A Discussion of “spontaneous Generation”
The Ladder of Creation
There are nine basic steps in the Ladder of Creation: (1) the Atom, the basic building block of the physical universe; (2) the Molecule, the basic particle of any chemical compound, made up of two or more atoms; (3) the Protein Molecule, derived from either plant or animal life, and a prerequisite for life on earth; (4) Viruses, the smallest, simplest and “most primitive” of all living things; (5) Bacteria, single-celled, microscopic plants usually without chlorophyll (6) Single-celled Algae, plants having chlorophyll — one of the lowest forms of self-sustaining plant life; (7) Protozoa, most of which are single-celled, microscopic animals; (8) Metazoa, animals higher than protozoa, made up of more than one cell. (Also, the higher plants). The higher animals and man have many, many billions of cells in their complex bodies. (9) The complex body, mind and soul of man — created in the image of God. Each of these nine steps bears witness to the fact of Divine creation.
The Witness of VIRUSES to the fact of Divine Creation
Viruses (L., poison), are the smallest and simplest and “most primitive” of all living things. Viruses are essentially a protein molecule, containing protein and nucleic acid. They are ultra-microscopic in size — so small they can be seen only with an electron microscope. Viruses are halfway between the molecules of the chemist and the organisms of the biologist. Viruses are parasites on both plants and animals. Their three most common shapes are those of a rod, a sphere and a tadpole. The most minute viruses are unbelievably small, each one weighing only 1/1,000,000,000,000,-000 of a gram. Viruses, as is well known, are responsible for such diseases as smallpox, yellow fever, mumps, polio, and many other human diseases, as well as scores of mosaic diseases of plants. *
* In 1901 Walter Reed and his co-workers discovered for the first time that yellow fever in man was caused by a virus. Since that time “more than 300 different diseases of animals, man, plants, and even bacteria have been found to be caused by viruses” (Smithsonian Report, 1955; pp 357-368).
“Creation of Life in a Test Tube?”
A few years ago a flurry of excitement was caused by newspaper stories about “the creation of life in a test tube,” at the University of California Virus Laboratory. Actually, all the laboratory had done, or claimed to have done, was to split the tobacco mosaic virus into its two components — protein and nucleic acid — and then they re-combined these particles into what looked like and acted like the original virus! If that is “creating life” then the act of cutting a skirt in two and sewing it together again makes one a first class magician! Beware of misleading newspaper accounts. No man has created or can create life. Let us now take a look at the seven ways in which the submicroscopic virus witnesses for God.
1. Many Viruses are a Deadly Poison. * What a strange start for evolution to take, in its FIRST attempt at creating life, to begin with a deadly poison! IF in its first step evolution developed a rank poison, what would the second-step be? and the following?
* Some viruses are not poisons. See article on “FRIENDLY VIRUSES” in the 8-’60, Scientific American.
The Bible explanation of the presence of DISEASE and DEATH in this world is far more reliable — and it fits all the facts. God pronounced judgment on the ground when Adam sinned; because of man’s Fall, sickness and death came into human experience. (See Genesis 3:17, 18; Romans 6:23; 8:20, 21). The virus, placed in the world by the Almighty, is part of His restraining “curse” and part of the universal penalty of death on all mankind (Romans 5:12).
2. All Viruses are Parasites or Symbionts; they are utterly dependent on a “Host Cell.” “No virus has yet been grown in the absence of living cells” (Smithsonian Institute Report, 1956). This simply means that the “host cell,” a higher form of life than the virus, had to be created first. This is such a damaging fact to the evolutionary theory that evolutionists have had to invent a theory of “evolution in reverse” to account for the little virus. Marianna R. Bovarnick, writing in the “Scientific American,” suggests that
“Viruses (are either) aberrant derivatives from cells or they are ‘degenerate end-products of an evolution from some higher form.’ “
Remember, a parasite is always a lower form of life than its host; and a parasite can not live aside from its host. Obviously, the “host cell” had to be in existence before its parasite, the virus.
3. The Virus has a unique method of Reproduction. Most protozoa and all body cells reproduce by a simple method of division called mitosis. Gunther S. Stent, writing on “The Multiplication of Bacterial Viruses” (Scientific American) says, of the method of reproduction of Viruses:
“The process of heredity — how like begets like — is one of the most fascinating mysteries in biology . . . None is more exciting than (that of) bacterial viruses. Here is an organism that reproduces its own kind in a simple and dramatic way. A virus attaches itself to a bacterium and quickly slips inside. Twenty-four minutes later the bacterium pops open like a burst balloon, and out come about 200 new viruses, EACH AN EXACT COPY OF THE ORIGINAL INVADER. What is the trick by which the virus manages to make all these living replicas of itself from the hodge-podge of materials at hand? What happens in the host cell in those critical 24 minutes?” (Caps ours).
No magician ever pulled rabbits out of a hat with a greater sense of magic and surprise than the miraculous transformation of one virus into 200, in a matter of twenty-four minutes!
This is not only a miracle of reproduction that science is at a loss to understand or explain, but also it is a reproduction “After its kind,” following the biblical law laid down by the Creator in Genesis 1. All through history the simple viruses have been reproducing in this miraculous way “after their kind,” with no change to a higher form. According to evolutionists viruses have been reproducing for a billion years or more — and there is NO EVOLUTION IN SIGHT YET! If the tiny little virus is ever going to evolve it better get going soon — don’t you think?
4. Viruses can not create themselves. Scientists have been trying desperately to get a virus to emerge out of a man-concocted brew of amino acids, proteins, nucleic acids, and what have you. But many are convinced the attempt is hopeless. Dr. Fred Kohler, a leading advocate of evolution, says in his book, “Evolution and Human Destiny,”
“A virus can not create amino acids; viruses can not synthesize their structure (make themselves) from a mixture of amino acids.” Then the doctor again reminds us that “Amino acids, unless synthesized by plants, are now only available in nature through the breakdown of living material.” (p. 22)
If they can not make themselves, and evolution can not make them, who DID make them? The answer is simple: “In the beginning GOD CREATED.”
5. A virus is one of the most Mysterious of all forms of life. Viruses can be put into crystalline form resembling salt. This crystal appears to be dead; it is dead; it can be kept almost indefinitely without apparent change. But put it into a living tissue — and something happens. The viruses start to eat, grow and multiply, in their host cells! “Even after repeated crystallization, a treatment no other living substance has ever been able to survive, viruses resume their activities and multiply when returned to favorable conditions (host cells).” (Animals Without Backbones).
“If we can but discover the secrets carried within the virus structures, we will have gone a long way . . . It may appear amazing that Nature selected the borderline between the living and the non-living worlds to house secrets of such great importance, yet sober reflection will reveal the wisdom of this course of action.” (Smithsonian Institute Report, 1955).
“While inside a host (cell), the virus is intensely alive. . . .but between invasions, say while it lies on a kitchen table top, the virus can be thought of as essentially no different from an inert grain of sugar. this double existence affords a great scientific challenge.” (The Physics of Viruses, Ernest C. Pollard, Dec., 1954, Scientific American).
6, Viruses show a most Amazing Design, a truly wonderful Architecture. A virus is designed so that (1) It can attach itself to the surface of a bacterial cell; (2) This contact with a living cell immediately “uncorks” an enzyme in its tail, which probably has the function of opening a hole in the “skin” of the bacterium; (3) the virus pours its own DNA (desoxyribonucleic acid) into its host; (4) this DNA then induces the synthesis of a new protein in the host cell; (5) finally, units of the protein combine with the DNA to form 200 or so exact copies of the parent virus! So involved is the protein in a virus that one authority says,
“The protein of the virus can be broken down into subunits, each of which is a single peptide chain containing about 150 amino acids.” (Re-building a Virus, Heinz Fraenkel-Conrat, June 1956, Scientific American).
This whole amazing machine, so small it has to be magnified 100,000 times before man can see it and study it, HAS ABOUT 150 AMINO ACIDS ) the material from which proteins are made) IN IT; and it has the ability to pierce the tough walls of a cell, enter the cell, take possession, and transform the contents of that cell in a few moments time INTO 200 OR SO REPLICAS OF ITS OWN IMAGE! That such a miracle could “just happen” is beyond belief. The very intricacies of the “most primitive” (Fred Kohler) form of life REVEALS THAT IT IS THE HANDIWORK OF AN ALL-WISE, ALL-POWERFUL CREATOR.
7. Viruses are capable of Mutating, but not of “Transmutating.” Because polio viruses stay polio viruses, and because yellow fever viruses stay yellow fever viruses, etc., doctors can successfully wage war against them — and our own scientists can develop vaccines that successfully fight the polio virus!
But viruses do “mutate” under certain conditions. A host cell may contain “a mild or latent virus, with the possibility of a very virulent virus strain forming” (Chemical Studies on Viruses, Stanley). Viruses do mutate (change) some, and adapt themselves to new environments; BUT, it is impossible to get a virus of one disease producing culture (like polio) to transmutate into an entirely different type of virus that will produce another disease. And so the minute viruses act as do all other forms of life: they may and do “mutate” within certain limits — but they NEVER transmute into an entirely different type of virus.
Let us consider next
The Witness of BACTERIA to the fact of Divine Creation
Bacteria, one step in the scale of creation above viruses, are as a rule microscopic, single-celled plants, without chlorophyll. Most plants, other than bacteria, that do not have chlorophyll are called “fungi.” *
* Most plants (there are exceptions) have chlorophyll, the substance that enables them, through photosynthesis, to manufacture their own food from air and sunshine. Bacteria as a rule live largely by katabolism (destruction) instead of by anabolism (construction). Most bacteria must live on organic matter.
Without going into unnecessary repetition about the wonders of bacteria that parallel those of viruses, we would call attention to four facts of supreme importance:
(1) Most Bacteria, like viruses, must depend on a higher form of life. Each bacterium consists of a single cell (without a definite nucleus) much smaller then any other plant or animal. Many bacteria, related to fungi, live on dead matter, or as parasites in the bodies of plants and animals. This means that the higher forms of life had to be created first. This fact is damaging to the theory of evolution.
(2) Bacteria, like viruses, have distinctly different shapes and forms, though they are microscopic in size. Round bacteria are called cocci; these in chains are termed “streptococci” — source of the familiar “strep sore throat.” Bacteria shaped like tiny rods are called bacilli. Still others are shaped like a comma (,) and are called spirilla. This variety suggests design for an intended purpose.
(3) Bacteria, like viruses, have a predetermined, planned economy laid out for them. In general, they were created to be scavengers — “to break down the bodies of the dead” — so that the vital organic elements in bodies of dead animals and plants might be returned to the soil to be used by future generations. Bacteria, generally, are “saprophytes,” that is they live on the dead. God, in His supreme wisdom, planned an economy in nature that works; and He gave bacteria a definite place in His over-all plan. Were it not for bacteria, and certain other organisms, the bodies of dead animals and plants would not decompose and return to the soil to make food for future generations — they would accumulate. Bacteria, are constantly at work decomposing dead leaves, carcasses, manure etc.
“The microbes of putrefaction (bacteria) resolve dead bodies and plants into sulphates, phosphates, nitrates, etc.,” that return to the soil, “and so the cycle of life is complete.” (The Great Cycles of Life).
That such a wonderful system in nature, with each form of life having its necessary function, all working together in a state of perfect balance, should happen by “chance” is unthinkable.
(4) Bacteria, like viruses, exhibit a most amazing stability, popularly called “Fixity of Species.” Bacteria, since their advent in the dawn of time, are still with us as bacteria!
The next step in the Ladder of Creation is the single-celled “algae,” microscopic cells found in almost all waters of the world. These primitive plants lack roots, stems and leaves — but they do possess the magic chlorophyll, which enables them to get their food directly from inorganic matter through photosynthesis. We pass on to discuss some of the Protozoa in the animal kingdom, as Witnesses for God, though algae, too, are marvelous witnesses for Him.
The Witness of Protozoa * to the Fact of Divine Creation
*PROTOZOA is the name of the first of the “phyla” into which the animal kingdom is divided. The Phylum Protozoa (meaning “first animals”) is made up of microscopic (generally) single-celled animals. The more than 15,000 species of protozoa occur everywhere in fresh and salt waters, in damp soils and dry sand, and even as parasites inside or on the bodies of other animals.
Of the 15,000 and more species of protozoa that have been classified and described by scientists, we select one, the AMEBA, as the best known, as a WITNESS FOR GOD.
The common ameba is found in fresh water ponds, and ranges in size from an invisible microscopic animal to one that reaches a diameter of about half a millimeter, visible to the naked eye as a tiny white speck. Each ameba is a little mass of gelatinous protoplasm, containing many granules and droplets. The protoplasm is covered with a delicate cell membrane. In many ways this strange little creature bears witness to its Creator.
(1) The Ameba is gifted with many Strange Abilities for a Microscopic Animal. It can crawl; it can breathe (though it has no lungs or gills); it can distinguish inert particles from the minute plants and animals on which it feeds; it can thrust out its jelly-like body at any point to lay hold of its food; it can digest and absorb its food; though it has no feet, it crawls by projecting “pseudopods.” Such a strange little creature could not “just happen.” One cannot fail to see in these abilities the Hand of the Creator.
(2) The Ameba moves around by means of “Ameboid movement,” projecting a “pseudopod” (false foot) from any part of its body. Because of this it changes shape when it moves or engulfs food, hence its name — “ameba” (derived from a Greek word meaning “change”). The “legs” of an ameba are temporary, and soon flow back into its body, when it stops moving or completes the ingestion of food particles. This is totally different from the muscular movements of higher animals. Who designed it?
Moreover, if the ameba is about to “swallow” an active organism, the pseudopods are thrown out widely and do not touch or irritate the prey before it has been surrounded; but when the ameba is about to ingest a quiescent object, such as a single algal cell, the pseudopods surround the cell very closely. Apparently the ameba can “think” even though it has no brain.
The ameba gets around by means of the strange “ameboid movement”; but another protozoan, the paramecium, has its body covered with about 2500 short “hairs” (called cilia) which beat in the water somewhat like the motion of one’s arms in swimming with the crawl stroke, so providing locomotion. Now the question arises: why do these two protozoa, living in a similar environment, have two such utterly different means of locomotion, IF they developed from the same source (possibly the flagellates?) through the processes of evolution? One is faced by an enigma of vast proportions, and an unanswerable problem. However, he who believes in Divine creation has the answer: the same God designed both the ameba and the paramecium, giving each a body “as it pleased Him.” Evolution has no adequate answer to this problem: the problem raised by the great diversification of life in the same phylum, and in a similar environment.
Through past ages the lowly ameba has been absolutely static, showing no signs whatever of evolutionary change. If the so-called :law of evolution” has not succeeded in changing the simple ameba into a higher form, in the last billion years or so, where and when and how will it start? This is the more remarkable when one considers that there are countless numbers of amebas in the waters of the earth. And protozoa tend to multiply rapidly. *
* One paramecium could multiply to many billions in one month! Through countless billions of generations, involving countless trillions of individual amebas there has been NO EVOLUTION WHATEVER IN THE AMEBA; amebas we still have with us as amebas, the same as they were when God first created them. There is gradation of all life, from lower to higher; but there is no evidence whatever that the higher forms “evolved” from the lower forms.
Without hesitation we assert that EACH OF THE MORE THAN 15,000 SPECIES OF PROTOZOA GIVES A DISTINCT WITNESS TO THE FACT OF DIVINE CREATION. Each one has some peculiarity that is distinctive, that could NOT have evolved from anything and can not be accounted for except on the ground of special creation. Remember: “Natural selection cannot originate characters.” (Prof. Coultre). We produce as our next witness the universal somatic CELL.
The Witness of CELLS to the Fact of Divine Creation
All life — plant and animals — has as its primary building blocks the body CELL. Cells are microscopic in size, ** and this enhances their wonders. The basic material in cells is called “protoplasm,” described as “the most mysterious substance in the universe.” Cells are of two main types: germ cells (sex cells) and body cells (somatic cells). Cells multiply by division; when a body grows, the cells do not get larger, but they multiply in numbers.
** Fifty typical cells from the human body, laid end to end, would not be as wide as the period at the end of this sentence.
A cell is made of (1) outer membrane; (2) a nucleus, in which are the chromosomes and “genes”; (3) cytoplasm, the gelatinous mass of the cell. In the cytoplasm are tiny substances, “organelles,” having peculiar and very definite functions; they are known as centrosomes (containing two centrioles), mitochondria, the lysosome, Golgi bodies, etc., (See “Scientific American” on “CELLS,” 9-’61)
(1) The Intricate Structure of the Cell is a Witness to its Divine Creator. From the chemist’s viewpoint a living cell is made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus, chlorine, potassium, sodium, clacium, magnesium, iron, and small amounts of fluorine, iodine and traces of a few other minerals. But from the viewpoint of the biologist the cell is ALIVE, * with a working mechanism that is most marvelous. This working mechanism consists of (1) The nucleus, generally round or egg-shaped. It contains one or more dark bodies known as nucleoli and a number of extremely fine threads called chromosomes; these in turn consist of a large number of “genes,” resembling beads on a string. We will have more to say later about the “chromosomes” and “genes.”
* All living matter shows four distinct phenomena: (1) Irritability — the ability to respond to stimuli; (2) Metabolism — the ability to effect chemical changes in food and absorb it into its body, and to excrete the waste products; (3) Growth; (4) Reproduction.
The living cytoplasm that surrounds the nucleus is essentially a gelatinous substance in which are dissolved proteins, fats and salts. Imbedded in the cytoplasm are several functional elements that are the working parts of the cell:
(A) Each cell has several hundred mitochondria, that are constantly moving about with a sort of writhing motion. These mitochondria “play a central role in the oxidation of the cell’s foodstuffs”. . . .hence ‘they supply the cell with most of its usable energy” (Powerhouse of the Cell, by Philip Siekevitz, July, 1957, Scientific American). All of this was PLANNED by the Master Architect. Mr. Siekevitz says:
“Many experiments demonstrate that the functional units of the mitochondroin have a DEFINITE ARCHITECTURE. We may say the same of the entire living cell. We have come a long way from the time when a cell was considered a bag of loose substances freely interacting with one another. THE CELL, LIKE THE MITOCHONDRION, HAS A RIGOROUS AND COMPARTMENTED ORGANIZATION. Perhaps this is not surprising; when we build a factory we do not park it raw materials and machines at random. We arrange matters so that the raw materials are brought in near the appropriate machines, and the product of each machine is efficiently passed along to the next. NATURE HAS SURELY DONE THE SAME THING IN THE LIVING CELL.”
“Architecture” and “organization” speak to us of the Divine Architect!
How can anyone fail to see the earmarks of an infinite Creator as he examines the intricacies of the inner workings of an infinitestimal cell? Truly a “cell is an incredibly complicated structure.” * Let us examine these workings further.
* The mitochondrion itself has a most complex anatomy, recently revealed by electron microscope studies by George E. Palade of the Rockefeller Institute of Medical Research, and others. The mitochondrion is bounded by a double membrane, often folded, apparently to increase its area. “Inside the mitochondrion are tiny bodies whose contents and function are entirely unknown. These features of the mitochondrion are similar in the mitochondrion of all plants and animals examined so far, from single-celled organisms to the cells in the body of man” (Powerhouse of the Cell, by Philip Siekevitz). Think of this: “Tiny bodies working WITHIN minute mitochondria,” that in themselves are so small that several hundred of them are found in the cytoplasm of each cell — and the cell itself is microscopic. It is utterly unthinkable that any thing, or any one, less than a SUPREME BEING of infinite Intelligence and power could create a living cell!
The basic concept of evolution — that all life progressed from the “simple” forms to the more “complex” is utterly false. Nothing could be further from the truth. The atom, the protein molecule, viruses, bacteria, the somatic cell are unbelievably complex. For more about the CELL, see the ADDENDUM.
(B) The Process of Mitosis or Cell Division, is most amazing. When a cell divides to make two cells, each chromosome in the nucleus splits lengthwise, to form two identical new chromosomes. The chromosomes are all in the nucleus. Every species of plant or animal possesses a definite number of chromosomes in its cells.
Just outside the nucleus, lodged in the cytoplasm, is a minute body called the centrosome (central body). It divides into two; these then appear to act as “captains” or leaders in the intricate and fascinating process of animal cell division. First, in this process, the two centrosomes move apart; and between them fibril-like strands form a spindle; radiating strands appear around each centrosome, making them look like two stars. They now are called asters. Then the chromosomes split longitudinally, making identical “daughters” of each chromosome, and each half gravitates, with half of the protoplasm in the cytoplasm, toward one of the two aster-like centrosomes. This completes the process, and presto, there are TWO identical cells where only one existed before! Commenting on this, one authority says,
“the centrosome divides, its halves part, and these two halves are then the two directing and essential bodies from which proceed the cytoplasmic threads that control the splitting chromosomes, and draw the split portions to their appointed places. This nuclear division lies at the very heart of the problems of life. . . .Quite apart from its meaning and purpose, the mere series of facts is amazing. The detail is so precise and complicated, the order and program so clearly laid down, the result so exact, and the whole process so unfailing — yet all conducted in an arena where only the highest powers of the microscope can discern anything — that it beggars all attempts to explain.” (The Book of Popular Science).
Here is a living system that WORKS, in an ultrmicroscopic world; and no one can explain WHY it works the way it does. Only the Supreme Designer understands the secrets of LIFE.
(C) Mysteries of Heredity in the Cell. Each species has its own kind, number * and assortment of chromosomes, and they differ from all other species. **
* Due to the large number of species of plants and animals, as many as twenty or more unrelated species may have identical numbers of chromosomes, but their chromosomes do NOT have identical shapes.
* * Human body cells generally have 46 chromosomes though in some individuals there are 47 or 48. The lily has 24; wheat has 42; and some crayfish have as many as 200.
Every chromosome in the different genera, “differs from every other in size, shape, or in some other respects, excepting that chromosomes always divide into pairs, and the two chromosomes in each pair are identical.” So the Creator has “keyed” into each species by means of differing chromosomes — much like the combinations used in yale locks — thus assuring this tremendous fact: Chromosomes forbid transmutation and establish the stability of each different genus.
On the other hand each chromosome has a large number of “genes” *** that lend flexibility to each species, **** and give individuality to each member of each species.
*** In 1911 Thomas Hunt Morgan, then at Columbia University, advanced the theory that “genes are arranged in a ‘linear file,’ or row, on the chromosomes” — like beads on a string. Genetic scientists now speak of nucleic acid (DNA) “as the genetic material.”
**** “Species” is variously defined. By “species” we mean the “members of a population that will interbreed and produce offspring.” Generally speaking, if the members of different groups do NOT interbreed, they are of different species.
Genes have such vast possibilities of differing combinations that the net result in life is, NO TWO INDIVIDUALS IN ANY KNOWN SPECIES ARE EXACTLY ALIKE.
Here then is a fundamental law of genetics: CHROMOSOMES GUARANTEE THE STABILITY OF THE GENUS, AND GENES PROVIDE FOR INFINITE VARIETY WITHIN THE SPECIES.
Modern scientists have analyzed the nucleus of the cell, and have discovered that, chemically, it is composed largely of “nucleic acid” of which there are two kinds: DNA (short for deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid). DNA is always found in the nucleus of the cell, and RNA is found mainly in the cytoplasm outside the nucleus. The theory now is that what are popularly called “genes” are actually the “individual molecules” in this highly complex “nucleic acid” (DNA). Genetic theorists are still uncertain as to the essential nature of the so-called genes; but this we know: there are vital parts of each chromosome, minute units called genes, whether they be individual molecules, or in some other infinitestimal form, that give a practically limitless range of possible variations within each species.
Scientists have recently developed another amazing technique: they have “by very elegant genetic techniques (announced by Seynour Benzer, of Purdue University) mapped a single ‘gene’ of a bacterial virus; Benzer was able to distinguish more than 100 different functional sites arranged in a linear order along the length of the ‘gene.’ Assuming that genes are made of DNA we can trace a correspondence between his map and the DNA molecule.” (Scientific American).
And so we see that every cell in every body on earth bears witness to the fact of DIVINE CREATION by giving evidence of “design” and “architecture” and “organizational ability” in a realm so small that those who take pictures of the ever-living and ever-changing drama going on in a cell have to use the electron microscope to do it! Each cell is ALIVE and life can come only from antecedent life. GOD WAS THE ORIGINAL LIFE-GIVER.
Cells bear constant witness to these fundamental facts of biology: THE CHROMOSOMES IN EACH CELL INSURE ITS STABILITY — it will and must “reproduce after its kind;” and THE “GENES” IN EACH CHROMOSOME PROVIDE FOR GREAT VARIETY “WITHIN THE BOUNDS” OF EACH SPECIES OR GENUS. These two facts are fatal to the theory of evolution.
The Effects of Radiation on Genes and Chromosomes
For many years scientists have experimented with the effects of physical and chemical stimuli (mostly through the use of radiation) on cells, especially on genes and chromosomes. “Abundant” gene mutations can be produced by X-rays (discovered by Muller, Stadler and Goodspeed in 1927); “but in more than 99 per cent of cases the mutation of a gene produces some kind of a harmful effect, some disturbance of function” (H. J. Muller in “Radiation and Human Mutation,” Scientific American, Nov., 1955). The results of such experiments on cells can be seen in the report of work done on chickens at the University of Connecticut (reported by the American Cancer Society):
“Chicken monsters with such defects as a large single eye in the middle of the forehead or eyes in their palates have been produced in genetic experiments,” conducted by Dr. Walter Landauer. “Other monsters also appeared — chicks with no lower jaw, chicks with dwarfed beaks or no beaks, chicks with no ears, and chicks with no heads.”
Everywhere the results are the same: In over 90 per cent of the cases the use of chemical stimuli, or radiation, results in either DEATH or the “production of feeble, deformed or defective offspring.” In less than one per cent mutations are wholesome, neutral, or insignificant. In no case is there transmutation from one genus to another. GOD HAS PUT UP “CHEMICAL BARRIERS” (Luther Burbank) BETWEEN THE GENERA that forbid transmutation from one genus to another.
“Among the hundreds of scientists currently working at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, in Upton, Long Island, where atomic energy is being studied in its many phases, there are about a dozen botanists . . . studying the effects of nuclear radiation on plants.” They are observing “HOW RADIATION MAIMS AND DESTROYS LIVING ORGANISMS (Caps ours) . . . for radiation has power to raise havoc among genes and chromosomes.” The trees, shrubs, vegetables and flowers that are deliberately exposed “to gamma rays emanating from a captive specimen of cobalt 60, confined to a stainless steel tube, 4 inches in diameter and 9 feet high” have produced hundreds of monstrosities and freaks — and a few “mutations” of which “the scientists are proud.”
“Their most striking achievement in the Brookhaven garden, has been to make two different carnations — a red blossom called the William Sim, after its originator, and a white one called the White Sim — appear on the same plant.” (The New Yorker, July 20, 1957).
The fact that very rarely a “mutant gene” appears that is not suffering a “harmful effect” (less than one per cent) is grasped with the earnestness born of despair by modern scientists and hailed as “evolution in action.” We quote again from H. J. Muller’s article on “Radiation and Human Mutation” (Scientific American, Nov., 1955):
“Very rarely a mutant gene happens to have an advantageous effect (the result of being acted on by radiation). This allows the descendants who inherit it to multiply more than other individuals in the population, until finally individuals with that mutant gene become so numerous as to establish the new type as the normal type, replacing the old. This process continued step by step, constitutes evolution.”
But this “occasional” wholesome mutant is NOT A WHIT DIFFERENT FROM WHAT TAKES PLACE IN NATURE ALL THE TIME — except that in Nature the process is slower. Mutants do occur in nature, from which spring new “types,” but this is NOT EVOLUTION but merely the development of various breeds and types within the genus. For evolution to work, and account for the gradual production of all higher forms of life from lower forms, IT IS NECESSARY THAT A LOWER GENUS CAN BE CHANGED INTO A HIGHER GENUS, and this has never occurred, either in nature or in experimental gardens or laboratories.
The average reader is generally aware of the harmful effects of radiation on genes, chromosomes and cells, for wide publicity has been given in the last few years to “the positive harmful effects of the ‘fall-out’ from nuclear explosions on mankind.”
Obviously, the effect of radiation on genes is almost altogether injurious.
To sum up: Genes make possible the great VARIETY seen in species: and chromosomes establish the stability of each genus. What modern scientists label “evolution” is nothing more than what is seen daily in nature — the production of great VARIETY in species. But actual “evolution,” the transmutation of one distinct genus into another, is ABSOLUTELY IMPOSSIBLE. God the Creator put an impassable barrier between the genera * that can not be crossed. IT TOOK A SPECIAL ACT OF DIVINE CREATION TO BRING INTO BEING EACH DISTINCT GENUS. The idea that the higher genera “evolved” from the lower is without foundation in fact.
* The Bible calls each distinct genus, “kind.” God created all life “after his kind.” See Genesis 1:11, 21, 24, 25. Because each “kind” of life on earth is the product of a special Divine creation, when reproduction takes place it is always “after his kind” (Gen., 1:11, 21, 24, 25). So, by the very laws of God, normal reproduction between “kinds” is ruled out. EVOLUTION HAS NO PLACE WHATEVER IN GOD’S SCHEME OF THINGS. “Evolution” exists only in the thinking and imagination of modern theorists; it has NO FOUNDATION IN FACT.
How about “Spontaneous Generation?”
If man could only produce “life” out of some concoction of dead chemicals, the materialistic evolutionist believes he would have proof for his theory of evolution. As a matter of fact, the entire theory of evolution is postulated on the supposition that life was spontaneously generated from non-living matter.
Blum wrote, “That life was ‘spontaneously generated’ from non-living matter at some time in the very remote past, and that this process has not been repeated for a long time are two basic tenets accepted by the great majority of biologists.” (p. 251, Nov., 1957 ,Scientific Monthly). “The idea (of spontaneous generation of life). . . .seems a necessary part of the evolutionary concept.”
In answer to the question as to how spontaneous generation was possible, they glibly say, “The general answer is that the conditions no longer exist which once made the spontaneous generation of life possible. . . .Admittedly (it is not likely that) the precise chain of molecular reactions from which life first arose will ever (again) be established. In the nature of things, “proof” will be impossible forever.” (Ibid).
In “The Science of Life,” by Wells and Huxley, they say: “It is much more likely that at one moment in earth’s cooling down, the warm seas provided an environment never afterwards to be repeated, an environment differing in the temperature, in pressure, in the salts within the waters, in the gases of the atmosphere over the waters, from any earlier or later environment. The earth AT THAT MOMENT fulfilled all the conditions which the alchemists tried to repeat in the crucibles. It was a cosmic test tube whose particular brew led to the appearance of living matter.”
How can an intelligent person believe that life could be produced spontaneously FROM A LIFELESS EARTH, AND SEA, but recently cooled off from the intense heat of molten rocks? And remember, that sterilized earth had NONE of the “highly complicated proteins” essential to life! Could that sterile environment do what modern man with his vast knowledge of chemistry and physics and his well-equipped laboratories has failed to do?
Scientists who are more realistic inform us that “creating life” is much more than just pulling a live bacteria out of the lifeless seas (that had been sterilized for ages by the intense early heat on earth of many thousands of degrees). One such scientist says,
“If genes are required to produce enzymes (and they are), then LIFE BEGAN ONLY WHEN THEY (genes and enzymes) BEGAN. . . . The material of life as we know it could have come into being ONLY in a complex chemical environment.” (including the highly complex proteins, which come only from antecedent life — Editor). (The Gene,” by Norman H. Horowitz, Scientific American). “Under present day conditions, the capacity to synthesize these molecules (complicated ‘macromolecules’ — protein molecules) from simpler substances remains one of the supremely distinguishing capacities of cells.” (P. 52, Scientific American, 9-’61). This is a technical way of saying that “spontaneous generation in the world as it is today is impossible. Living cells alone can make protein molecules.”
Materialistic evolutionists say that in the remote and misty ages of the past there MUST have been spontaneous generation of life. But the conditions that made spontaneous generation possible then DO NOT EXIST NOW (even though we have a liveable world now and it was a dead world then). SO IT WILL BE FOREVER IMPOSSIBLE TO PROVE THEIR THEORY. Is that science? Or, is it superstition? Superstition it is, as crass and crude as any superstition that awes the mind of the West Indies Creole voodooist, or the African witch doctor.
Why is it that millions of otherwise intelligent students today are deceived by a theory that admittedly CAN NOT BE PROVED, and is based entirely upon suppositions of what might have happened ages ago, but for which there is no proof whatsoever?
Commenting on the inability of modern science to produce life in a test tube, without antecedent life, Prof. L. Victor Cleveland says:
“Today, using heat, cold, X-rays, sunlight, radiations from nuclear products, chemicals, experiments galore, NOTHING REVEALS THE DEAD AS GIVING BIRTH TO LIFE, the inorganic becoming organic, except as the miracle and mystery of the living thing itself turns the inorganic into the organic. So far as all the scientists of earth can prove, THERE IS NO SUCH THING AS SPONTANEOUS GENERATION or abiogenesis — life must come from antecedent life. Life produces life of the same kind, whether you look at protozoa or elephants.”
Scores of qualified, noted scientists have borne testimony to the fact that “NOT A SINGLE EXAMPLE OF SPONTANEOUS GENERATION HAS BEEN WITNESSED SINCE THE DAWN OF SCIENTIFIC OBSERVATION.”
Norman H. Horowitz, writing in a recent issue of the “Scientific American,” says, “Bacteria, as we know, arise only from pre-existing bacteria. We can prepare a broth that contains all of the raw materials needed for the production of bacteria, and we can provide all the necessary environmental conditions — acidity, temperature, oxygen supply, and so on — but if we fail to inoculate the broth with at least one bacteria cell, THEN NO BACTERIA WILL EVER BE PRODUCED IN IT,” (The same is true of every other form of life, from the minutest virus to the most complex animal).
The “secret” of life is in God and God’s Son, the Eternal Word.
“In the beginning was the Word (Gr., Logos), and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. . . .All things were made by Him. . . .In Him was LIFE.” (John 1:1-3).
And speaking of microscopic life (bacteria) as Mr. Horowitz does in the quotation given above, we are reminded that
“Bacteria are actually just as complex as any cell of our own bodies, and their spontaneous origin from non-living material is not much more likely than the spontaneous generation of scorpions.” (Ibid).
According to this authority, it is as likely that a scorpion (or any other complex animal) could be produced by “spontaneous generation” as that a bacterium (which also is highly complex) should be produced by spontaneous generation!
Consider again the extreme complexity of protein molecules, viruses, bacteria, and somatic cells — and remember, they are all microscopic! How could such involved, infinitestimal, complicated working units — all living units — come into being by chance. All of us know, it takes intelligence, knowledge and skill of a high order to produce modern, complex machines, such as electronic computers, accelerators, high-powered microscopes, etc. All of us should know it took supreme Intelligence to create the amazing somatic cells, the incredible viruses, the astounding protein molecules, and the amazing bacteria. GOD is the Master Workman who designed and created all these wonders!