passage. There are two ways to follow a link. One is to move the flashing text cursor, or caret, into the hyperlinked text and press the Enter key; the other is to place the mouse cursor, or pointer, over the hyperlinked text and press Ctrl+leftclick (that is, press and release the left button on the mouse while holding down the Ctrl key on the keyboard).
After reading each passage, choose the answer to each question that most effectively improves the quality of writing in the passage or that makes the passage conform to the conventions of standard written English. Many questions include a “NO CHANGE” option. Choose that option if you think the best choice is to leave the relevant portion of the passage as it is.
In questions that ask you to consider potential revisions, the list of answer choices is followed by a presentation of each revision in context. The set of revisions is surrounded by “Begin skippable content” and “End skippable content” labels formatted as level6 headings. If a question includes a “NO CHANGE” option, the beginning of the skippable content will present the relevant context of the passage in its original form with the original underlined text. After that, the same context will be repeated with the underlined portion replaced by each revision to be considered.
Punctuation is essential to some questions in this test, so we suggest that you either activate the punctuationreading function of your application software or utilize the characterbycharacter capabilities of your application software.


Questions 1 through 11 are based on the following passage.



Ghost Mural
In 1932 the wellknown Mexican muralist David Alfaro Siqueiros was commissioned to paint a mural on the secondstory exterior wall of a historic building in downtown Los Angeles. Siqueiros was asked to celebrate tropical America in his work, [Q1] he accordingly titled it “América Tropical.” He painted the mural’s first two sections, featuring images of a tropical rainforest and a Maya pyramid, during the day. [Q2] Also, to avoid scrutiny, Siqueiros painted the final section of the mural, the [Q3] centerpiece at night.
[Q4] The reason for Siqueiros’s secrecy became clear when the mural was [Q5] confided. The centerpiece of the work was dominated by images of native people being oppressed and [Q6] including an eagle symbolizing the United States. Siqueiros’s political message did not please the wealthy citizens who had commissioned his work. They eventually ordered the mural to be literally whitewashed, or painted over with white paint.
However, by the 1970s, the white paint had begun to fade, and the bright colors of the mural were beginning to show through. At the same time, a social and civil rights movement for Mexican Americans was working to raise awareness of Mexican American cultural identity. Artists associated with [Q7] this began to rediscover and promote the work of the Mexican muralists, particularly Siqueiros. To them, “América Tropical” was an example of how art in public spaces could be used to celebrate Mexican American heritage while at the same time making a political statement. Inspired by Siqueiros and the other muralists, this new generation of artists strove to emulate the old mural masters.
[Q8] The result was an explosion of mural painting that spread throughout California and the southwestern United States in the 1970s. It was the Chicano mural movement. Hundreds of large, colorful new murals depicting elements of Mexican American life and history appeared during this period, some in designated cultural locations but many more in abandoned lots, on unused buildings, or [Q9] painted on infrastructure such as highways and bridges. Many of these murals can still be seen today, although some have not been well maintained.
Fortunately, a new group of artists has discovered the murals, and efforts are underway to clean, restore, and repaint them. Once again, Siqueiros’s “América Tropical” is [Q10] leading the way. After a lengthy and complex restoration process, this powerful work is now a tourist attraction, complete with a visitor center and a rooftop viewing platform. [Q11] Advocates hope that Siqueiros’s mural will once more serve as an inspiration, this time inspiring viewers to save and restore an important cultural and artistic legacy.
Question 1.

A. NO CHANGE (he accordingly titled it)

B. which he accordingly titled

C. accordingly he titled it

D. it was titled accordingly


Answer choices in context.
Begin skippable content.

A. Siqueiros was asked to celebrate tropical America in his work, he accordingly titled it “América Tropical.”

B. Siqueiros was asked to celebrate tropical America in his work, which he accordingly titled “América Tropical.”

C. Siqueiros was asked to celebrate tropical America in his work, accordingly he titled it “América Tropical.”

D. Siqueiros was asked to celebrate tropical America in his work, it was titled accordingly “América Tropical.”


End skippable content.
Explanation for question 1.
Question 2.

A. NO CHANGE (Also,)

B. However,

C. Although,

D. Moreover,


Answer choices in context.
Begin skippable content.

A. Also, to avoid scrutiny, Siqueiros painted the final section of the mural, the centerpiece at night.

B. However, to avoid scrutiny, Siqueiros painted the final section of the mural, the centerpiece at night.

C. Although, to avoid scrutiny, Siqueiros painted the final section of the mural, the centerpiece at night.

D. Moreover, to avoid scrutiny, Siqueiros painted the final section of the mural, the centerpiece at night.


End skippable content.
Explanation for question 2.
Question 3.

A. NO CHANGE (centerpiece)

B. centerpiece,

C. centerpiece;

D. centerpiece—


Answer choices in context.
Begin skippable content.

A. Also, to avoid scrutiny, Siqueiros painted the final section of the mural, the centerpiece at night.

B. Also, to avoid scrutiny, Siqueiros painted the final section of the mural, the centerpiece, at night.

C. Also, to avoid scrutiny, Siqueiros painted the final section of the mural, the centerpiece; at night.

D. Also, to avoid scrutiny, Siqueiros painted the final section of the mural, the centerpiece— at night.


End skippable content.
Explanation for question 3.
Question 4.

Which choice best connects the sentence with the

previous paragraph?

A. NO CHANGE (The reason for Siqueiros’s secrecy became clear)

B. All three sections of the mural were on display

C. The community turned out in large numbers

D. Siqueiros was informed of people’s reactions


Answer choices in context.
Begin skippable content.

A. The reason for Siqueiros’s secrecy became clear when the mural was confided.

B. All three sections of the mural were on display when the mural was confided.

C. The community turned out in large numbers when the mural was confided.

D. Siqueiros was informed of people’s reactions when the mural was confided.


End skippable content.
Explanation for question 4.
Question 5.

A. NO CHANGE (confided.)

B. promulgated.

C. imparted.

D. unveiled.


Answer choices in context.
Begin skippable content.

A. The reason for Siqueiros’s secrecy became clear when the mural was confided.

B. The reason for Siqueiros’s secrecy became clear when the mural was promulgated.

C. The reason for Siqueiros’s secrecy became clear when the mural was imparted.

D. The reason for Siqueiros’s secrecy became clear when the mural was unveiled.


End skippable content.
Explanation for question 5.
Question 6.

A. NO CHANGE (including)

B. included

C. includes

D. had included


Answer choices in context.
Begin skippable content.

A. The centerpiece of the work was dominated by images of native people being oppressed and including an eagle symbolizing the United States.

B. The centerpiece of the work was dominated by images of native people being oppressed and included an eagle symbolizing the United States.

C. The centerpiece of the work was dominated by images of native people being oppressed and includes an eagle symbolizing the United States.

D. The centerpiece of the work was dominated by images of native people being oppressed and had included an eagle symbolizing the United States.


End skippable content.
Explanation for question 6.
Question 7.

A. NO CHANGE (this)

B. it


C. them

D. this movement


Answer choices in context.
Begin skippable content.

A. Artists associated with this began to rediscover and promote the work of the Mexican muralists, particularly Siqueiros.

B. Artists associated with it began to rediscover and promote the work of the Mexican muralists, particularly Siqueiros.

C. Artists associated with them began to rediscover and promote the work of the Mexican muralists, particularly Siqueiros.

D. Artists associated with this movement began to rediscover and promote the work of the Mexican muralists, particularly Siqueiros.


End skippable content.
Explanation for question 7.
Question 8.

Which choice most effectively combines the underlined sentences?

A. The result was an explosion, the Chicano mural movement, of mural painting that spread throughout California and the southwestern United States in the 1970s.

B. The result was the Chicano mural movement, an explosion of mural painting that spread throughout California and the southwestern United States in the 1970s.

C. The explosion of mural painting that spread throughout California and the southwestern United States in the 1970s was the resulting Chicano mural movement.

D. An explosion of mural painting resulted and it spread throughout California and the southwestern United States in the 1970s; it was the Chicano mural movement.

Explanation for question 8.
Question 9.

A. NO CHANGE (painted on)

B. they were painted on

C. on

D. DELETE the underlined portion.


Answer choices in context.
Begin skippable content.

A. Hundreds of large, colorful new murals depicting elements of Mexican American life and history appeared during this period, some in designated cultural locations but many more in abandoned lots, on unused buildings, or painted on infrastructure such as highways and bridges.

B. Hundreds of large, colorful new murals depicting elements of Mexican American life and history appeared during this period, some in designated cultural locations but many more in abandoned lots, on unused buildings, or they were painted on infrastructure such as highways and bridges.

C. Hundreds of large, colorful new murals depicting elements of Mexican American life and history appeared during this period, some in designated cultural locations but many more in abandoned lots, on unused buildings, or on infrastructure such as highways and bridges.
D. Hundreds of large, colorful new murals depicting elements of Mexican American life and history appeared during this period, some in designated cultural locations but many more in abandoned lots, on unused buildings, or infrastructure such as highways and bridges.

End skippable content.
Explanation for question 9.



Question 10.

Which choice most effectively sets up the information that follows?

A. NO CHANGE (leading the way.)

B. being cleaned and restored.

C. at risk of destruction.

D. awaiting its moment of appreciation.
Answer choices in context.

Begin skippable content.

A. Once again, Siqueiros’s “América Tropical” is leading the way.

B. Once again, Siqueiros’s “América Tropical” is being cleaned and restored.

C. Once again, Siqueiros’s “América Tropical” is at risk of destruction.

D. Once again, Siqueiros’s “América Tropical” is awaiting its moment of appreciation.


End skippable content.
Explanation for question 10.
Question 11.

At this point, the writer is considering adding the following sentence.

When it was painted in 1932, Siqueiros’s mural was considered offensive, but now it is acclaimed.

Should the writer make this addition here?

A. Yes, because it provides historical context for the changes discussed in the passage.

B. Yes, because it provides a useful reminder of how people once viewed Siqueiros’s work.

C. No, because it unnecessarily repeats information from earlier in the passage.



D. No, because it makes a claim about Siqueiros’s work that is not supported by the passage.
Explanation for question 11.


Answers and explanations for questions 1 through 11 are provided in the next section of this document. You may skip directly to the beginning of the next passage if you do not want to review answers and explanations now.


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