Worksheet for researching disciplines Name of your degree

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Running head: ORTHODONTICS 1


Manal Shehada

Madonna University

ESL 5230, Graduate Assignment (D1)

April 8, 2015


Worksheet for researching disciplines

1. Name of your degree:

Master’s in Orthodontics

2. Degree Subject Matter:



Dental materials

Craniofacial growth and development

Head and neck anatomy

3. Definition of degree Plus Parenthetical Citation(s):

Noyes in 1911 was the first one who defined orthodontics as "The study of the relation of the teeth to the development of the face and the correction of arrested and perverted development"(as cited in Phulari, 2011, p.3). This definition was expanded later in 1922 by the British Society of Orthodontists to include studying the growth and development of jaws, face, and the body, and studying the effects of internal and external factors on the craniofacial growth. Years later, both the American Board of Orthodontics and American Association of Orthodontists gave more abroad definition as they declared "orthodontics is that specific area of dental practice that has its responsibility, the study and supervision of the growth and development of the dentition and its related anatomical structures from birth to dental maturity, including all preventive and corrective procedures of dental irregularities, requiring the repositioning of teeth by functional or mechanical means to establish normal occlusion and pleasing facial contours" (as cited in Phulari, 2011, p.3).

4. Sub-Fields within your degree field Plus Parenthetical Citation(s):

Dentistry has the following subfields dental public health, endodontics, oral and maxillofacial pathology, oral and maxillofacial radiology, oral and maxillofacial surgery, clinical fellowship in oral & maxillofacial surgery, orthodontics & dentofacial orthopedics, pediatric dentistry, periodontics , prosthodontics (ADA Survey Center, 2011).

5. Research Methods in your field of study Plus Parenthetical Citation(s):

  • Clinical research (Wiedel & Bondemark, 2015; Ileri & Basciftci, 2015).

  • Mechanical research (Chaudhry, Sidhu, Chaudhary, Grover, Chaudhry, & Kaushik, 2015).

  • Systemic review research (Aljabaa, McDonald, & Newton, 2015).

6. Key Concepts Plus Parenthetical Citations:

1- Andrews 6 keys of normal occlusion (Davies, Gray, Sandler, & O'Brien, 2001).

2-Normal occlusion concept according to Angle and his classification of malocclusion (Hassan, & Rahimah, 2007).

3- Anchorage concept: is the resistance of unwanted tooth movement as a result of the third Newton`s third law (Huang, Shotwell, and Wang, 2005).

6. Leading Theories Plus Parenthetical Citations:

1- Growth theories (Carlson, 2005).

2- Tooth movement theories (Patel, Jyothikiran, Raghunath, & Shivalinga, 2012).

7. Key Books/Important Texts:

Key Book/Important Texts #1: Orthodontics: Current Principles and Techniques, 5th Edition by Graber, Vanarsdall, and Vig (2012).

Why Key Book/Seminal Text #1 is Important: This is a leading reference, it has the basic information in orthodontics in addition to the new orthodontics tends and techniques. It was written by experts in the field in a simple way. This book is essential for every orthodontist and researcher in the field.

Key Book/Seminal Texts #2: Contemporary Orthodontics by Proffit, Fields, and Sarver (2007).

Why Key Book/Seminal Text #2 is Important: Since the first edition of this book in 1986, it has become an important for students and researchers. This book contains important information from old basic information such as growth and development in addition to new information in orthodontics such as current treatment procedure. It also contains an illustration of clinical cases with pictures which makes it easy to the reader to understand.

Key Book/Seminal Text #3: Essentials of Facial Growth by Enlow and Hans (2008).

Why Key Book/Seminal Text #3 is Important: It is a compact reference for student and clinicians as it gives them the essential and basic knowledge about facial growth. It explains in details the growth process for each part of the face. This book enables orthodontists to understand the growth process and how to get benefit from it to treat their patient.

8. Key Thinkers and Practitioners:

  • Key Thinker #1: NormanW.Kingsley. he introduced many innovations like occipital traction, anterior segmental retraction, using the inclined plane to jump the bite, and he was honored for using a gold obturator and an artificial vellum of soft rubber for treating cleft palate.

  • Key Thinker #2: Edward E. Angle, he is considered the father of the orthodontics and he put the first classification for malocclusion which is still using until now.

  • Key Thinker #3: Charles H. Tweed: he is the inventor of the Edgewise technique in treating with fixed orthodontic appliances, and introduced the extracting teeth as part of orthodontic treatment.

  • Key Practitioner #1: Terry McDonald: one of the first orthodontist who promoted extracting second premolars to treat tooth size arch length discrepancy.

  • Key Practitioner #2: Richard McLaughlin: he is known of his success in orthognathic surgery cases.

  • Key Practitioner #3: Joseph T. Hung: one of the most experienced practitioner in Invisalign technique.

9. Professional Academic Journals:

Academic Journal #1: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics.

Academic Journal #2: The Angle Orthodontist.
10. Professional Academic Associations:

Professional Academic Association #1: American Association of Orthodontists.

Professional Academic Association #2: American Dental Association.


ADA Survey Center. (2011). 2009-10 Survey of dental education academic programs, enrollment, and graduates. American Dental Association, 1, 1-104. Retrieved from

Aljabaa, A., McDonald, F., and Newton, J.T. (2015). A systematic review of randomized controlled trials of interventions to improve adherence among orthodontic patients aged 12 to 18. The Angle Orthodontist, 85, (2), 305-313. doi:

Carlson, D.S. (2005). Theories of craniofacial growth in the postgenomic era. Seminars in Orthodontics, 11, (4), 172-18.

Chaudhry, A., Sidhu, M. S., Chaudhary, G., Grover, S., Chaudhry, and N., Kaushik, A. (2015). Evaluation of stress changes in the mandible with a fixed functional appliance: A finite element study. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 147, (2), 226-234. doi:

Davies, S. J., Gray, R. M. J., Sandler, P. J., O'Brien, K. D. (2001). Occlusion: Orthodontics and occlusion. British Dental Journal 191, 539 – 549. doi:10.1038/sj.bdj.4801229

Enlow DH, Hans MG. ( 2008). Essentials of facial growth. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.

Graber, L., Vanarsdall, R., and Vig, K. (2012). Orthodontics: Current Principles and Techniques. Philadelphia: Mosby Elsevier.

Hassan, R., Rahimah, AK. (2007). Occlusion, malocclusion and method of measurements - an overview. Archives of Orofacial Sciences, 2, 3-9.

Huang, L-H., Shotwell, J.L., and Wang, H-L. (2005). Dental implants for orthodontic anchorage. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop,127, 713-22.

Ileri , Z., and Basciftci, F. A. (2015). Asymmetric rapid maxillary expansion in true unilateral crossbite malocclusion: A prospective controlled clinical study. The Angle Orthodontist, 85, (2), 245-252. doi:

Patel, V.,D., Jyothikiran, H., Raghunath, N., and Shivalinga, B. (2012). Enroute through bone: Biology of tooth movement. World Journal of Dentistry, 3(1), 55-59.

Phulari, B. S. (2011). Orthodontics; principles and practice. New Delhi: Jaypee Bros.

Proffit, W., Fields, H., and Sarver, D. (2007). Contemporary orthodontics. St. Louis, Mo: Mosby Elsevier.

Wiedel, A-P., and Bondemark, L. (2015). Stability of anterior crossbite correction: A randomized controlled trial with a 2-year follow-up. The Angle Orthodontist, 85, (2), 189-195. doi:

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